Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Milan
The Archdiocese of Milan is a metropolitan see of the Catholic Church in Italy which covers the areas of Milan, Monza and Varese. It has long maintained its own Latin liturgical rite, the Ambrosian rite, among its past archbishops, the better known are Saint Ambrose, Saint Charles Borromeo, Pope Pius XI and blessed Pope Paul VI. Milans Archdiocese is the largest in Europe, according to the legend, the Gospel was brought to Milan by St. Barnabas, and the first Bishop of Milan, St. Anathalon, was a disciple of that apostle. The persecutions ended in 313 when the Emperors Constantine I and Licinius issued the Edict of Milan which proclaimed the religious toleration in the Roman Empire, historically the Milanese church has been in full communion with the Papacy. Among its bishops should be named Eustorgius I and Dionysius, who firmly opposed apostasy imposed by the Roman Emperor Constantius II, dionysus was exiled to Cappadocia, while the Romans put Auxentius on the episcopal throne of Milan. At the death of Auxentius, the great Saint Ambrose was elected bishop by the people of Milan, among his successors, Simplicianus and Dacius, who lived almost always in exile at Constantinople on account of the Gothic War.
During the Lombards invasion many things happened to the church in Milan, the Schism of the Three Chapters guaranteed autonomy of the Milanese Church for 38 years, since the Lombards were enemies of the Byzantines. At the siege of Milan by the Lombard Alboin, the Bishop Honoratus sought refuge in Genoa, with a number of his clergy. In the 10th-century the archbishops of Milan became feudatory of the Emperor extending his jurisdiction to all North-West Italy, the most distinguished of these was Ariberto da Intimiano. His pastoral efforts were followed by his successors, such as Federico Borromeo, the church of Milan was governed from 1979 to 2002 by Cardinal Carlo Maria Martini, S. J. who had been a favorite of the Catholic left. Cardinal Scola had succeeded the retiring Cardinal Dionigi Tettamanzi, who had been in office since 2002 and had been a possible papabile, Cardinal Scola is assisted by a Vicar General, the Auxiliary Bishop Mario Delpini, and two other Auxiliary Bishops, Erminio De Scalzi and Luigi Stucchi.
The Seminary of the archdiocese has the see in Venegono Inferiore. The minor seminary were located in Seveso, a list of the bishops and archbishops of Milan is engraved in plaque in the South nave of the Cathedral of Milan, but such list contains some historical errors. The data here below follow the work of Eugenio Cazzani and they are divided between the Province of Bergamo, the Province of Como, the Province of Lecco, the Province of Milan, the Province of Pavia, and the Province of Varese. Ambrosian chant Ambrosian Rite Cathedral of Milan Angelo Scola Catholic Hierarchy Profile of the Archdiocese of Milan Herbermann, List of archbishops, part one List of archbishops, part two News from the Archdiocese of Milan
Monza listen is a city and comune on the River Lambro, a tributary of the Po in the Lombardy region of Italy, about 15 kilometres north-northeast of Milan. It is the capital of the Province of Monza and Brianza, Monza is best known for its Grand Prix motor racing circuit, the Autodromo Nazionale Monza, which hosts the Formula One Italian Grand Prix. On 11 June 2004 Monza was designated the capital of the new province of Monza and Brianza, the new administrative arrangement came fully into effect in summer 2009, Monza was a comune within the province of Milan. Monza is the third-largest city of Lombardy and is the most important economic and administrative centre of the Brianza area, supporting a textile industry, Monza hosts a Department of the University of Milan Bicocca, a Court of Justice and several offices of regional administration. Monza Park is one of the largest urban parks in Europe, Monza is located in the high plains of Lombardy, between Brianza and Milan, at an altitude of 162 metres above sea level.
It is 15 kilometres from the centre of the capital, although when considering the cities borders. Monza is about 40 km from Lecco and Como, Monza shares its position with Milan in the same metro area, and is a big part of its new province. Monza is crossed north to south by the River Lambro. The river enters Monza from the north, between Via Aliprandi and Via Zanzi streets and this is an artificial fork of the river, created for defensive purposes in the early decades of the 14th century. The fork is known as Lambretto and it rejoins the main course of the Lambro as it exits to the south, another artificial stream is the Canale Villoresi, which was constructed in the late 19th century. Precipitation is abundant, with most occurring in the autumn and the least in winter and summer, despite this, during the Roman Empire, Monza was known as Modicia. During the 3rd century BCE, the Romans subdued the Insubres, a Gallo-Celtic tribe, perhaps the Insubres themselves, founded a village on the Lambro.
