Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
Beerwah is a rural town and a locality in the hinterland of the Sunshine Coast Region, Australia. It is situated north of Glass House Mountains 80 kilometres north of Brisbane, just south of Landsborough; the main road through Beerwah is called Steve Irwin Way. It was known as the Glasshouse Mountain Tourist Route and is accessed by the Bruce Highway, which bypassed the town in 1985. Beerwah is administered by the Sunshine Coast Regional Council; the name Beerwah comes from the Kabi language word birrawaman, with birra meaning sky and wandum meaning climbing up. Beerwah Post Office opened by August 1907; the Coochin Creek Provisional School opened in November 1888, becoming Coochin Creek State School on 1 January 1909. In about November 1928, it was renamed Beerwah State School. On 10 July 1952, another Coochin Creek State School opened, but it closed on 11 March 1962. Beerwah State High School opened on 1 January 1992; the Beerwah Library opened in 2000. Beerwah is a growing hinterland town. Transport links to Brisbane and northbound destinations at Beerwah railway station on the Nambour and Gympie North railway line.
A small bypass was constructed south of the town, including an overpass of the railway, a large roundabout at Roberts Road, traffic signals at Kilcoy-Beerwah Road and Steve Irwin Way. This work opened to traffic in October 2009; as part of that project, the original level crossing was closed and demolished, causing concern among local residents who claimed it sliced the town in two. In 2010, many residents began to complain about the lack of signage to the town center; the town entrance now features two distinctive large directional signs, one at the Steve Irwin Way entrance, one at the roundabout after travelling over the railway bridge. Australia Zoo is located in Beerwah; the zoo was founded by Bob Irwin and made famous by his son, Steve Irwin. It is a major tourist attraction and is visited daily by large numbers of local and international tourists. Another attraction, the Glass House mountain range, is located nearby; the largest mountain in the range, at 555m, is Mount Beerwah. Access to the Mount Beerwah summit route has been closed since 2008 due to the erosion and destabilization of some walking tracks, leading to a high risk of rock fall.
The Big Mower, one of Australia's big things, is located in Beerwah. Beerwah has three schools: Beerwah State School, Beerwah State High School, Glasshouse Christian College, a private college; the Sunshine Coast Regional Council operates a public library at 25 Peachester Road. There are a range of national supermarkets, specialty shops, a retirement village; the Beerwah branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at 39 Simpson Street. In the 2016 census, Beerwah recorded a population of 6,769 people, 48 % male; the median age was 39 years, compared to the national median age of 38. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 2.8% of the population. 77.2% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 5.1% and New Zealand 4.8%. 90.8% of people only spoke English at home. The most common responses for religion in Beerwah were No Religion 32.8%, Anglican 17.2% and Catholic 14.4%. Lawrence Daws Steve Irwin Terri Irwin Bindi Irwin Robert Irwin Beerwah: Queensland Places Beerwah cemetery
Mooloolah railway station
Mooloolah railway station is located on the North Coast line in Queensland, Australia. It serves the town of Mooloolah Valley in the Sunshine Coast Region. In 2009, the platform was extended at both its northern and southern ends with scaffolding and plywood materials. Intended as an interim arrangement until a permanent extension was built, the temporary platform remains. Opposite the platform lies a passing loop. Mooloolah is serviced by City network services to Brisbane and Gympie North. To relieve congestion on the single track North Coast line, the rail service is supplemented by a bus service operated by Kangaroo Bus Lines on weekdays between Caboolture and Nambour as route 649. Media related to Mooloolah railway station at Wikimedia Commons Mooloolah station Queensland Rail Mooloolah station Queensland's Railways on the Internet
Gympie is a town and a locality in the Gympie Region, Australia. Located in the Wide Bay-Burnett district, Gympie is about 160 kilometres north of the state capital, Brisbane; the city lies on the Mary River. Gympie is the administrative centre for the Gympie Region area. At the 2016 Census Gympie had a population of 20,966. Gympie is famous for its gold field, it contains a number of historic buildings registered on the Queensland Heritage Register. Gympie's name derives from the Kabi word gimpi-gimpi; the tree has round leaves that have similar properties to stinging nettles. The town was named Nashville, after James Nash, who discovered gold in the area in 1867; the name was changed to Gympie in 1868. Graziers were the original European settlers. Subsequently, James Nash reported the discovery of'payable' alluvial gold on 16 October 1867. At the time of Nash's discovery, Queensland was suffering from a severe economic depression. Nash saved Queensland from bankruptcy. A memorial fountain in Gympie's Park honours Nash's discovery.
