Omega-3 fatty acid
Omega−3 fatty acids called ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids characterized by the presence of a double bond three atoms away from the terminal methyl group in their chemical structure. They are distributed in nature, being important constituents of animal lipid metabolism, they play an important role in the human diet and in human physiology; the three types of omega−3 fatty acids involved in human physiology are α-linolenic acid, found in plant oils, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, both found in marine oils. Marine algae and phytoplankton are primary sources of omega−3 fatty acids. Common sources of plant oils containing ALA include walnut, edible seeds, clary sage seed oil, algal oil, flaxseed oil, Sacha Inchi oil, Echium oil, hemp oil, while sources of animal omega−3 fatty acids EPA and DHA include fish, fish oils, eggs from chickens fed EPA and DHA, squid oils, krill oil. Omega−3 fatty acids are important for normal metabolism. Mammals are unable to synthesize the essential omega−3 fatty acid ALA and must obtain it through diet, which they can use to form the long-chain omega−3 fatty acids, EPA and from EPA make DHA.
The ability to make the longer-chain omega−3 fatty acids from ALA may be impaired in aging. In foods exposed to air, unsaturated fatty acids are vulnerable to rancidity. Dietary supplementation with omega−3 fatty acids does not appear to affect the risk of death, cancer or heart disease. Furthermore, fish oil supplement studies have failed to support claims of preventing heart attacks or strokes or any vascular disease outcomes; the terms ω–3 fatty acid and n–3 fatty acid are derived from organic nomenclature. One way in which a fatty acid is named is determined by the location of the first double bond, counted from the methyl end, that is, the omega or the n- end. In general terminology using either n–x or ω–x, the dash is a minus sign, the number n–x refers to the locant of the double bond linking two carbon atoms. Thus, in omega–3 fatty acids in particular, there is a double bond located on the carbon numbered 3 lower than the highest carbon number. By example, α-linolenic acid is an 18-carbon chain having three double bonds, the first being located at the third carbon from the methyl end of the fatty acid chain at carbon 15.
Α-Linolenic acid is polyunsaturated and is described by a lipid number, 18:3, meaning that there are 18 carbon atoms and 3 double bonds. Although n and ω are synonymous, the IUPAC recommends that n be used to identify the highest carbon number of a fatty acid; the more common name – omega–3 fatty acid – is used in both the lay media and scientific literature. Supplementation does not appear to be associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality; the evidence linking the consumption of marine omega−3 fats to a lower risk of cancer is poor. With the possible exception of breast cancer, there is insufficient evidence that supplementation with omega−3 fatty acids has an effect on different cancers; the effect of consumption on prostate cancer is not conclusive. There is a decreased risk with higher blood levels of DPA, but an increased risk of more aggressive prostate cancer was shown with higher blood levels of combined EPA and DHA. In people with advanced cancer and cachexia, omega−3 fatty acids supplements may be of benefit, improving appetite and quality of life.
Evidence in the population does not support a beneficial role for omega−3 fatty acid supplementation in preventing cardiovascular disease or stroke. A 2018 meta-analysis found no support that daily intake of one gram of omega-3 fatty acid in individuals with a history of coronary heart disease prevents fatal coronary heart disease, nonfatal myocardial infarction or any other vascular event. However, omega−3 fatty acid supplementation greater than one gram daily for at least a year may be protective against cardiac death, sudden death, myocardial infarction in people who have a history of cardiovascular disease. No protective effect against the development of stroke or all-cause mortality was seen in this population. Eating a diet high in fish that contain long chain omega−3 fatty acids does appear to decrease the risk of stroke. Fish oil supplementation has not been shown to benefit revascularization or abnormal heart rhythms and has no effect on heart failure hospital admission rates. Furthermore, fish oil supplement studies have failed to support claims of preventing heart attacks or strokes.
