Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Milan
The Archdiocese of Milan is a metropolitan see of the Catholic Church in Italy which covers the areas of Milan, Monza and Varese. It has long maintained its own Latin liturgical rite, the Ambrosian rite, still used in the greater part of the diocesan territory. Among its past archbishops, the better known are Saint Ambrose, Saint Charles Borromeo, Pope Pius XI and Saint Pope Paul VI; the Archdiocese of Milan is the metropolitan see of the ecclesiastical province of Milan, which includes the suffragan dioceses of Bergamo, Como, Cremona, Mantova and Vigevano. Milan's Archdiocese is the largest in Europe, the one having more priests in the world, with 2,648 priests living in the diocese, among which 1,861 secular priests. According to the legend, the Gospel was brought to Milan by St. Barnabas, the first Bishop of Milan, St. Anathalon, was a disciple of that apostle, but a diocese cannot have been established there before 200, not until much for the list of the bishops of Milan names only five predecessors of Mirocles, who participated at the Lateran council held in 313 in Rome.
During the persecutions of the third and early fourth century, several Christians suffered martyrdom and were venerated at Milan: among them Gervasius and Protasius, Victor and Felix, Nazarius and Celsus. The persecutions ended in 313 when the Emperors Constantine I and Licinius issued the Edict of Milan which proclaimed the religious toleration in the Roman Empire; the Milanese church has been in full communion with the Papacy. Among its bishops should be named Eustorgius I and Dionysius, who opposed apostasy imposed by the Roman Emperor Constantius II. Dionysus was exiled to Cappadocia. At the death of Auxentius, the great Saint Ambrose was elected bishop by the people of Milan. Among his successors, Simplicianus and Dacius, who lived always in exile at Constantinople on account of the Gothic War. During the Lombards invasion many things happened to the church in Milan; the Schism of the Three Chapters guaranteed autonomy of the Milanese Church for 38 years, since the Lombards were enemies of the Byzantines.
At the siege of Milan by the Lombard Alboin, the Bishop Honoratus sought refuge in Genoa, with a great number of his clergy, which returned to Milan only 70 years under John the Good. In the 10th-century the archbishops of Milan became feudatory of the Emperor extending his jurisdiction to all North-West Italy; the most distinguished of these was Ariberto da Intimiano. As the power of the burghers grew, that of the archbishops waned, with it the imperial authority which the prelate represented, since the 12th century Milan became a Guelph town who fought the Emperor; the archbishop Ottone Visconti in the 13th-century caused himself to be proclaimed perpetual lord, thus putting an end to the Republic of Milan and establishing the power of the House of Visconti who ruled the Duchy of Milan from 1277 to 1447. The figure who marked the modern history of the church of Milan was Saint Charles Borromeo, archbishop of Milan from 1564 to 1584, a leading figure during the Counter-Reformation and was responsible for significant reforms in the Catholic Church.
His pastoral efforts were followed by his successors, such as Federico Borromeo and Giuseppe Pozzobonelli. In the 20th century, two Cardinal Archbishops of Milan were elected to the papacy: in 1922, Cardinal Achille Ratti was elected as Pope Pius XI, in 1963 Cardinal Giovanni Battista Montini was elected as Pope Paul VI; the church of Milan was governed from 1979 to 2002 by Cardinal Carlo Maria Martini, S. J., a favorite of the Catholic left. As of 7 July 2017, the current Metropolitan Archbishop of Milan is Archbishop Mario Enrico Delpini, serving since his appointment by Pope Francis, having served as the Vicar-General and the Auxiliary Bishop of Milan. Delpini had succeeded the retiring Cardinal Angelo Scola, in office since 2011 and had been a possible papabile. Archbishop Delpini is assisted by four Auxiliary Bishops: Erminio De Scalzi, Luigi Stucchi, Franco Agnesi, Paolo Martinelli; the Seminary of the archdiocese has the principal see in Venegono Inferiore. The minor seminary were located in Seveso.
