Frank A. Langella Jr. is an American stage and film actor. He has won four Tony Awards, two for Best Leading Actor in a Play for his performances as Richard Nixon in the play Frost/Nixon and as André in The Father and two for Best Featured Actor in a Play for his performances in Edward Albee's Seascape and Ivan Turgenev's Fortune's Fool, his notable film roles include George Prager in Diary of a Mad Housewife, Count Dracula in Dracula, Skeletor in Masters of the Universe, Bob Alexander in Dave, William S. Paley in Good Night, Good Luck and Richard Nixon in the film production of Frost/Nixon, which earned him an Academy Award nomination for Best Actor, he had a recurring role as Gabriel, the KGB handler for the lead characters, in the FX series The Americans between 2013 and 2017. Langella, an Italian American, was born January 1, 1938, in Bayonne, New Jersey, the son of Angelina and Frank A. Langella Sr. a business executive, the president of the Bayonne Barrel and Drum Company. Langella attended Bayonne High School in Bayonne.
After the family moved to South Orange, New Jersey, he graduated from Columbia High School, in the South Orange-Maplewood School District, in 1955, graduated from Syracuse University in 1959 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in drama. He remains a brother of the Alpha Chi Rho fraternity. Langella appeared off-Broadway before he made his first foray on a Broadway stage in New York in Federico García Lorca's Yerma at the Vivian Beaumont Theater, Lincoln Center, on December 8, 1966, he followed this role by appearing in William Gibson's A Cry of Players, playing a young fictionalized William Shakespeare, opposite Anne Bancroft at the same venue in 1968, won film fame in two 1970 films: Mel Brooks' The Twelve Chairs and Frank Perry's Diary of a Mad Housewife, being nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Most Promising Newcomer for the latter. Langella won his first Tony Award for his performance in Edward Albee's Seascape in 1975 and was nominated again for what may have been the performance for which he was best known in the early part of his career: the title role of the 1977 Broadway production of Dracula.
Despite his initial misgivings about continuing to play the role, he was persuaded to star opposite Laurence Olivier in the subsequent film version directed by John Badham. He eschewed the career of a traditional film star by always making the stage the focal point of his career, appearing on Broadway in such plays as Strindberg's The Father and Fortune's Fool, for which he won a second Tony Award, but Langella would continue to juggle film and television with his stage work, playing Sherlock Holmes in a 1981 adaptation of William Gillette's play Sherlock Holmes. He repeated the role on Broadway in 1987 in Charles Marowitz's play Sherlock's Last Case; that same year, Langella would portray the villain Skeletor in Masters of the Universe, which he has described as one of his favorite roles. In 1988, Langella co-starred in God Created Woman. In 1993, he made a three-episode appearance on Star Trek: Deep Space Nine as the devious Jaro Essa, he appeared as Al Baker in "Dominance", a 2003 episode of Law & Order: Special Victims Unit and had a recurring role as Pino in the 2005 short-lived sitcom Kitchen Confidential.
In 2000, he played the role of Ebenezer Scrooge in a musical version of A Christmas Carol at Madison Square Garden. He has appeared in notable off-Broadway productions, including in the title role of Robert Kalfin's Chelsea Theater Center production of The Prince of Homburg, filmed by PBS for the Theatre in America series, he starred as Sir Thomas More in the 2008 Broadway revival of A Man for All Seasons. He was cast as Richard Nixon in Peter Morgan's play Frost/Nixon alongside Michael Sheen, which received enthusiastic reviews during a run at the Donmar Warehouse and Gielgud Theatre in London before moving to Broadway in New York's Bernard B. Jacobs Theater in April 2007, culminating in Langella's third Tony Award, he reprised the role of Nixon in the 2008 Oscar nominated Best Picture film Frost/Nixon, directed by Ron Howard. He received Golden Globe, Screen Actors Guild, BAFTA nominations for Best Actor for his performance, he was nominated for an Academy Award in the Best Actor category for the role, losing to Sean Penn's performance in Milk.