The Gympie Gold Rush Festival celebrates the event today. The Gold Rush Festival holds 10 days of cultural events in October. Gold mining still plays a role in the area's fortunes, along with agriculture and tourism; the gold rush's rapid development led to streets. Gympie Creek Post Office opened on 1 December 1867, it was renamed Gympie in 1868. The railway from Maryborough completed in 1881; the North Coast railway linked Gympie to Brisbane in 1891. A fire brigade was in operation in 1900; the state declared Gympie a town in 1903. A powdered milk factory began operations in 1953. Significant floods along the Mary River have caused inundations of the town in 1893, 1955, 1968, 1974, 1989, 1992, 1999, 2011 and 2013; the first recorded flood in Gympie was in 1870. Most of the floods occur between December and April and are caused by heavy rainfall in the headwaters to the south; the highest flood recorded in Gympie occurred on 2 February 1893 when the river peaked at 25.45 m. Gympie was declared a natural disaster area during the 1999 floods.
The river peaked at 21.9 m then. Numerous highways and roads in and around the town which were destroyed or damaged during floods in 2011 was repaired under Operation Queenslander, the name given to post-flood reconstruction efforts in Queensland. In March 2012, the Gympie Regional Council decided to spend about $30,000 for a cost benefit analysis on flood mitigation measures. Gympie has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Brisbane Road: Monkland State School Residence 2 Caledonian Hill: Gympie Town Hall Channon Street: Gympie Court House Channon Street: Old Gympie Post Office Channon Street: Surface Hill Uniting Church 26 Channon Street: Gympie Lands Office cnr Channon Street and Nash Streets: former Queensland National Bank Church Street: St Patricks Church 17 Crown Road: former Gympie Ambulance Station Mary Street: Gympie and Widgee War Memorial Gates 199 Mary Street: former Royal Bank of Queensland 216 Mary Street: former Crawford and Co Building 218 Mary Street: Tozer's Building 235 Mary Street: Smithfield Chambers 236 Mary Street: former Australian Joint Stock Bank and former Gympie Stock Exchange offices & club 242 Mary Street: former Bank of New South Wales 39 Nash Street: Gympie School of Arts River Road: Gympie Memorial Park 1 Station Road: Railway Hotel Tozer Street: Gympie railway station According to the 2016 census of Population, there 20,966 people in Gympie.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 3.9% of the population. 82.4% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 2.6%, New Zealand 1.9% and Philippines 0.6%. 89.6% of people spoke only English at home. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 30.1%, Catholic 16.8% and Anglican 15.6%. Many attractions are around Gympie; the Gympie Gold Mining and Historical Museum houses memorabilia from the early gold mining era, as well as displays showcasing military, transport and steam development in Australia. The WoodWorks Museum provides an insight into the timber industry and social history of yesteryear through displays and demonstrations. Features include a large selection of pioneering hand tools, a 1925 Republic truck, bullock wagons, a blacksmith shop; the Valley Rattler steam train winds its way through the backyards of the southern side of Gympie and continues west into the scenic Mary Valley where it crosses and follows the Mary River to negotiate the valley and the Mary's main tributaries.
The tourist train began operations in 1996. It provides a spectacular journey through the valley beginning at the Old Gympie Railway Station in Tozer Street; this station is the original railway station for the track that passed through Gympie in the 1900s gold rush. The station has been redone and the Rattler is up and running, it travels back for a beautiful scenic ride. The Mary Valley has a stunning landscape of many beautiful forests; the countryside is spectacular with an abundance of curves and bridges. Steep slopes portray a patchwork of pineapples, macadamia nuts, other crops; the towns of the valley include Dagun, a pretty little ten-house town and Amamoor which hosts the National Country Music Muster, held annually in August. The muster is held over six nights in the Amamoor Forest Reserve. Featuring 13 venues full of diverse music, the muster is the largest outdoor country music festival in Australia; the Mary Valley Scenic Dri
North Coast railway line, Queensland
The North Coast railway line is a narrow gauge railway line in Queensland, Australia. It commences at Roma Street station and parallels the Queensland coast to Cairns in Far North Queensland; the line is electrified between Rockhampton. Along the way, the 1680 km railway passes through the numerous towns and cities of eastern Queensland including Nambour, Gladstone, Rockhampton and Townsville; the line though the centre of Rockhampton runs down the middle of Denison Street. The North Coast Line has one of the most interesting and complex histories of any railway in Queensland; the first section was opened in 1881, the final section in 1924, the line was opened in over 60 sections during that period. It incorporates sections of lines built by local governments and subsequently taken over by the Queensland Railways, one isolated section was closed for two years following a financial crisis and another isolated section was built as a 610 mm gauge line. Progress was hampered by several financial setbacks, debate over competing routes and parliamentary approval to connect Cairns to Rockhampton and Brisbane was not given until 1910.