A list of the bishops and archbishops of Milan is engraved in plaque in the South nave of the Cathedral of Milan, but such list contains some historical errors. The data here below follow the work of Eugenio Cazzani. St Honoratus Frontone Lawrence II Constantius Deodatus Asterius Forte The 1,104 parishes all fall within the region of Lombardy, they are divided between the Province of Bergamo, the Province of Como, the Province of Lecco, the Province of Milan, the Province of Pavia, the Province of Varese. Ambrosian chant Ambrosian Rite Cathedral of Milan Angelo Scola Early Christian churches in Milan Catholic Hierarchy Profile of the Archdiocese of Milan Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Archdiocese of Milan". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. List of archbishops, part one List of archbishops, part two News from the Archdiocese of Milan
Monza is a city and comune on the River Lambro, a tributary of the Po in the Lombardy region of Italy, about 15 kilometres north-northeast of Milan. It is the capital of the Province of Brianza. Monza is best known for its Grand Prix motor racing circuit, the Autodromo Nazionale Monza, which hosts the Formula One Italian Grand Prix with a massive Italian support tifosi for the Ferrari team. On 11 June 2004 Monza was designated the capital of the new province of Brianza; the new administrative arrangement came into effect in summer 2009. Monza is the third-largest city of Lombardy and is the most important economic and administrative centre of the Brianza area, supporting a textile industry and a publishing trade. Monza hosts a Department of the University of Milan Bicocca, a Court of Justice and several offices of regional administration. Monza Park is one of the largest urban parks in Europe. Monza is located in the high plains of Lombardy, between Brianza and Milan, at an altitude of 162 metres above sea level.
It is 15 kilometres from the centre of the region's capital, although when considering the cities borders, they are separated by less than 5 km. Monza is about 40 km from Como. Monza shares its position with Milan in the same metro area, is a big part of its new province. Monza is crossed from north to south by the River Lambro; the river enters Monza from the north, between Via Via Zanzi streets. This is an artificial fork of the river, created for defensive purposes in the early decades of the 14th century; the fork is known as Lambretto and it rejoins the main course of the Lambro as it exits to the south, leaving Monza through the now demolished ancient circle of medieval walls. Another artificial stream is the Canale Villoresi, constructed in the late 19th century. Monza has a typical submediterranean climate of the Po valley, with cool, short winters and warm summers. Precipitation is abundant, with most occurring in the least in winter and summer. Funerary urns found in the late 19th century show that humans were in the area dating at the least to the Bronze Age, when people would have lived in pile dwelling settlements raised above the rivers and marshes.
During the Roman Empire, Monza was known as Modicia. During the 3rd century BCE, the Romans subdued the Insubres, a Gaul tribe that had crossed the Alps and settled around Mediolanum. A Gallo-Celtic tribe the Insubres themselves, founded a village on the Lambro; the ruins of a Roman bridge named. Theodelinda, daughter of Garibald I of Bavaria and wife of the Lombard king Authari, chose Monza as her summer residence. Here in 595 she founded an oraculum dedicated to St. John the Baptist. According to the legend, asleep while her husband was hunting, saw a dove in a dream that told her: modo indicating that she should build the oraculum in that place, the queen answered etiam, meaning "yes". According to this legend, the medieval name of Monza, "Modoetia", is derived from these two words, she had a palace built here. Berengar I of Italy located his headquarters in Monza. A fortified castrum was constructed to resist the incursions of the Hungarians. Under Berengar's reign, Monza enjoyed a certain degree of independence: it had its own system of weights and measures, could seize property and mark the deeds with their signatures.
Berengar was generous evident by the donation of numerous works to the Monza Cathedral, including the famous cross, by giving large benefits to its 32 canons and other churches. In 980 Monza hosted Emperor Otto II inside the walled city; the Glossary of Monza, one of the earliest examples of the evolution of Italian language dates to the early 10th century. In 1000 Emperor Otto III became the protector of Monza and its possessions: Bulciago, Lurago and Garlate. In 1018, Lord of Monza, was consecrated bishop of Milan, resulting in the city losing its independence from its rival; these years saw a power struggle between the emperor Conrad II, Aribert. When the emperor died, he left important donations to the church of Monza. In the 12th century, it is estimated. Agriculture was the main occupation. In 1128 Conrad III of Hohenstaufen was crowned King of Italy in the Church of San Michele at Monza. In 1136 emperor Lothair III guaranteed the independence of the clergy of Monza from Milan. Monza subsequently regained its autonomy, not limited to the feudal government of lands and goods.