The ruins of a Roman bridge named Ponte dArena can be seen near todays Ponte dei Leoni, daughter of Garibald I of Bavaria and wife of the Lombard king Authari, chose Monza as her summer residence. Here in 595 she founded an oraculum dedicated to St. John the Baptist, according to this legend, the medieval name of Monza, Modoetia, is derived from these two words. She had a palace built here, berengar I of Italy located his headquarters in Monza. A fortified castrum was constructed to resist the incursions of the Hungarians, under Berengars reign, Monza enjoyed a certain degree of independence, it had its own system of weights and measures, and could seize property and mark the deeds with their signatures. Berengar was very evident by the donation of numerous works to the Monza Cathedral, including the famous cross. In 980 Monza hosted Emperor Otto II inside the walled city, the Glossary of Monza, one of the earliest examples of the evolution of Italian language, probably dates to the early 10th century
The word iconography comes from the Greek εἰκών and γράφειν. A secondary meaning is the production of images, called icons, in the Byzantine and Orthodox Christian tradition. In art history, an iconography may mean a depiction of a subject in terms of the content of the image, such as the number of figures used, their placing. Sometimes distinctions have been made between iconology and iconography, although the definitions, and so the distinction made, when referring to movies, genres are immediately recognizable through their iconography, motifs that become associated with a specific genre through repetition. Gian Pietro Bellori, a 17th-century biographer of artists of his own time and analyses, not always correctly, many works. Lessings study of the classical figure Amor with a torch was an early attempt to use a study of a type of image to explain the culture it originated in. These early contributions paved the way for encyclopedias, manuals, mâles lArt religieux du XIIIe siècle en France translated into English as The Gothic Image, Religious Art in France of the Thirteenth Century has remained continuously in print.
In the United States, to which Panofsky immigrated in 1931, students such as Frederick Hartt, the period from 1940 can be seen as one where iconography was especially prominent in art history. These are now being digitised and made online, usually on a restricted basis. For example, the Iconclass code 71H7131 is for the subject of Bathsheba with Davids letter, whereas 71 is the whole Old Testament and 71H the story of David. A number of collections of different types have been classified using Iconclass, notably types of old master print, the collections of the Gemäldegalerie, Berlin. These are available, usually on-line or on DVD, the system can be used outside pure art history, for example on sites like Flickr. Central to the iconography and hagiography of Indian religions are mudra or gestures with specific meanings, the symbolic use of colour to denote the Classical Elements or Mahabhuta and letters and bija syllables from sacred alphabetic scripts are other features. Under the influence of art developed esoteric meanings, accessible only to initiates.
The art of Indian Religions esp, for example, Narasimha an incarnation of Vishnu though considered a wrathful deity but in few contexts is depicted in pacified mood. Conversely, in Hindu art, narrative scenes have become more common in recent centuries, especially in miniature paintings of the lives of Krishna. Eventually the Church would succeed in weeding most of these out, after the period of Byzantine iconoclasm iconographical innovation was regarded as unhealthy, if not heretical, in the Eastern Church, though it still continued at a glacial pace. More than in the West, traditional depictions were often considered to have authentic or miraculous origins, the Eastern church never accepted the use of monumental high relief or free-standing sculpture, which it found too reminiscent of paganism
Romanesque Architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the date of the Romanesque style, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the late 10th century. It developed in the 12th century into the Gothic style, marked by pointed arches, examples of Romanesque architecture can be found across the continent, making it the first pan-European architectural style since Imperial Roman Architecture. The Romanesque style in England is traditionally referred to as Norman architecture, each building has clearly defined forms, frequently of very regular, symmetrical plan, the overall appearance is one of simplicity when compared with the Gothic buildings that were to follow. The style can be identified right across Europe, despite regional characteristics, Many castles were built during this period, but they are greatly outnumbered by churches. The most significant are the great churches, many of which are still standing, more or less complete.