Evidence suggests that omega−3 fatty acids modestly lower blood pressure in people with hypertension and in people with normal blood pressure. Some evidence suggests that people with certain circulatory problems, such as varicose veins, may benefit from the consumption of EPA and DHA, which may stimulate blood circulation and increase the breakdown of fibrin, a protein involved in blood clotting and scar formation. Omega−3 fatty acids reduce blood triglyceride levels but do not change the level of LDL cholesterol or HDL cholesterol in the blood; the American Heart Association position is that borderline elevated triglycerides, defined as 150–199 mg/dL, can be lowered by 0.5-1.0 grams of EPA and DHA per day. ALA does not confer the cardiovascular health benefits of DHAs; the effect of omega−3 polyunsaturated fatty
Food and Drug Administration
The Food and Drug Administration is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments. The FDA is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the control and supervision of food safety, tobacco products, dietary supplements and over-the-counter pharmaceutical drugs, biopharmaceuticals, blood transfusions, medical devices, electromagnetic radiation emitting devices, animal foods & feed and veterinary products; as of 2017, 3/4th of the FDA budget is paid by people who consume pharmaceutical products, due to the Prescription Drug User Fee Act. The FDA was empowered by the United States Congress to enforce the Federal Food and Cosmetic Act, which serves as the primary focus for the Agency; these include regulating lasers, cellular phones and control of disease on products ranging from certain household pets to sperm donation for assisted reproduction. The FDA is led by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The Commissioner reports to the Secretary of Human Services. Scott Gottlieb, M. D. is the current commissioner, who took over in May 2017. The FDA has its headquarters in Maryland; the agency has 223 field offices and 13 laboratories located throughout the 50 states, the United States Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico. In 2008, the FDA began to post employees to foreign countries, including China, Costa Rica, Chile and the United Kingdom. In recent years, the agency began undertaking a large-scale effort to consolidate its 25 operations in the Washington metropolitan area, moving from its main headquarters in Rockville and several fragmented office buildings to the former site of the Naval Ordnance Laboratory in the White Oak area of Silver Spring, Maryland; the site was renamed from the White Oak Naval Surface Warfare Center to the Federal Research Center at White Oak. The first building, the Life Sciences Laboratory, was dedicated and opened with 104 employees on the campus in December 2003. Only one original building from the naval facility was kept.
All other buildings are new construction. The project is slated to be completed by 2021, assuming future Congressional funding While most of the Centers are located in the Washington, D. C. area as part of the Headquarters divisions, two offices – the Office of Regulatory Affairs and the Office of Criminal Investigations – are field offices with a workforce spread across the country. The Office of Regulatory Affairs is considered the "eyes and ears" of the agency, conducting the vast majority of the FDA's work in the field. Consumer Safety Officers, more called Investigators, are the individuals who inspect production and warehousing facilities, investigate complaints, illnesses, or outbreaks, review documentation in the case of medical devices, biological products, other items where it may be difficult to conduct a physical examination or take a physical sample of the product; the Office of Regulatory Affairs is divided into five regions, which are further divided into 20 districts. Districts are based on the geographic divisions of the federal court system.
Each district comprises a main district office and a number of Resident Posts, which are FDA remote offices that serve a particular geographic area. ORA includes the Agency's network of regulatory laboratories, which analyze any physical samples taken. Though samples are food-related, some laboratories are equipped to analyze drugs and radiation-emitting devices; the Office of Criminal Investigations was established in 1991 to investigate criminal cases. Unlike ORA Investigators, OCI Special Agents are armed, don't focus on technical aspects of the regulated industries. OCI agents pursue and develop cases where individuals and companies have committed criminal actions, such as fraudulent claims, or knowingly and willfully shipping known adulterated goods in interstate commerce. In many cases, OCI pursues cases involving Title 18 violations, in addition to prohibited acts as defined in Chapter III of the FD&C Act. OCI Special Agents come from other criminal investigations backgrounds, work with the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Assistant Attorney General, Interpol.