This autonomy was never absolute, as the church of Monza was not able to cut its ties from the bishop of Milan. Frederick I Barbarossa visited Monza twice. In this period the city again regained its independence from a city hostile to the emperor. Frederick declared that Monza was his property and gave the Curraria, a right granted only to royal seats. During the period of the struggle against Milan and other cities of the Lombard League, Monza was prim
Iconography, as a branch of art history, studies the identification and the interpretation of the content of images: the subjects depicted, the particular compositions and details used to do so, other elements that are distinct from artistic style. The word iconography comes from the Greek εἰκών and γράφειν. A secondary meaning is the production of religious images, called "icons", in the Byzantine and Orthodox Christian tradition. In art history, "an iconography" may mean a particular depiction of a subject in terms of the content of the image, such as the number of figures used, their placing and gestures; the term is used in many academic fields other than art history, for example semiotics and media studies, in general usage, for the content of images, the typical depiction in images of a subject, related senses. Sometimes distinctions have been made between iconology and iconography, although the definitions, so the distinction made, varies; when referring to movies, genres are recognizable through their iconography, motifs that become associated with a specific genre through repetition.
Early Western writers who took special note of the content of images include Giorgio Vasari, whose Ragionamenti, interpreting the paintings in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, reassuringly demonstrates that such works were difficult to understand for well-informed contemporaries. Lesser known, though it had informed poets and sculptors for over two centuries after its 1593 publication, was Cesare Ripa's emblem book Iconologia. Gian Pietro Bellori, a 17th-century biographer of artists of his own time and analyses, not always many works. Lessing's study of the classical figure Amor with an inverted torch was an early attempt to use a study of a type of image to explain the culture it originated in, rather than the other way round. Iconography as an academic art historical discipline developed in the nineteenth-century in the works of scholars such as Adolphe Napoleon Didron, Anton Heinrich Springer, Émile Mâle all specialists in Christian religious art, the main focus of study in this period, in which French scholars were prominent.
They looked back to earlier attempts to classify and organise subjects encyclopedically like Cesare Ripa and Anne Claude Philippe de Caylus's Recueil d'antiquités égyptiennes, étrusques, grècques, romaines et gauloises as guides to understanding works of art, both religious and profane, in a more scientific manner than the popular aesthetic approach of the time. These early contributions paved the way for encyclopedias and other publications useful in identifying the content of art. Mâle's l'Art religieux du XIIIe siècle en France translated into English as The Gothic Image, Religious Art in France of the Thirteenth Century has remained continuously in print. In the early-twentieth century Germany, Aby Warburg and his followers Fritz Saxl and Erwin Panofsky elaborated the practice of identification and classification of motifs in images to using iconography as a means to understanding meaning. Panofsky codified an influential approach to iconography in his 1939 Studies in Iconology, where he defined it as "the branch of the history of art which concerns itself with the subject matter or meaning of works of art, as opposed to form," although the distinction he and other scholars drew between particular definitions of "iconography" and "iconology", has not been accepted, though it is still used by some writers.
In the United States, to which Panofsky immigrated in 1931, students such as Frederick Hartt, Meyer Schapiro continued under his influence in the discipline. In an influential article of 1942, Introduction to an "Iconography of Mediaeval Architecture", Richard Krautheimer, a specialist on early medieval churches and another German émigré, extended iconographical analysis to architectural forms; the period from 1940 can be seen as one where iconography was prominent in art history. Whereas most icongraphical scholarship remains dense and specialized, some analyses began to attract a much wider audience, for example Panofsky's theory that the writing on the rear wall in the Arnolfini Portrait by Jan van Eyck turned the painting into the record of a marriage contract. Holbein's The Ambassadors has been the subject of books for a general market with new theories as to its iconography, the best-sellers of Dan Brown include theories, disowned by most art historians, on the iconography of works by Leonardo da Vinci.