Construction standards varied depending upon the era and initial purpose of the section built. There have been five major and numerous minor deviations to improve the alignment of the original line, three sections of it are duplicated. Queensland was the first jurisdiction in the world to adopt narrow gauge for its main lines, with the Main Line opening between Ipswich and Toowoomba between 1865-67. By 1880 over 1,000 km of line had been opened, connecting Brisbane to Roma and Warwick and Rockhampton to Emerald, with a line from Townsville to Charters Towers under construction; the pattern of early Queensland railway development was focused upon providing transport from inland areas to ports at the lowest possible cost. Coastal shipping provided adequate connections between the coastal communities and so priority given to building railways which would facilitate development and immigration to the interior of the colony; the first section of what is now the NCL opened on 6 August 1881. It was built to connect the mining town of Gympie to a river port at Maryborough, followed the Mary River valley.
The Queensland Government was under constant pressure to reduce expenditure, so despite the potential for the line to be part of a future main line, the line was constructed to pioneer standards with minimal earthworks, a sinuous alignment and 17.4 kg/m lightweight rails. Further south a suburban railway was opened between Roma Street and Northgate on 11 May 1882, via Normanby. A direct line from Roma Street to Bowen Hills via Central station was opened in 1890, including a 770-metre tunnel, still the longest on the system; the government formally decided to link Brisbane to Gladstone in 1883, but there was a demand for the southern connecting line to be from Esk to Kilkivan. Whilst that route may have served areas of fertile land, it was hilly terrain, the cost of earthworks would have been substantial; the coastal route would serve less promising agricultural land, but would be less expensive to build. As the Queensland parliament was dominated by rural members, both routes were surveyed in detail, taking six years due to the shortage of surveyors and the terrain involved.
By the time the surveys were finished it was apparent the inland route would be prohibitively expensive, the coastal route was approved. The first section of line formally known as the NCL was opened from North Coast Junction to Petrie and Caboolture in 1888. Coal had been discovered at Burrum, 25 km north of Maryborough, a line was constructed to serve the mine, opening in 1883; the line was extended to Bundaberg in 1888. The opening of the isolated Bowen section of railway in 1890 had resulted in there being 11 separate railway systems operating in Queensland, including the Brisbane and North Bundaberg lines; this was reduced to nine once the Burnett Bridge and the linking of the Brisbane and Maryborough systems occurred, the number of isolated systems reduced as the NCL progressed, though two lines were never connected to the remainder of the system. The coastal route was approved in 1889, with construction starting from both Caboolture and Gympie, the linking section opened in 1891, it was built to main line standard with 29.8 kg/m rail, 8 chains minimum radius curves and 1 in 50 maximum grades, equivalent to 1 in 48 on a minimum radius curve.
This section features the only two tunnels on the entire NCL, one being 191 m, the other 160 m. An example of the benefits of a connected system was the decision by the CSR sugar company in 1895 to rail sugar from Childers to Brisbane instead of using coastal shipping from Maryborough. Parliament approved the Bundaberg to Gladstone line whilst the Brisbane-Gympie competing survey work was still underway, contracts were let in 1888. A railway had opened from North Bundaberg to Mount Perry in 1884, that line starting from the opposite side of the Burnett River from the main part of Bundaberg in order to save the cost of constructing a bridge; the 534 metre bridge over the river connecting the two lines opened in 1891. Construction continued north, the next section to Rosedale opened in 1892; the largest bank in Queensland collapsed following the 1893 Brisbane flood, the subsequent financial downturn resulted in a 2-year halt in construction. The line to Gladstone opened in 1897. Gladstone has the best port in central Queensland, except for the Canoona gold rush near Rockhampton it may have become the main regional city.
Dularcha Railway Tunnel
Dularcha Railway Tunnel is a heritage-listed former railway tunnel at 1.5 kilometres south of Mooloolah township in Landsborough, Sunshine Coast Region, Australia. It was built from 1890 to 1891 by T Company, it is known as North Coast Line No 1: Mooloolah tunnel. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 24 September 1999. Dularcha Railway Tunnel, constructed in 1890-91, formed part of the section of railway from Landsborough to Yandina, which in turn was part of the North Coast railway line from Brisbane to Gympie; the construction of Queensland railways began in 1864, unlike other states, routes were constructed independently of each other. While a rail line had extended north from Gympie to Maryborough since 1881, it was not until 1888 that a line was opened from Brisbane to create a link with Gympie. Surveys for the section of line between Caboolture and Gympie had begun as early as 1884, the terrain had created difficulties, resolved by the construction of four major bridges and two tunnels.
The North Coast Line was opened at Gympie in 1891. At the time, the North Coast Line was a direct link between Brisbane and Maryborough and brought Gympie within easy reach of Brisbane. So convenient was the line. Troops sent to quell the 1891 Shearer's Strike in Central Queensland were transported on this line; the North Coast Line soon became a dominant method of freight transportation with passenger traffic increasing as each new link further north created an integrated rail system. It was popularity of train travel that promoted the gazetting of Dularcha National Park on 21 May 1924 under the State Forests and National Parks Act 1906; the area covered 336 acres. This area included that part of the Landsborough to Yandina line which incorporated the Dularcha Railway Tunnel. Between 1900-1920, the North Coast Line was increasing in importance, it was constructed over a period of forty years and coastal rail freight grew as coastal shipping offered cheaper rates for heavy freight. The first section of the railway built as part of the North Coast Line was the line from Caboolture to Gympie.
