Monument to the People's Heroes

The Monument to the People's Heroes is a ten-story obelisk, erected as a national monument of China to the martyrs of revolutionary struggle during the 19th and 20th centuries. It is located in the southern part of Tiananmen Square in Beijing, in front of the Mausoleum of Mao Zedong; the obelisk monument was built in accordance with a resolution of the First Plenary Session of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference adopted on November 30, 1949, with construction lasting from August 1952 to May 1958. The architect of the monument was Liang Sicheng, with some elements designed by his wife, Lin Huiyin; the civil engineer, Chen Zhide was instrumental in realizing the final product. The monument has served as the center of large-scale mourning activities that developed into protest and unrest, such as the deaths of Premier Zhou Enlai and Hu Yaobang; the monument covers an area of 3,000 square metres. It weighs over 10,000 tonnes and contains about 17,000 pieces of marble and granite from Qingdao, Shandong Province, the nearby Fangshan District.

On the pedestal of the tablet are huge bas-reliefs depicting eight major revolutionary episodes, which can be read in chronological order in a clockwise direction from the east: Destruction of opium at Humen, in the run-up to the First Opium War Jintian Uprising, the catalyst for the Taiping Revolution Wuchang Uprising, the catalyst for the Xinhai Revolution May 4th Movement May 30 Movement Nanchang Uprising War of Resistance Against Japan Yangtze River Crossing Campaign of the Chinese Civil War On the front of the monument is an inscription in Mao Zedong's handwriting, which reads, "Eternal glory to the people's heroes!". On the back of the monument is an epitaph, composed by Mao Zedong and written by Zhou Enlai: Eternal glory to the heroes of the people who laid down their lives in the people's war of liberation and the people's revolution in the past three years! Eternal glory to the heroes of the people who laid down their lives in the people's war of liberation and the people's revolution in the past thirty years!

Eternal glory to the heroes of the people who from 1840 laid down their lives in the many struggles against domestic and foreign enemies and for national independence and the freedom and well-being of the people! The conduct of commemoration activities at the Monument to the People's Heroes is regulated by the Major Events Administration Office of the Tiananmen Area Administrative Committee. Strict rules apply to conduct within the vicinity of the monument. Since the protests of 1989, the government has prohibited climbing the monument beyond the protective barrier without prior approval, as well as photography and filming. Today, those intending to lay wreaths at the monument must apply five days in advance. Since 1980, it has been customary for visiting foreign dignitaries from historical allies of the People's Republic of China, such as post-Soviet states, to lay wreaths at the monument when visiting Beijing. Certain domestic groups, such as police and military units, would sometimes lay wreaths at the monument.

History of Beijing

Pradip Basu

Pradip Basu is a Bengali-speaking Indian scholar of political science. He is a professor of political science at the Presidency University, Kolkata, he was a Research Scholar at the Centre for Studies in Social Sciences, Calcutta from 1984–1985, a Doctoral Teacher Fellow of the Indian Council of Social Science Research from 1988–1991. He earned his Ph. D. under the supervision of Partha Chatterjee on inner-party ideological struggles leading to Naxalism. He taught at the University of Kalyani, before moving on to teach at the Scottish Church College as a Guest Faculty in Political Science at the University of Calcutta. From 2010–2012, he was a Guest Faculty in Philosophy at the University of Calcutta, he is the founder and former chief editor of the Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, an annually published refereed journal published by the Scottish Church College. Its Advisory Board includes Amartya Sen, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Partha Chatterjee, Dipesh Chakraborty, Amiya Kumar Bagchi, Ashis Nandy, Sobhanlal Datta Gupta, Sukumari Bhattacharji and others.

He was the founder-convener of Samaj-o-chinta, an academic seminar society in Kolkata which conducted monthly seminars in Bengali, from 1991 to 2006. He specializes in postmodernism and the Naxalite movement, was involved in Naxalite politics during 1974–1981, but became critical of Naxalism and orthodox Marxism, became interested in western Marxism, the works of Antonio Gramsci, Louis Althusser, the Frankfurt School. Over time he further moved towards poststructuralism the works of Michel Foucault and Jacques Derrida, his chief academic interest lies in working for a possible dialogue between Naxalism and postmodernism, poststructuralism and feminism. Naxalbari-r Purbakshan: Kichhu Postmodern Bhabna, 1998. Towards Naxalbari, 2000. Uttar Adhunik Rajniti O Marxbad, 2005. Postmodernism, Postcolonialism, 2010. Uttar Adhunik Rajniti, 2010. Discourses on Naxalite Movement, 2010. Avenel Companion to Modern Social Theorists 2011. Colonial Modernity: Indian Perspectives 2011. Red on Silver: Naxalites in Cinema 2012.

Modern Social Thinkers 2012. Monone Srijone Naxalbari 2012. Political Sociology 2016. Social Thinkers of Modern Times 2016. Naxalite Politics: Post-structuralist and Subaltern Perspectives 2017

Sushma Swaraj Foreign Service Institute, India

The Sushma Swaraj Institute of Foreign Service India is the institute in New Delhi where Indian Foreign Service officers are trained. The Institute functions under the Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India; the Institute is headed by the Dean of the Foreign Service Institute, an officer of the Indian Foreign Service of the rank of Secretary/Joint Secretary to the Government of India. Other officers deputed to the institute are - two Joint Secretaries, a Deputy Secretary and an Under Secretary; the institute, within its premises has an hostel and a few flats for the Officer Trainees of the Indian Foreign Service and other officials on deputation to the institute respectively. The Sushma Swaraj Institute of Foreign Service was established by the Government of India in 1986 to cater to the professional training needs of the trainees of the Indian Foreign Service and use to run from two rooms in Akbar Bhawan; the training programme of the Indian diplomats goes on for about a year, during which they are taught various aspects of India's foreign policy, international relations, Indian history and culture and the world economic scenario and interpersonal skills, the like, before they take up posting within the Ministry of External Affairs and sent abroad later.

The SSIFS's activities were diversified to include courses of interest to all levels of officers of the Indian Ministry of External Affairs and to other officers of the civil services of India. The Institute conducts courses for Diplomats of other countries; this course is known. The SSFSI moved to its new building in 2007 in the old JNU campus in New Delhi; the institute was renamed as Sushma Swaraj Institute of Foreign Service on 14 February 2020 in honour of former Minister of External Affairs of India Sushma Swaraj on her 68th birth anniversary. The following people have served as Dean of the Institute: A. N. D. Haksar Kiran Doshi S. M. S. Chadha Lalit Mansingh Dilip Lahiri M. Venkataraman Bhaskar Mitra Dalip Mehta Santosh Kumar Atish Sinha Surendra Kumar Ajay Choudhry Ms. Nengcha Lhouvum Mukhopadhyay Amarendra Khatua J. S. Mukul Indian Foreign Service Indian Council of World Affairs Foreign Service Institute, New Delhi Ministry of External Affairs, India