Technological advances allowed the building-up of huge collections of photographs, with an iconographic arrangement or index, which include those of the Warburg Institute and the Index of Medieval Art at Princeton. These are now being digitised and made available online on a restricted basis. With the arrival of computing, the Iconclass system, a complex way of classifying the content of images, with 28,000 classification types, 14,000 keywords, was developed in the Netherlands as a standard classification for recording collections, with the idea of assembling huge databases that will allow the retrieval of images featuring particular details, subjects or other common factors. For example, the Iconclass code "71H7131" is for the subject of "Bathsheba with David's letter", whereas "71" is th
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque style, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 11th century, this date being the most held. In the 12th century it developed into the Gothic style, marked by pointed arches. Examples of Romanesque architecture can be found across the continent, making it the first pan-European architectural style since Imperial Roman architecture; the Romanesque style in England is traditionally referred to as Norman architecture. Combining features of ancient Roman and Byzantine buildings and other local traditions, Romanesque architecture is known by its massive quality, thick walls, round arches, sturdy pillars, barrel vaults, large towers and decorative arcading; each building has defined forms of regular, symmetrical plan. The style can be identified right across Europe, despite regional characteristics and different materials. Many castles were built during this period, but they are outnumbered by churches.
The most significant are the great abbey churches, many of which are still standing, more or less complete and in use. The enormous quantity of churches built in the Romanesque period was succeeded by the still busier period of Gothic architecture, which or rebuilt most Romanesque churches in prosperous areas like England and Portugal; the largest groups of Romanesque survivors are in areas that were less prosperous in subsequent periods, including parts of southern France, rural Spain and rural Italy. Survivals of unfortified Romanesque secular houses and palaces, the domestic quarters of monasteries are far rarer, but these used and adapted the features found in church buildings, on a domestic scale. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word "Romanesque" means "descended from Roman" and was first used in English to designate what are now called Romance languages; the French term "romane" was first used in the architectural sense by archaeologist Charles de Gerville in a letter of 18 December 1818 to Auguste Le Prévost to describe what Gerville sees as a debased Roman architecture.
In 1824 Gerville's friend Arcisse de Caumont adopted the label "roman" to describe the "degraded" European architecture from the 5th to the 13th centuries, in his Essai sur l'architecture religieuse du moyen-âge, particulièrement en Normandie, at a time when the actual dates of many of the buildings so described had not been ascertained: The name Roman we give to this architecture, which should be universal as it is the same everywhere with slight local differences has the merit of indicating its origin and is not new since it is used to describe the language of the same period. Romance language is degenerated Latin language. Romanesque architecture is debased Roman architecture; the first use in a published work is in William Gunn's An Inquiry into the Origin and Influence of Gothic Architecture. The word was used by Gunn to describe the style, identifiably Medieval and prefigured the Gothic, yet maintained the rounded Roman arch and thus appeared to be a continuation of the Roman tradition of building.
The term is now used for the more restricted period from the late 10th to 12th centuries. The term "Pre-romanesque" is sometimes applied to architecture in Germany of the Carolingian and Ottonian periods and Visigothic and Asturian constructions between the 8th and the 10th centuries in the Iberian Peninsula while "First Romanesque" is applied to buildings in north of Italy and Spain and parts of France that have Romanesque features but pre-date the influence of the Abbey of Cluny. Typical Romanesque architectural forms Buildings of every type were constructed in the Romanesque style, with evidence remaining of simple domestic buildings, elegant town houses, grand palaces, commercial premises, civic buildings, city walls, village churches, abbey churches, abbey complexes and large cathedrals. Of these types of buildings and commercial buildings are the most rare, with only a handful of survivors in the United Kingdom, several clusters in France, isolated buildings across Europe and by far the largest number unidentified and altered over the centuries, in Italy.
Many castles exist, the foundations of. Most have been altered, many are in ruins. By far the greatest number of surviving Romanesque buildings are churches; these range from tiny chapels to large cathedrals. Although many have been extended and altered in different styles, a large number remain either intact or sympathetically restored, demonstrating the form and decoration of Romanesque church architecture; the scope of Romanesque architecture Romanesque architecture was the first distinctive style to spread across Europe since the Roman Empire. With the decline of Rome, Roman building methods survived to an extent in Western Europe, where successive Merovingian and Ottonian architects continued to build large stone buildings such as monastery churches and palaces. In the more northern countries, Roman building styles and techniques had never been adopted except for official buildings, while in Scandinavia they were unknown. Although the round arch continued in use, the engineering skills required to vault large spaces and build large domes were lost.