OCI receives cases from a variety of sources—including ORA, local agencies, the FBI—and works with ORA Investigators to help develop the technical and science-based aspects of a case. OCI is a smaller branch; the FDA works with other federal agencies, including the Department of Agriculture, Drug Enforcement Administration and Border Protection, Consumer Product Safety Commission. Local and state government agencies work with the FDA to provide regulatory inspections and enforcement action; the FDA regulates more than US$2.4 trillion worth of consumer goods, about 25% of consumer expenditures in the United States. This includes $466 billion in food sales, $275 billion in drugs, $60 billion in cosmetics and $18 billion in vitamin supplements. Much of these expenditures are for goods imported into the United States; the FDA's federal budget request for fiscal year 2012 totaled $4.36 billion, while the proposed 2014 budget is $4.7 billion. About $2 billion of this budget is generated by user fees.
Pharmaceutical firms pay th
A psychiatric medication is a licensed psychoactive drug taken to exert an effect on the chemical makeup of the brain and nervous system. Thus, these medications are used to treat mental illnesses. Prescribed in psychiatric settings, these medications are made of synthetic chemical compounds. Since the mid-20th century, such medications have been leading treatments for a broad range of mental disorders and have decreased the need for long-term hospitalization, therefore lowering the cost of mental health care; the recidivism or rehospitalization of the mentally ill is at a high rate in many countries and the reasons for the relapses are under research. Several significant psychiatric drugs were developed in the mid-20th century. In 1948, lithium was first used as a psychiatric medicine. One of the most important discoveries was chlorpromazine, an antipsychotic, first given to a patient in 1952. In the same decade, Julius Axelrod carried out research into the interaction of neurotransmitters, which provided a foundation for the development of further drugs.
The popularity of these drugs have increased since with millions prescribed annually. The introduction of these drugs brought profound changes to the treatment of mental illness, it meant that more patients could be treated without the need for confinement in a psychiatric hospital. It was one of the key reasons why many countries moved towards deinstitutionalization, closing many of these hospitals so that patients could be treated at home, in general hospitals and smaller facilities. Use of physical restraints such as straitjackets declined; as of 2013, the 10 most prescribed psychiatric drugs by number of prescriptions were alprazolam, citalopram, lorazepam, escitalopram, bupropion XL, venlafaxine XR. Psychiatric medications are prescription medications, requiring a prescription from a physician, such as a psychiatrist, or a psychiatric nurse practitioner, PMHNP, before they can be obtained; some U. S. states and territories, following the creation of the prescriptive authority for psychologists movement, have granted prescriptive privileges to clinical psychologists who have undergone additional specialised education and training in medical psychology.
In addition to the familiar dosage in pill form, psychiatric medications are evolving into more novel methods of drug delivery. New technologies include transdermal, transmucosal and suppository supplements. Psychopharmacology studies a wide range of substances with various types of psychoactive properties; the professional and commercial fields of pharmacology and psychopharmacology do not focus on psychedelic or recreational drugs, so the majority of studies are conducted on psychiatric medication. While studies are conducted on all psychoactive drugs by both fields, psychopharmacology focuses on psychoactive and chemical interactions within the brain. Physicians who research psychiatric medications are psychopharmacologists, specialists in the field of psychopharmacology. Psychiatric medications carry risk for adverse effects; the occurrence of adverse effects can reduce drug compliance. Some adverse effects can be treated symptomatically by using adjunct medications such as anticholinergics.
Some rebound or withdrawal adverse effects, such as the possibility of a sudden or severe emergence or re-emergence of psychosis in antipsychotic withdrawal, may appear when the drugs are discontinued, or discontinued too rapidly. While clinical trials of psychiatric medications, like other medications test medicines separately, there is a practice in psychiatry to use polypharmacy in combinations of medicines that have never been tested together in clinical trials, it is argued that this presents a risk of adverse effects brain damage, in real-life mixed medication psychiatry that are not visible in the clinical trials of one medicine at a time. Outside clinical trials, there is evidence for an increase in mortality when psychiatric patients are transferred to polypharmacy with an increased number of medications being mixed. There are six main groups of psychiatric medications. Antidepressants, which treat disparate disorders such as clinical depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders and borderline personality disorder.