His film work includes roles in George Clooney's Good Night, Good Luck as former CBS chief executive William S. Paley for which he was nominated for the Screen Actors Guild Award for Ensemble Cast, he appeared in Bryan Singer's Superman Returns as Daily Planet editor Perry White. Langella received critical acclaim as well as the Boston Society of Film Critics Award in 2007 for his sensitive portrayal of an elderly novelist in Starting Out in the Evening. In late 2009, he starred in the Richard Kelly film The Box alongside James Marsden. In 2011, Langella starred in the drama thriller Unknown alongside Diane Kruger. In 2012, he earned critical praise for his role in the independent film Robot & Frank with Peter Travers of Rolling Stone magazine calling his performance "a masterclass in acting", he appeared in Captain Fantastic alongside Viggo Mortensen and was again nominated with the ensemble cast for the Screen Actors Guild Award. In October and November 2013, Langella played King Lear at the Minerva, Chichester Festival Theatre in Chichester, UK.
It travelled to the Harvey Theater at the Brooklyn Academy of Music in New York in 2014. In 2015, Langella joined the cast of FX's critically praised drama The American
Ken Ludwig is an American playwright and theatre director whose work has been performed in more than 30 countries in over 20 languages. Ken Ludwig was born in Pennsylvania, his father was a doctor and his mother was a former Broadway chorus girl. Ludwig was educated at the York Suburban Senior High School, York PA, he received degrees from Haverford College, Harvard University, where he studied music with Leonard Bernstein, Trinity College at Cambridge University. His older brother, Eugene Ludwig served as President Clinton's Comptroller of the Currency. Ludwig lives in Washington, DC, he has two children. Ken Ludwig's first Broadway play, Lend Me a Tenor, which Frank Rich of the New York Times called "one of the two great farces by a living writer", won three Tony Awards and was nominated for nine, his second Broadway and West End production, Crazy for You, ran for over five years and won the Tony Award, Drama Desk, Outer Critics Circle, LA Drama Critics Circle, Helen Hayes Award, Laurence Olivier Awards as Best Musical.
Other Broadway credits include Moon Over Buffalo with Carol Burnett and Lynn Redgrave and Frank Langella and Joan Collins at the Old Vic in London. He wrote the book for a musical adaptation of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, a new adaptation of the classic Ben Hecht-Charles MacArthur play, Twentieth Century starring Alec Baldwin and Anne Heche. A revival of Lend Me A Tenor opened on Broadway in 2010, starring Justin Bartha. Among Ludwig's other works are Shakespeare in Hollywood, presented at Arena Stage in Washington, D. C. in 2003 and won the Helen Hayes Award for Best Play of the Year. C. in 2006. Ludwig's adaptation of The Three Musketeers opened at Bristol Old Vic in England in December 2006. Ludwig wrote an adaptation of Robert Louis Stevenson's Treasure Island, which premiered at the Alley Theatre in April 2007, played at the Theatre Royal, Haymarket on London's West End in 2008, won the AATE Distinguished Play Award for Best Adaptation of the Year. Another stage adaptation of the George and Ira Gershwin film An American in Paris premiered at the Alley Theatre in Houston as The Gershwins' An American in Paris in May 2008.
Ludwig's play, Fox on the Fairway, a comedy set in the world of golf, premiered in October 2010 at Signature Theatre in Arlington, Virginia directed by John Rando. The Game's Afoot is Ludwig's comedy-mystery about the actor William Gillette who originated the role of Sherlock Holmes, it premiered at Cleveland Play House in November 2011, directed by Aaron Posner and featuring Donald Sage Mackay and Rob McClure and won the 2012 Edgar Allan Poe Award for Best Play. The world premiere of his first play for children, Twas The Night Before Christmas, opened at The Adventure Theatre in November 2011, he and his son, Jack Ludwig co-wrote an adaptation of Charle Dickens' A Christmas Carol entitled Tiny Tim's Christmas Carol which premiered at The Adventure Theatre in November 2014. His play Baskerville: A Sherlock Holmes Mystery premiered as a co-production at Arena Stage in January 2015 and McCarter Theatre Center in March 2015. Ludwig wrote Sullivan & Gilbert, a co-production of the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts and the National Arts Centre of Canada.