There was a loss of stylistic continuity apparent in the decline of the formal vocabulary of the Classical Orders. In Rome several great Constantinian basilicas continued in use as an inspiration to builders; some traditions of Rom
Zechariah is a figure in the New Testament Bible and the Quran, hence venerated in Christianity and Islam. In the Bible, he is the father of John the Baptist, a priest of the sons of Aaron in the Gospel of Luke, the husband of Elizabeth, a relative of the Virgin Mary. According to the Gospel of Luke, during the reign of king Herod, there was a priest named Zechariah, of the course of Abia, whose wife Elizabeth was of the priestly family of Aaron; the evangelist states that both the parents were righteous before God, since they were "blameless" in observing the commandments and ordinances of the Lord. When the events related in Luke began, their marriage was still childless, because Elizabeth was "barren", they were both "well advanced in years"; the duties at the temple in Jerusalem alternated between each of the family lines that had descended from those appointed by king David. Luke states that during the week when it was the duty of Zechariah's family line to serve at "the temple of the Lord", the lot for performing the incense offering had fallen to Zechariah.
The Gospel of Luke states that while Zechariah ministered at the altar of incense, an angel of the Lord appeared and announced to him that his wife would give birth to a son, whom he was to name John, that this son would be the forerunner of the Lord. Citing their advanced age, Zechariah asked with disbelief for a sign whereby he would know the truth of this prophecy. In reply, the angel identified himself as Gabriel, sent by God to make this announcement, added that because of Zechariah's doubt he would be struck dumb and "not able to speak, until the day that these things shall be performed"; when he went out to the waiting worshippers in the temple's outer courts, he was unable to speak the customary blessing. After returning to his house in "Hebron, in the hill country of Judah", his wife Elizabeth conceived. After Elizabeth completed her fifth month of pregnancy, her relative Mary was visited by the same angel, overshadowed by the Holy Ghost and – though still a virgin – became pregnant with Jesus.
Mary travelled to visit her relative Elizabeth, having been told by the angel that Elizabeth was in her sixth month of pregnancy. Mary remained about three months. Elizabeth gave birth, on the eighth day, when their son was to be circumcised according to the commandment, her neighbours and relatives assumed that he was to be named after his father. Elizabeth, insisted that his name was to be John; as soon as Zechariah had written on a writing table: "His name is John", he regained the power of speech, blessed "the Lord God of Israel" with a prophecy known as the Benedictus or "Song of Zechariah". The child grew up and "waxed strong in spirit", but remained in the deserts of Judæa until he assumed the ministry, to earn him the name "John the Baptist". Origen suggested that the Zechariah mentioned in Matthew 23:35 as having been killed between the temple and the altar may be the father of John the Baptist. Orthodox Christian tradition recounts that, at the time of the massacre of the Innocents, when King Herod ordered the slaughter of all males under the age of two in an attempt to prevent the prophesied Messiah from coming to Israel, Zechariah refused to divulge the whereabouts of his son, he was therefore murdered by Herod's soldiers.
This is recorded in the Infancy Gospel of James, an apocryphal work from the 2nd century. The Roman Catholic Church commemorates him as a saint, along with Elizabeth, on September 23, he is venerated as a prophet in the Calendar of Saints of the Lutheran Church on September 5. The Eastern Orthodox Church celebrates the feast day of Zechariah on September 5, together with Elizabeth, considered a matriarch. Zechariah and Elizabeth are invoked in several prayers during the Orthodox Mystery of Crowning, as the priest blesses the newly married couple, saying "Thou who didst... accept Zechariah and Elizabeth, didst make their offspring the Forerunner..." and "...bless them, O Lord our God, as Thou didst Zechariah and Elizabeth...". In the Greek Orthodox calendar and Elizabeth are commemorated on June 24. Armenians believe that the Gandzasar Monastery in Nagorno Karabakh, Azerbaijan contains relics of Zechariah. However, his relics were kept in the Great Church of Constantinople, where they were brought by the praefectus urbi Ursus on September 4, 415.