Antipsychotics, which treat psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia and psychotic symptoms occurring in the context of other disorders such as mood disorders. Anxiolytics, which treat anxiety disorders. Depressants, which are used as hypnotics and anesthetics. Mood stabilizers, which treat bipolar disorder and schizoaffective disorder. Stimulants, which treat disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity narcolepsy. Antidepressants are drugs used to treat clinical depression, they are often used for anxiety and other disorders. Most antidepressants will hinder the breakdown of both. A used class of antidepressants are called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, which act on serotonin transporters in the brain to increase levels of serotonin in the synaptic cleft. SSRIs will take 3–5 weeks to have a noticeable effect, as the regulation of receptors in the brain adapts. There are multiple classes of antidepressants. Another type of antidepressant is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, thought to block the action of Monoamine oxidase, an enzyme that breaks down serotonin and norepinephrine.
Lithium carbonate is an inorganic compound, the lithium salt of carbonate with the formula Li2CO3. This white salt is used in the processing of metal oxides. For the treatment of bipolar disorder, it is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system. Lithium carbonate is an important industrial chemical, it forms low-melting fluxes with silica and other materials. Glasses derived from lithium carbonate are useful in ovenware. Lithium carbonate is a common ingredient in both high-fire ceramic glaze, its alkaline properties are conducive to changing the state of metal oxide colorants in glaze red iron oxide. Cement sets more when prepared with lithium carbonate, is useful for tile adhesives; when added to aluminium trifluoride, it forms LiF which gives a superior electrolyte for the processing of aluminium. It is used in the manufacture of most lithium-ion battery cathodes, which are made of lithium cobalt oxide. In 1843, lithium carbonate was used as a new solvent for stones in the bladder.
In 1859, some doctors recommended a therapy with lithium salts for a number of ailments, including gout, urinary calculi, mania and headache. In 1948, John Cade discovered the antimanic effects of lithium ions; this finding led lithium lithium carbonate, to be used to treat mania associated with bipolar disorder. Lithium carbonate is used to treat the elevated phase of bipolar disorder. Lithium ions interfere with ion transport processes that relay and amplify messages carried to the cells of the brain. Mania is associated with irregular increases in protein kinase C activity within the brain. Lithium carbonate and sodium valproate, another drug traditionally used to treat the disorder, act in the brain by inhibiting PKC’s activity and help to produce other compounds that inhibit the PKC. Lithium carbonate's mood-controlling properties are not understood. Taking lithium salts has risks and side effects. Extended use of lithium to treat various mental disorders has been known to lead to acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
Lithium intoxication can be lethal. Unlike sodium carbonate, which forms at least three hydrates, lithium carbonate exists only in the anhydrous form, its solubility in water is low relative to other lithium salts. The isolation of lithium from aqueous extracts of lithium ores capitalizes on this poor solubility, its apparent solubility increases 10-fold under a mild pressure of carbon dioxide. Lithium carbonate can be purified by exploiting its diminished solubility in hot water. Thus, heating a saturated aqueous solution causes crystallization of Li2CO3. Lithium carbonate, other carbonates of group 1, do not decarboxylate readily. Li2CO3 decomposes at temperatures around 1300 °C. Lithium is extracted from two sources:pegmatite crystals and lithium salt from brine pools. About 30,000 tons were produced in 1989, it exists as the rare mineral zabuyelite. Lithium carbonate is generated by combining lithium peroxide with carbon dioxide; this reaction is the basis of certain air purifiers, e.g. in spacecraft, used to absorb carbon dioxide: 2 Li2O2 + 2 CO2 → 2 Li2CO3 + O2In recent years many junior mining companies have begun exploration of lithium projects throughout North America, South America and Australia to identify economic deposits that can bring new supplies of lithium carbonate online to meet the growing demand for the product.