The play was voted Best Play of 1988 by the Ottawa critics. He wrote a new adaptation of Where's Charley? for the Kennedy Center, Divine Fire, a mystery, Postmortem. He co-wrote the 1990 Kennedy Center Honors which appeared on CBS television and received an Emmy Award nomination. For television he wrote a pilot for Carol Channing, he wrote Lend Me A Tenor film version for Columbia Pictures and All Shook Up for Touchstone Pictures, directed by Frank Oz. His play, A Comedy of Tenors premiered at the Cleveland Playhouse in September 2015 in a co-production with the McCarter Theatre Center; the play takes place in Paris in the 1930s. The play opened at the McCarter Theatre in October 2015, he has adapted the Agatha Christie novel Murder on the Orient Express to a stage play, which premiered at the McCarter Theatre Center, New Jersey, on March 14, 2017. Directed by Emily Mann, the cast featured Allan Corduner as Detective Hercule Poirot, Veanne Cox as Princess Dragomiroff, Maboud Ebrahimzadeh as Michel, Julie Halston as Mrs. Hubbard, Susannah Hoffman as Mary Debenham, Alexandra Silber as Countess Andrenyi, Juha Sorola as MacQueen, Samantha Steinmetz as Greta Ohlsson, Max von Essen as Ratchett/Col.
Arburthnot, Evan Zes as Bouc. Ludwig has earned two Olivier Awards, three Tony Award nominations, two Tony Awards, two Helen Hayes Awards, the Edgar Award, the Edwin Forest Award, the Pennsylvania Governor's Award for Excellence in the Arts and an honorary doctorate from York University. In 2014, Ludwig won a Falstaff Award for his book "How to Teach Your Children Shakespeare" in the category of "Best Book, Publication, or Recording". In 2006, The Times called Ludwig "the purveyor of light comedy to Middle America.... There is hardly a regional theatre in America that hasn't a work of his scheduled."His work has been performed in over 25 countries throughout the world, with translations into at least 16 languages. Ludwig serves on the Artistic Advisory Board of Gulfshore Playhouse. Be My Baby Leading Ladies Lend Me a Tenor Moon Over Buffalo Post
Slapstick is a style of humor involving exaggerated physical activity which exceeds the boundaries of normal physical comedy. The term arises from a device developed during the broad, physical comedy style known as Commedia dell'arte in 16th Century Italy; the "slap stick" consists of two thin slats of wood, which make a'slap' when striking another actor, with little force needed to make a loud—and comical—sound. The physical slap stick remains a key component of the plot in the traditional and popular Punch and Judy puppet show; the name "slapstick" originates from the Italian batacchio or bataccio — called the "slap stick" in English — a club-like object composed of two wooden slats used in commedia dell'arte. When struck, the batacchio produces a loud smacking noise, though little force transfers from the object to the person being struck. Actors may thus hit one another with great audible effect while causing no damage and only minor, if any, pain. Along with the inflatable bladder, it was among the earliest special effects.
Slapstick comedy's history is measured in centuries. Shakespeare incorporated many chase scenes and beatings into his comedies, such as in his play The Comedy of Errors. In early 19th century England, pantomime acquired its present form which includes slapstick comedy, while comedy routines featured in British music hall theatre which became popular in the 1850s. In Punch and Judy shows, which first appeared in England on 9 May 1662, a large slapstick is wielded by Punch against the other characters. British comedians who honed their skills at pantomime and music hall sketches include Charlie Chaplin, Stan Laurel, George Formby and Dan Leno; the influential English music hall comedian and theatre impresario Fred Karno developed a form of sketch comedy without dialogue in the 1890s, Chaplin and Laurel were among the young comedians who worked for him as part of "Fred Karno's Army". Chaplin's fifteen year music hall career inspired the comedy in all his film work as pantomimicry. In his biography Laurel stated, "Fred Karno didn't teach Charlie and me all we know about comedy.
He just taught us most of it". American film producer Hal Roach described Fred Karno as "not only a genius, he is the man who originated slapstick comedy. We in Hollywood owe much to him." Building on its popularity in the 19th and early 20th-century ethnic routines of the American vaudeville house, the style was explored extensively during the "golden era" of black and white, silent movies directed by figures Mack Sennett and Hal Roach and featuring such notables as Charlie Chaplin, Mabel Normand and Hardy, the Marx Brothers, the Keystone Cops, The Three Stooges, Chespirito. Silent slapstick comedy was popular in early French films and included films by Max Linder, Charles Prince, Sarah Duhamel. Slapstick became a common element in animated features starting in the 1930. Looney Tunes/Merrie Melodies, MGM's Barney Bear, Tex Avery's Screwy Squirrel. In some cases, such as MGM's Tom and Jerry, the slapstick elements came from violence by the characters, while in others it was due to mishaps. Slapstick continues to maintain a presence in modern comedy that draws upon its lineage, running in film from Buster Keaton and Louis de Funès to Jerry Lewis and Mel Brooks to the television series Jackass and comedy movies by the Farrelly Brothers, in live performance from Weber and Fields to Jackie Gleason to Rowan Atkinson.