In 2003, a 4th-century inscription on the so-called Tomb of Absalom, a 1st-century monument in Jerusalem, was deciphered as, "This is the tomb of Zachariah, the martyr, the holy priest, the father of John." This suggests to some scholars that it is the burial place of Zechariah the father of John the Baptist. Professor Gideon Foerster at the Hebrew University states that the inscription tallies with a 6th-century Christian text stating that Zechariah was buried with Simon the Elder and James the brother of Jesus, believes that both are authentic. What makes the theory less plausible is the fact that the tomb is three centuries older than the Byzantine inscriptions, that a tomb with just two burial benches is unlikely to be used for three burials, as well as the fact that the identification of the tomb has changed during its history. Zechariah is as a prophet in Islam, is mentioned in the Qur'an as the fat
The mitre or miter, is a type of headgear now known as the traditional, ceremonial head-dress of bishops and certain abbots in traditional Christianity. Mitres are worn in the Orthodox Church, Roman Catholic Church, as well as in the Anglican Communion, some Lutheran churches, bishops and certain other clergy in the Eastern Catholic Churches and the Oriental Orthodox Churches; the Metropolitan of the Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church wears a mitre during important ceremonies such as the Episcopal Consecration. Μίτρα, mítra is Greek, means a piece of armour a metal guard worn around the waist and under a cuirass, as mentioned in Homer's Iliad. It refers to a kind of hairband, such as: the victor's chapter at the games; the camelaucum, the headdress, that both the mitre and the Papal tiara stem from, was a cap used by officials of the Imperial Byzantine court. "The tiara developed from the Phrygian cap, or frigium, a conical cap worn in the Graeco-Roman world. In the 10th century the tiara was pictured on papal coins."
Other sources claim. In the late Empire it developed into the closed type of Imperial crown used by Byzantine Emperors. Worn by a bishop, the mitre is depicted for the first time in two miniatures of the beginning of the eleventh century; the first written mention of it is found in a Bull of Pope Leo IX in the year 1049. By 1150 the use had spread to bishops throughout the West. In its modern form in Western Christianity, the mitre is a tall folding cap, consisting of two similar parts rising to a peak and sewn together at the sides. Two short lappets always hang down from the back. In the Catholic Church, ecclesial law gives the right to use the mitre and other pontifical insigna to bishops and cardinals and those canonically equivalent to diocesan bishops who do not receive episcopal ordination; the principal celebrant presents the mitre and other pontifical insignia to a newly ordained bishop during the Rite of Ordination of a Bishop and to a new abbot during the Rite of Blessing of an Abbot.
In the case of a person, canonically equivalent to a diocesan bishop but does not receive episcopal ordination, this presentation occurs during a public installation as the ordinary of his jurisdiction. Catholic ecclesial law permits former Anglican bishops received into full communion and subsequently ordained to the order of presbyter in the Catholic Church to obtain permission to use pontifical insignia as a mark of recognition of their previous ministry, but former Anglican bishops have not requested permission to use pontifical insignia under this provision. Three types of mitres are worn by Roman Catholic clergy for different occasions: The simplex is made of undecorated white linen or silk and its white lappets traditionally end in red fringes, it is worn most notably at funerals, Lenten time, on Good Friday and by concelebrant bishops at a Mass. Cardinals in the presence of the Pope wear a mitre of white linen damask; the auriphrygiata is of plain gold cloth or white silk with gold, silver or coloured embroidered bands.
The pretiosa is decorated with precious stones and gold and worn on the principal Mass on the most solemn Sundays and feast days. This type of mitre is decorated with precious stones today, the designs have become more varied and original merely being in the liturgical colour of the day; the proper colour of a mitre is always white, although in liturgical usage white includes vestments made from gold and silver fabrics. The embroidered bands and other ornaments which adorn a mitre and the lappets may be of other colours and are. Although coloured mitres are sometimes sold and worn at present, this is due to the maker’s or wearer’s lack of awareness of liturgical tradition. On all occasions, an altar server may wear a shawl-like veil, called a vimpa, around the shoulders when holding the bishop's mitre; the vimpa is used to hold the mitre so as to avoid the possibility of it being soiled by the natural oils in a person's hand as well as symbolically showing that the person does not own the mitre, but holds it for the prelate.