The largest groups of Romanesque survivors are in areas that were less prosperous in subsequent periods, including parts of southern France, northern Spain and rural Italy. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word Romanesque means descended from Roman and was first used in English to designate what are now called Romance languages, Romance language is not degenerated Latin language. Latin language is degenerated Romance language, Romanesque architecture is not debased Roman architecture. Roman architecture is debased Romanesque architecture, the first use in a published work is in William Gunns An Inquiry into the Origin and Influence of Gothic Architecture. The term is now used for the more restricted period from the late 10th to 12th centuries, Many castles exist, the foundations of which date from the Romanesque period. Most have been altered, and many are in ruins. By far the greatest number of surviving Romanesque buildings are churches, the scope of Romanesque architecture Romanesque architecture was the first distinctive style to spread across Europe since the Roman Empire.
In the more northern countries Roman building styles and techniques had never been adopted except for official buildings, although the round arch continued in use, the engineering skills required to vault large spaces and build large domes were lost. There was a loss of continuity, particularly apparent in the decline of the formal vocabulary of the Classical Orders. In Rome several great Constantinian basilicas continued in use as an inspiration to builders, the largest building is the church, the plan of which is distinctly Germanic, having an apse at both ends, an arrangement not generally seen elsewhere. Another feature of the church is its regular proportion, the plan of the crossing tower providing a module for the rest of the plan. These features can both be seen at the Proto-Romanesque St. Michaels Church, Hildesheim, 1001–1030, the style, sometimes called First Romanesque or Lombard Romanesque, is characterised by thick walls, lack of sculpture and the presence of rhythmic ornamental arches known as a Lombard band
Zechariah is a figure in the Bible and the Quran. In the Bible, he is the father of John the Baptist, a priest of the sons of Aaron, a prophet in Luke 1, 67–79, and the husband of Elizabeth who is a relative of the Virgin Mary. According to the Gospel of Luke, during the reign of king Herod, there was a priest named Zechariah, of the course of Abia, whose wife Elizabeth was of the priestly family of Aaron. The evangelist states that both the parents were righteous before God, since they were blameless in observing the commandments, when the events related in Luke began, their marriage was still childless, because Elizabeth was barren, and they were both well advanced in years. The duties at the temple in Jerusalem alternated between each of the lines that had descended from those appointed by king David. Luke states that during the week when it was the duty of Zechariahs family line to serve at the temple of the Lord, citing their advanced age, Zechariah asked with disbelief for a sign whereby he would know the truth of this prophecy.
Consequently, when he went out to the worshippers in the temples outer courts. After returning to his house in Hebron, in the country of Judah. Elizabeth gave birth, and on the day, when their son was to be circumcised according to the commandment, her neighbours. Elizabeth, insisted that his name was to be John, so the family questioned her husband. As soon as Zechariah had written on a table, His name is John, he regained the power of speech. The child grew up and waxed strong in spirit, but remained in the deserts of Judæa until he assumed the ministry that was to him the name John the Baptist. Origen suggested that the Zechariah mentioned in Matthew 23,35 as having killed between the temple and the altar may be the father of John the Baptist. This is recorded in the Infancy Gospel of James, a work from the 2nd century. The Roman Catholic Church commemorates him as a saint, along with Elizabeth and he is venerated as a prophet in the Calendar of Saints of the Lutheran Church on September 5.
The Eastern Orthodox Church celebrates the feast day of Zechariah on September 5, together with Elizabeth and Elizabeth are invoked in several prayers during the Orthodox Mystery of Crowning, as the priest blesses the newly married couple, saying Thou who didst. Accept Zechariah and Elizabeth, and didst make their offspring the Forerunner, and. bless them, O Lord our God, as Thou didst Zechariah and Elizabeth. In the Greek Orthodox calendar and Elizabeth are commemorated on June 24, armenians believe that the Gandzasar Monastery in Nagorno Karabakh, Azerbaijan contains relics of Zechariah
The mitre or miter, is a type of headgear now known as the traditional, ceremonial head-dress of bishops and certain abbots in traditional Christianity. The Metropolitan of the Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church wears a mitre during important ceremonies such as the Episcopal Consecration, the former two meanings have been etymologically connected with the word μίτος, mítos, but the connection is tenuous at best. The camelaucum, the headdress, that both the mitre and the Papal tiara stem from, was originally a cap used by officials of the Imperial Byzantine court, the tiara probably developed from the Phrygian cap, or frigium, a conical cap worn in the Graeco-Roman world. In the 10th century the tiara was pictured on papal coins, other sources claim the tiara developed the other way around, from the mitre. In the late Empire it developed into the type of Imperial crown used by Byzantine Emperors. Worn by a bishop, the mitre is depicted for the first time in two miniatures of the beginning of the eleventh century, the first written mention of it is found in a Bull of Pope Leo IX in the year 1049.