In England, slapstick was a main element of the Monty Python comedy troupe and in television series such as Fawlty Towers and The Benny Hill Show. Slapstick has remained a popular art form to the present day. List of slapstick comedy topics Slapstick film Physical comedy Stage combat Schadenfreude Harisen, a paper fan used by the Japanese for a similar purpose
Private Lives is a 1930 comedy of manners in three acts by Noël Coward. It concerns a divorced couple who, while honeymooning with their new spouses, discover that they are staying in adjacent rooms at the same hotel. Despite a perpetually stormy relationship, they realise that they still have feelings for each other, its second act love scene was nearly censored in Britain as too risqué. Coward wrote one of his most popular songs, "Some Day, for the play. After touring the British provinces, the play opened the new Phoenix Theatre in London in 1930, starring Coward, Gertrude Lawrence, Adrianne Allen and Laurence Olivier. A Broadway production followed in 1931, the play has been revived at least a half dozen times each in the West End and on Broadway; the leading roles have attracted a wide range of actors. Directors of new productions have included Howard Davies and Richard Eyre; the play has been adapted several times for television and radio. Coward was in the middle of an extensive Asian tour.
He spent the better part of his two-week convalescence sketching out the play and completed the actual writing of the piece in only four days. He cabled Gertrude Lawrence in New York to ask her to keep autumn 1930 free to appear in the play. After spending a few more weeks revising it, he typed the final draft in The Cathay Hotel in Shanghai and sent copies to Lawrence and his producer and manager, John C. Wilson, with instructions to cable him with their reactions. Coward received no fewer than 30 telegrams from Lawrence about the play, she first said that she had read the play and there was "nothing wrong with it that can't be fixed." Coward "wired back curtly that the only thing, going to be fixed was her performance." Lawrence was indecisive about. Coward responded that he planned to cast the play with another actress. By the time he returned to London, he found Lawrence not only had cleared her schedule but was staying at Edward Molyneux's villa in Cap-d'Ail in southeastern France learning her lines.
Coward joined her, the two began rehearsing the scenes they shared. At the end of July they returned to London. Coward played the part of Elyot Chase himself, Adrianne Allen was his bride Sibyl, Lawrence played Amanda Prynne, Laurence Olivier was her new husband Victor. Coward wrote Sibyl and Victor as minor characters, "extra puppets wooden ninepins, only to be knocked down and stood up again", he insisted, that they must be credible new spouses for the lead characters: "We've got to have two people as attractive as Larry and Adrianne were in the first place, if we can find them."Rehearsals were still under way when the Lord Chamberlain took exception to the second act love scene, labelling it too risqué in light of the fact the characters were divorced and married to others. Coward went to St. James's Palace to plead his case by acting out the play himself and assuring the censor that with artful direction the scene would be presented in a dignified and unobjectionable manner. Coward repeats one of his signature theatrical devices at the end of the play, where the main characters tiptoe out as the curtain falls – a device that he used in Present Laughter, Hay Fever and Blithe Spirit.
The play contains one of Coward's most popular songs, "Some Day I'll Find You". The Noël Coward Society's website, drawing on performing statistics from the publishers and the Performing Rights Society, ranks it among Coward's ten most performed songs. Act 1Following a brief courtship and Sibyl are honeymooning at an hotel in Deauville, although her curiosity about his first marriage is not helping his romantic mood. In the adjoining suite and Victor are starting their new life together, although he cannot stop thinking of the cruelty Amanda's ex-husband displayed towards her. Elyot and Amanda, following a volatile three-year-long marriage, have been divorced for the past five years, but they now discover that they are sharing a terrace while on their honeymoons with their new and younger spouses. Elyot and Amanda separately beg their new spouses to leave the hotel with them but both new spouses refuse to co-operate and each storms off to dine alone. Realising they still love each other and regretting having divorced and Amanda abandon their spouses and run off together to Amanda's flat in Paris.