The person wearing a vimpa is occasionally referred to as a vimpa. When a vimpa holds the crosier, he holds the crook facing inward, as another sign that the person does not hold the authority of the crosier. With his inauguration as pope, Benedict XVI broke with tradition and replaced the papal tiara on his papal coat of arms with a papal mitre and pallium. Prior to Benedict XVI, each pope's coat of arms always contained the image of the papal tiara and St. Peter's crossed keys tho
The Lombards or Longobards were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774. The Lombard historian Paul the Deacon wrote in the Historia Langobardorum that the Lombards descended from a small tribe called the Winnili, who dwelt in southern Scandinavia before migrating to seek new lands. In the 1st century AD, they formed part of the Suebi, in north-western Germany. By the end of the 5th century, they had moved into the area coinciding with modern Austria and Slovakia north of the Danube river, where they subdued the Heruls and fought frequent wars with the Gepids; the Lombard king Audoin defeated the Gepid leader Thurisind in 551 or 552. Following this victory, Alboin decided to lead his people to Italy, which had become depopulated and devastated after the long Gothic War between the Byzantine Empire and the Ostrogothic Kingdom there. In contrast with the Goths and the Vandals, the Lombards left Scandinavia and descended due south through Germany and Slovenia, only leaving Germanic territory a few decades before reaching Italy.
The Lombards would have remained a predominantly Germanic tribe by the time they invaded Italy. The Lombards were joined by numerous Saxons, Gepids, Bulgars and Ostrogoths, their invasion of Italy was unopposed. By late 569 they had conquered all of northern Italy and the principal cities north of the Po River except Pavia, which fell in 572. At the same time, they occupied areas in southern Italy, they established a Lombard Kingdom in north and central Italy named Regnum Italicum, which reached its zenith under the 8th-century ruler Liutprand. In 774, the Kingdom was integrated into his Empire. However, Lombard nobles continued to rule southern parts of the Italian peninsula, well into the 11th century when they were conquered by the Normans and added to their County of Sicily. In this period, the southern part of Italy still under Longobardic domination was known to the foreigners, by the name Langbarðaland, in the Norse runestones, their legacy is apparent in the regional name Lombardy. The fullest account of Lombard origins and practices is the Historia Langobardorum of Paul the Deacon, written in the 8th century.
Paul's chief source for Lombard origins, however, is the 7th-century Origo Gentis Langobardorum. The Origo Gentis Langobardorum tells the story of a small tribe called the Winnili dwelling in southern Scandinavia; the Winnili were split into three groups and one part left their native land to seek foreign fields. The reason for the exodus was overpopulation; the departing people were led by the brothers Ybor and Aio and their mother Gambara and arrived in the lands of Scoringa the Baltic coast or the Bardengau on the banks of the Elbe. Scoringa was ruled by the Vandals and their chieftains, the brothers Ambri and Assi, who granted the Winnili a choice between tribute or war; the Winnili were young and brave and refused to pay tribute, saying "It is better to maintain liberty by arms than to stain it by the payment of tribute." The Vandals prepared for war and consulted Godan, who answered that he would give the victory to those whom he would see first at sunrise. The Winnili were fewer in number and Gambara sought help from Frea, who advised that all Winnili women should tie their hair in front of their faces like beards and march in line with their husbands.
At sunrise, Frea turned her husband's bed so that he was facing east, woke him. So Godan spotted the Winnili first and asked, "Who are these long-beards?," and Frea replied, "My lord, thou hast given them the name, now give them the victory." From that moment onwards, the Winnili were known as the Longbeards. When Paul the Deacon wrote the Historia between 787 and 796 he was a Catholic monk and devoted Christian, he thought the pagan stories of his people "silly" and "laughable". Paul explained. A modern theory suggests that the name "Langobard" comes from a name of Odin. Priester states that when the Winnili changed their name to "Lombards", they changed their old agricultural fertility cult to a cult of Odin, thus creating a conscious tribal tradition. Fröhlich inverts the order of events in Priester and states that with the Odin cult, the Lombards grew their beards in resemblance of the Odin of tradition and their new name reflected this. Bruckner remarks that the name of the Lombards stands in close relation to the worship of Odin, whose many names include "the Long-bearded" or "the Grey-bearded", that the Lombard given name Ansegranus shows that the Lombards had this idea of their chief deity.
The same Old Norse root Barth or Barði, meaning "beard", is shared with the Heaðobards mentioned in both Beowulf and in Widsith, where they are in conflict with the Danes. They were a branch of the Langobards. Alternatively some etymological sources suggest an Old High German root, meaning “axe”, while Edward Gibbon puts forth an alternative suggestion which argues that: …Börde still signifies “a fertile plain by the side of a river,” and a district near Magdeburg is still called the lange Börd