By 1150 the use had spread to throughout the West. In its modern form in Western Christianity, the mitre is a tall folding cap, two short lappets always hang down from the back. In the Catholic Church, the right to wear the mitre is confined by Canon law to bishops and to abbots, as it appears in the ceremony of consecration of a bishop and blessing of an abbot. Cardinals are now supposed to be bishops, but even cardinals who are not bishops. Other prelates have been granted the use of the mitre by special privilege, former distinctions between mitred abbots and non-mitred abbots have been abolished. Three types of mitres are worn by Roman Catholic clergy for different occasions, The simplex is made of undecorated white linen or silk and it is worn most notably at funerals, Lenten time, on Good Friday and by concelebrant bishops at a Mass. Cardinals in the presence of the Pope wear a mitre of white linen damask, the pretiosa is decorated with precious stones and gold and worn on the principal Mass on the most solemn Sundays and feast days.
This type of mitre is rarely decorated with precious stones today, the proper colour of a mitre is always white, although in liturgical usage white includes vestments made from gold and silver fabrics. The embroidered bands and other ornaments which adorn a mitre and the lappets may be of other colours, although coloured mitres are sometimes sold and worn at present, this is probably due to the maker’s or wearer’s lack of awareness of liturgical tradition. On all occasions, a server may wear a shawl-like veil, called a vimpa. The person wearing a vimpa is occasionally referred to as a vimpa. When a vimpa holds the crosier, he holds the crook facing inward, with his inauguration as pope, Benedict XVI broke with tradition and replaced the papal tiara even on his papal coat of arms with a papal mitre and pallium
The Lombards or Longobards were a Germanic people who ruled large parts of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774. In the 1st century AD, they formed part of the Suebi, the Lombard king Audoin defeated the Gepid leader Thurisind in 551 or 552, his successor Alboin eventually destroyed the Gepids at the Battle of Asfeld in 567. The Lombards were joined by numerous Saxons, Gepids, Bulgars and Ostrogoths, by late 569 they had conquered all north of Italy and the principal cities north of the Po River except Pavia, which fell in 572. At the same time, they occupied areas in central Italy and they established a Lombard Kingdom in north and central Italy, named Regnum Italicum, which reached its zenith under the 8th-century ruler Liutprand. In 774, the Kingdom was conquered by the Frankish King Charlemagne, Lombard nobles continued to rule southern parts of the Italian peninsula, well into the 11th century when they were conquered by the Normans and added to their County of Sicily. In this period, the part of Italy still under Longobardic domination was known by the name Langbarðaland in the Norse runestones.
Their legacy is apparent in the regional name Lombardy. The fullest account of Lombard origins and practices is the Historia Langobardorum of Paul the Deacon, pauls chief source for Lombard origins, however, is the 7th-century Origo Gentis Langobardorum. The Origo Gentis Langobardorum tells the story of a tribe called the Winnili dwelling in southern Scandinavia. The Winnili were split into three groups and one part left their land to seek foreign fields. The reason for the exodus was probably overpopulation, the departing people were led by the brothers Ybor and Aio and their mother Gambara and arrived in the lands of Scoringa, perhaps the Baltic coast or the Bardengau on the banks of the Elbe. Scoringa was ruled by the Vandals and their chieftains, the brothers Ambri and Assi, the Winnili were young and brave and refused to pay tribute, saying It is better to maintain liberty by arms than to stain it by the payment of tribute. The Vandals prepared for war and consulted Godan, who answered that he would give the victory to those whom he would see first at sunrise.