In April 2017 MGX Minerals reported it had received independent confirmation of its rapid lithium extraction process to recover lithium and other valuable minerals from oil and gas wastewater brine. Natural lithium carbonate is known as zabuyelite; this mineral is connected with deposits of some pegmatites. Official FDA information published by Drugs.com
White blood cell
White blood cells are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders. All white blood cells are produced and derived from multipotent cells in the bone marrow known as hematopoietic stem cells. Leukocytes are found throughout the body, including lymphatic system. All white blood cells have nuclei, which distinguishes them from the other blood cells, the anucleated red blood cells and platelets. Types of white blood cells can be classified in standard ways. Two pairs of broadest categories classify them either by cell lineage; these broadest categories can be further divided into the five main types: neutrophils, basophils and monocytes. These types are distinguished by their physical and functional characteristics. Monocytes and neutrophils are phagocytic. Further subtypes can be classified; the number of leukocytes in the blood is an indicator of disease, thus the white blood cell count is an important subset of the complete blood count.
The normal white cell count is between 4 × 109/L and 1.1 × 1010/L. In the US, this is expressed as 4,000 to 11,000 white blood cells per microliter of blood. White blood cells make up 1% of the total blood volume in a healthy adult, making them less numerous than the red blood cells at 40% to 45%. However, this 1 % of the blood makes a large difference to health. An increase in the number of leukocytes over the upper limits is called leukocytosis, it is normal. It is abnormal, when it is neoplastic or autoimmune in origin. A decrease below the lower limit is called leukopenia; this indicates a weakened immune system. The name "white blood cell" derives from the physical appearance of a blood sample after centrifugation. White cells are found in the buffy coat, a thin white layer of nucleated cells between the sedimented red blood cells and the blood plasma; the scientific term leukocyte directly reflects its description. It is derived from the Greek roots leuk- meaning "white" and cyt- meaning "cell".
The buffy coat may sometimes be green if there are large amounts of neutrophils in the sample, due to the heme-containing enzyme myeloperoxidase that they produce. All white blood cells are nucleated, which distinguishes them from the anucleated red blood cells and platelets. Types of leukocytes can be classified in standard ways. Two pairs of broadest categories classify them either by cell lineage; these broadest categories can be further divided into the five main types: neutrophils, basophils and monocytes. These types are distinguished by their physical and functional characteristics. Monocytes and neutrophils are phagocytic. Further subtypes can be classified. Granulocytes are distinguished from agranulocytes by their nucleus shape and by their cytoplasm granules; the other dichotomy is by lineage: Myeloid cells are distinguished from lymphoid cells by hematopoietic lineage. Lymphocytes can be further classified as T cells, B cells, natural killer cells. Neutrophils are the most abundant white blood cell, constituting 60-70% of the circulating leukocytes, including two functionally unequal subpopulations: neutrophil-killers and neutrophil-cagers.
They defend against fungal infection. They are first responders to microbial infection, they are referred to as polymorphonuclear leukocytes, although, in the technical sense, PMN refers to all granulocytes. They have a multi-lobed nucleus; this gives the neutrophils the appearance of having multiple nuclei, hence the name polymorphonuclear leukocyte. The cytoplasm may look transparent because of fine granules. Neutrophils are active in phagocytosing bacteria and are present in large amount in the pus of wounds; these cells are not able to die after having phagocytosed a few pathogens. Neutrophils are the most common cell type seen in the early stages of acute inflammation; the life span of a circulating human neutrophil is about 5.4 days. Eosinophils compose about 2-4% of the WBC total; this count fluctuates throughout the day and during menstruation. It rises in response to allergies, parasitic infections, collagen diseases, disease of the spleen and central nervous system, they are rare in the blood, but numerous in the mucous membranes of the respiratory and lower urinary tracts.
They deal with parasitic infections. Eosinophils are the predominant inflammatory cells in allergic reactions; the most important causes of eosinophilia include allergies such as asthma, hay fever, hives. They secrete chemicals that destroy these large parasites, such as hook worms and tapeworms, that are too big for any one WBC to phagocytize. In general, their nucleus is bi-lobed; the lobes are connected by a thin strand. The cytoplasm is full of granules that assume a characteristic pink-orange color with eosin stain