Surveying took six years. There were so many new lines being planned, it was October 1886 before Section 5 from Gympie South to Martin's Halfway House on the road to Noosa was completed. The contract was awarded to Company; the North Coast Line from Brisbane's Roma Street to Sandgate opened on 11 May 1882. From Nundah to Petrie on 1 March 1888 and Caboolture on 11 June 1888. Plans of section 2 and 3 from Caboolture to Yandina were approved in November 1887 and was awarded to T Jesser and Company on 14 December 1888; the Jesser and Company had been given the contract for the Bowen Railway in April 1890. Besides the major bridges over the Mooloolah River, Eudlo Creek, Petrie Creek and the South Maroochy River, the line included the only two tunnels on the entire North Coast Line, one of, the Dularcha Railway Tunnel. Sections were opened as they were completed, from Caboolture to Landsborough on 1 February 1890, to Yandina from 1 January 1891. For the first time the trip from Gympie to Brisbane could be accomplished in a day, a twelve-hour trip.
Some of the first passengers to make the one-day journey were the troops sent to Central Queensland to quell the Shearers' strike. The Brisbane-Gympie link put the Queensland Railways into competition with coastal shipping for the first time. Work began on regrading the North Coast line between Caboolture and Gympie in 1928 and continued until 1932; the northern section of the railway line including the tunnel was abandoned in 1932. At this time, the line was deviated east to its current location; as a result of the line deviation, the area of Dularcha National Park increased to 342 acres. Following the closure of the tunnel for railway purposes area was closed off inside the opening of the south portal when it was leased for mushroom growing c. 1942. An unsealed vehicular track, in part following the original rail route, passes through the National Park and the tunnel; the road connects the two communities of Mooloola. The Dularcha Railway Tunnel was identified in the Queensland Railway Heritage Places Study: Stage 2.
Volume 4. Built through a sandstone ridge, Dularcha railway tunnel is located within Dularcha National Park, 5 kilometres north of Landsborough. Dominant vegetation in the area is brush box, flooded gums and ironbarks and stringybarks along the ridge. Part of the southern approach of the tunnel runs parallel to the current North Coast Line rail track; the tunnel runs on a north–south axis. Two semi-elliptical concrete portals are located at the south openings of the tunnel; the tunnel is concrete-lined throughout with cuttings at either end. A vehicular dirt track in the National Park in part following the original rail line now removed, passes through the Dularcha Railway Tunnel joining the two towns; the tunnel is 100 metres long and curves towards the northern portal. The northern and southern portals are both similar in design, they are curved and are 4 metres high and 4.2 metres wide. A horizontal concrete ridge is located at the top of each facade, delineating the completion of the tunnel and the commencement of the natural sandstone and vegetation.
Protruding from the cement facade of each portal, under the horizontal ridges and near to the natural rock wall, is a terracotta drainage pipe with a diameter of 20 centimetres. Internally, the tunnel is surfa
Electorates of the Australian states and territories
A State Electoral District is an electorate within the Lower House or Legislative Assembly of Australian states and territories. Most state electoral districts send a single member to a state or territory's parliament using the preferential method of voting; the area of a state electoral district is dependent upon the Electoral Acts in the various states and vary in area between them. At present, there are 409 state electoral districts in Australia. State electoral districts do not apply to the Upper House, or Legislative Council, in those states that have one. In New South Wales and South Australia, MLCs represent the entire state, in Tasmania they represent single-member districts, in Victoria and Western Australia they represent a region formed by grouping electoral districts together. There are five electorates for the Legislative Assembly, each with five members each, making up 25 members in total. There are 93 electoral districts in New South Wales. There are 25 single-member electoral divisions in the Northern Territory, 17 former divisions.
There are 93 electoral districts in Queensland, for the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. Information about the QLD electoral districts for the 2006 elections can be obtained from the Electoral Commission of Queensland website. There are 47 single-member electoral districts in South Australia, for the South Australian House of Assembly. There are 15 electoral divisions in Tasmania for the upper house Legislative Council. In the lower house the five federal divisions are used, but electing 5 members each There are 88 electoral districts in Victoria, for the Victorian Legislative Assembly. There are 59 single-member electoral districts in Western Australia for the Western Australian Legislative Assembly. 42 are in the Perth metropolitan area and 17 are in the rest of the state. Divisions of the Australian House of Representatives Local government in Australia Parliaments of the Australian states and territories