The Winnili were fewer in number and Gambara sought help from Frea, at sunrise, Frea turned her husbands bed so that he was facing east, and woke him. So Godan spotted the Winnili first and asked, Who are these long-beards. and Frea replied, My lord, thou hast given them the name, from that moment onwards, the Winnili were known as the Longbeards. When Paul the Deacon wrote the Historia between 787 and 796 he was a Catholic monk and devoted Christian and he thought the pagan stories of his people silly and laughable. Paul explained that the name Langobard came from the length of their beards, a modern theory suggests that the name Langobard comes from Langbarðr, a name of Odin. Priester states that when the Winnili changed their name to Lombards, they changed their old agricultural fertility cult to a cult of Odin
Mary, mother of Jesus
Mary, known by various titles and honorifics, was a 1st-century Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran. The gospels of Matthew and Luke in the New Testament and the Quran describe Mary as a virgin, the miraculous birth took place when she was already betrothed to Joseph and was awaiting the concluding rite of marriage, the formal home-taking ceremony. She married Joseph and accompanied him to Bethlehem, where Jesus was born, the Gospel of Luke begins its account of Marys life with the Annunciation, when the angel Gabriel appeared to her and announced her divine selection to be the mother of Jesus. According to canonical gospel accounts, Mary was present at the crucifixion and is depicted as a member of the early Christian community in Jerusalem. According to the Catholic and Orthodox teaching, at the end of her life her body was assumed directly into Heaven. Mary has been venerated since Early Christianity, and is considered by millions to be the most meritorious saint of the religion and she is claimed to have miraculously appeared to believers many times over the centuries.
The Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Lutheran churches believe that Mary, there is significant diversity in the Marian beliefs and devotional practices of major Christian traditions. The Roman Catholic Church holds distinctive Marian dogmas, namely her status as the Mother of God, her Immaculate Conception, her perpetual virginity, many Protestants minimize Marys role within Christianity, based on the argued brevity of biblical references. Mary has a position in Islam, where one of the longer chapters of the Quran is devoted to her. Marys name in the manuscripts of the New Testament was based on her original Aramaic name ܡܪܝܡ. The English name Mary comes from the Greek Μαρία, which is a form of Μαριάμ. Both Μαρία and Μαριάμ appear in the New Testament, in Christianity, Mary is commonly referred to as the Virgin Mary, in accordance with the belief that she conceived Jesus miraculously through the Holy Spirit without her husbands involvement. The three main titles for Mary used by the Orthodox are Theotokos, Aeiparthenos as confirmed in the Second Council of Constantinople in 553, Catholics use a wide variety of titles for Mary, and these titles have in turn given rise to many artistic depictions.
For example, the title Our Lady of Sorrows has inspired such masterpieces as Michelangelos Pietà, the title Theotokos was recognized at the Council of Ephesus in 431. However, this phrase in Greek, in the abbreviated form ΜΡ ΘΥ, is an indication commonly attached to her image in Byzantine icons. The Council stated that the Church Fathers did not hesitate to speak of the holy Virgin as the Mother of God, some Marian titles have a direct scriptural basis. For instance, the title Queen Mother has been given to Mary since she was the mother of Jesus, the scriptural basis for the term Queen can be seen in Luke 1,32 and the Isaiah 9,6. Queen Mother can be found in 1 Kings 2, 19-20 and Jeremiah 13, other titles have arisen from reported miracles, special appeals or occasions for calling on Mary
Paul the Apostle
Paul the Apostle, commonly known as Saint Paul, and known by his native name Saul of Tarsus was an apostle who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world. He is generally considered one of the most important figures of the Apostolic Age, in the mid-30s to the mid-50s AD, he founded several churches in Asia Minor and Europe. Paul took advantage of his status as both a Jew and a Roman citizen to minister to both Jewish and Roman audiences, according to writings in the New Testament, Paul was dedicated to the persecution of the early disciples of Jesus in the area of Jerusalem. He was struck blind but, after three days, his sight was restored by Ananias of Damascus, and Paul began to preach that Jesus of Nazareth is the Jewish Messiah, approximately half of the book of Acts deals with Pauls life and works. Fourteen of the books in the New Testament have traditionally been attributed to Paul. Seven of the epistles are undisputed by scholars as being authentic, Pauline authorship of the Epistle to the Hebrews is not asserted in the Epistle itself and was already doubted in the 2nd and 3rd centuries.
It was almost unquestioningly accepted from the 5th to the 16th centuries that Paul was the author of Hebrews, but that view is now almost universally rejected by scholars. The other six are believed by scholars to have come from followers writing in his name. Other scholars argue that the idea of an author for the disputed epistles raises many problems. Today, Pauls epistles continue to be roots of the theology and pastoral life in the Catholic and Protestant traditions of the West. Augustine of Hippo developed Pauls idea that salvation is based on faith, martin Luthers interpretation of Pauls writings influenced Luthers doctrine of sola fide. The main source for information about Pauls life is the material found in his epistles, the epistles contain little information about Pauls past. The book of Acts recounts more information but leaves several parts of Pauls life out of its narrative, such as his probable, some scholars believe Acts contradicts Pauls epistles on multiple accounts, in particular concerning the frequency of Pauls visits to the church in Jerusalem.
It has been assumed that Sauls name was changed when he converted from Judaism to Christianity. His Jewish name was Saul, perhaps after the biblical King Saul, a fellow Benjamite, according to the Book of Acts, he inherited Roman citizenship from his father. As a Roman citizen, he bore the Latin name of Paul—in biblical Greek, Παῦλος. It was quite usual for the Jews of that time to have two names, one Hebrew, the other Latin or Greek. Jesus called him Saul, Saul in the Hebrew tongue in the book of Acts, later, in a vision to Ananias of Damascus, the Lord referred to him as Saul, of Tarsus
Gothic art was a style of medieval art that developed in Northern France out of Romanesque art in the 12th century AD, led by the concurrent development of Gothic architecture. It spread to all of Western Europe, and much of Southern and Central Europe, in the late 14th century, the sophisticated court style of International Gothic developed, which continued to evolve until the late 15th century. In many areas, especially Germany, Late Gothic art continued well into the 16th century, primary media in the Gothic period included sculpture, panel painting, stained glass and illuminated manuscripts. The earliest Gothic art was monumental sculpture, on the walls of Cathedrals, Christian art was often typological in nature, showing the stories of the New Testament and the Old Testament side by side. Increased literacy and a body of secular vernacular literature encouraged the representation of secular themes in art. Gothic art emerged in Île-de-France, France, in the early 12th century at the Abbey Church of St Denis built by Abbot Suger, monastic orders, especially the Cistercians and the Carthusians, were important builders who disseminated the style and developed distinctive variants of it across Europe.
Gothic art was often typological in nature, reflecting a belief that the events of the Old Testament pre-figured those of the New and New Testament scenes were shown side by side in works like the Speculum Humanae Salvationis, and the decoration of churches. The Gothic period coincided with a resurgence in Marian devotion. Images of the Virgin Mary developed from the Byzantine hieratic types, through the Coronation of the Virgin, to human and initimate types. Artists like Giotto, Fra Angelico and Pietro Lorenzetti in Italy, and Early Netherlandish painting, brought realism, Western artists, and their patrons, became much more confident in innovative iconography, and much more originality is seen, although copied formulae were still used by most artists. Even in Last Judgements Christ was now usually shown exposing his chest to show the wounds of his Passion, the word Gothic for art was initially used as a synonym for Barbaric, and was therefore used pejoratively. Its critics saw this type of Medieval art as unrefined and too remote from the aesthetic proportions, Renaissance authors believed that the Sack of Rome by the Gothic tribes in 410 had triggered the demise of the Classical world and all the values they held dear.
Gothic art was criticized by French authors such as Boileau, La Bruyère, before becoming a recognized form of art. Molière would famously comment on Gothic, The besotted taste of Gothic monuments, These odious monsters of ignorant centuries, in its beginning, Gothic art was initially called French work, thus attesting the priority of France in the creation of this style. Painting in a style that can be called Gothic did not appear until about 1200, or nearly 50 years after the origins of Gothic architecture and sculpture. Then figures become more animated in pose and facial expression, tend to be smaller in relation to the background of scenes, and are arranged more freely in the pictorial space, where there is room. This transition occurs first in England and France around 1200, in Germany around 1220, painting during the Gothic period was practiced in four primary media, panel paintings, manuscript illumination and stained glass. Frescoes continued to be used as the pictorial narrative craft on church walls in southern Europe as a continuation of early Christian
Latin liturgical rites
Latin liturgical rites are the Catholic liturgical rites used within the Latin Church. The Latin rites were for centuries no less numerous than the liturgical rites of the Eastern autonomous particular Churches. Their number is now much reduced, in the aftermath of the Council of Trent, in 1568 and 1570 Pope Pius V suppressed the Breviaries and Missals that could not be shown to have an antiquity of at least two centuries. Many local rites that remained even after this decree were abandoned voluntarily, especially in the 19th century. The Roman Rite is by far the most widely used, like other liturgical rites, it developed over time, with newer forms replacing the older. It underwent many changes in the first millennium and a half of its existence, the forms that Pope Pius V, as requested by the Council of Trent, established in the 1560s and 1570s underwent repeated minor variations in the centuries immediately following. Each new typical edition of the Roman Missal and of the liturgical books superseded the previous one.
The 20th century saw profound changes. Pope Pius X radically rearranged the Psalter of the Breviary and altered the rubrics of the Mass, Popes continued to make such changes, beginning with Pope Pius XII, who significantly revised the Holy Week ceremonies and certain other aspects of the Roman Missal in 1955. The Second Vatican Council was followed by a revision of the rites of all the Roman Rite sacraments. As before, each new edition of an official liturgical book supersedes the previous one. Thus, the 1970 Roman Missal, which superseded the 1962 edition, was superseded by the edition of 1975, the 2002 edition in turn supersedes the 1975 edition both in Latin and, as official translations into each language appear, in the vernacular languages. Under the terms of Summorum Pontificum by Pope Benedict XVI, the Mass of Paul VI is known as the Ordinary Form of the Roman Rite. The Tridentine Mass, as in the 1962 Roman Missal, is authorized for use as an extraordinary form of the Roman Rite under the conditions indicated in the document Summorum Pontificum.
The Anglican Use is a use of the Roman Rite, during the Liturgy of the Eucharist, especially the Eucharistic Prayer, it is closest to the Roman Rite, while it differs more during the Liturgy of the Word and the Penitential Rite. The language used, which differs from that of the ICEL translation of the Roman Rite of Mass, is based upon the Book of Common Prayer, most Anglican Use parishes use the Book of Divine Worship, an adaptation of the Book of Common Prayer. The Anglican Use is permitted under the United States Pastoral Provision of 1980 in several parishes of that country that have left the Episcopal Church. The same Pastoral Provision permits, as an exception and on a case by case basis, on 9 November 2009, Pope Benedict XVI established provisions for the setting up of personal ordinariates for Anglicans who join the church
Italian Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture appeared in Italy in the 12th century. Aesthetically, in Italy the vertical development was rarely important, Gothic architecture was imported into Italy, just as it was in many other European countries. The Benedictine Cistercian order was, through their new edifices, the carrier of this new architectural style. It spread from Burgundy, their area, over the rest of Western Europe. The stained glass windows are reduced in size and colorless, in the exterior bell towers and belfries are absent. Always present, are oval rectangular groin vaults and clustered piers, composed by an ensemble of smaller columns, the capitals have very simple decorations, usually not figurative. The stone-dressing is very accurate as well, the result is a quasi-modern cleanness, lacking embellishments. Both strove for a certain cleanness, when not poverty, in their edifices, as previously stressed, the first Italian Gothic edifices were Cistercian abbeys. They spread throughout Italian territory, often adapting construction techniques to local traditions, there were in fact brickwork edifices in the Pianura Padana, while stone prevailed in central Italy and Tuscany.
In the latter was sometimes present the by-chrome wall decoration from the local Romanesque tradition, the most important edifices include the Chiaravalle Abbey in northern Italy and the Casamari Abbey in central Italy. This century saw the construction of numerous Gothic buildings for the Mendicant Orders, around the late 13th century several important Gothic or Gothic-like edifices were begun, which were to be completed in the following century. In the 15th century no new major Gothic edifices were built in Italy, while the construction of large basilicas and cathedrals begun continued