Act 2After dinner at the Paris flat several days Elyot and Amanda use their code word "Solomon Isaacs", soon abbreviated to "Sollocks", to stop their arguments from getting out of hand. They kiss passionately, but the harmony cannot last: while Elyot and Amanda cannot live without each other, neither can they live with each other, they argue violently and try to outwit each other, just as they had done during their stormy marriage. Their ongoing argument escalates to a point of fury, as Amanda breaks a record over Elyot's head, he retaliates by slapping her face, they seem to be trapped in a repeating cycle of love and hate as their private passions and jealousies consume them. At the height of their biggest fight and Victor walk in. Act 3The next morning, Amanda tries to sneak away early, but is surprised to find Sibyl and Victor there; as they talk, Elyot comes in, he and Amanda start bickering again. It has been decided that neither of the new spouses will grant a divorce for a year, to give Amanda
A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision; the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film; the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director; some film directors started as screenwriters, producers, film editors or actors. Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches; some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely.
Some directors write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Some directors appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films. A film director's task is to envisage a way to translate a screenplay into a formed film, to realize this vision. To do this, they oversee the technical elements of film production; this entails organizing the film crew in such a way to achieve their vision of the film. This requires skills of group leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus in the stressful, fast-paced environment of a film set. Moreover, it is necessary to have an artistic eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, excellent communication skills are a must. Since the film director depends on the successful cooperation of many different creative individuals with strongly contradicting artistic ideals and visions, he or she needs to possess conflict resolution skills in order to mediate whenever necessary.
Thus the director ensures that all individuals involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the completed film. The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as "a multi-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with egos and weather thrown in for good measure", it adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when and how they will work again, if at all. The sole superiors of the director are the producer and the studio, financing the film, although sometimes the director can be a producer of the same film; the role of a director differs from producers in that producers manage the logistics and business operations of the production, whereas the director is tasked with making creative decisions. The director must work within the restrictions of the film's budget and the demands of the producer and studio. Directors play an important role in post-production. While the film is still in production, the director sends "dailies" to the film editor and explains his or her overall vision for the film, allowing the editor to assemble an editor's cut.
In post-production, the director works with the editor to edit the material into the director's cut. Well-established directors have the "final cut privilege", meaning that they have the final say on which edit of the film is released. For other directors, the studio can order further edits without the director's permission; the director is one of the few positions that requires intimate involvement during every stage of film production. Thus, the position of film director is considered to be a stressful and demanding one, it has been said that "20-hour days are not unusual". Some directors take on additional roles, such as producing, writing or editing. Under European Union law, the film director is considered the "author" or one of the authors of a film as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Auteur theory is a film criticism concept that holds that a film director's film reflects the director's personal creative vision, as if they were the primary "auteur". In spite of—and sometimes because of—the production of the film as part of an industrial process, the auteur's creative voice is distinct enough to shine through studio interference and the collective process.
Some film directors started as screenwriters, film producers or actors. Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Barry Sonnenfeld the Coen brothers' DP. Other film directors have attended a film school to get a bachelors degree studying cinema. Film students study the basic skills used in making a film; this includes, for example, shot lists and storyboards, protocols of dealing with professional actors, reading scripts. Some film schools are equipped with post-production facilities. Besides basic technical and logistical skills, students receive education on the nature of professional relationships that occur during film production. A full degree course can be designed for up to five years of studying. Future directors complete short films during their enrollment; the National Film School of Denmark has the student's final projects presented on national TV. Some film schools retain the rights for their students' works. Many directors prepared for making feature films by working in television.
The German Film and Television Academy Berlin cooperate
A play is a form of literature written by a playwright consisting of dialogue or singing between characters, intended for theatrical performance rather than just reading. Plays are performed at a variety of levels, from Broadway, Off-Broadway, regional theater, to Community theatre, as well as university or school productions. There are rare dramatists, notably George Bernard Shaw, who have had little preference as to whether their plays were performed or read; the term "play" can refer to both the written texts of playwrights and to their complete theatrical performance. Comedies are plays. Comedies are filled with witty remarks, unusual characters, strange circumstances. Certain comedies are geared toward different age groups. Comedies were one of the two original play types of Ancient Greece, along with tragedies. An example of a comedy would be William Shakespeare's play A Midsummer Night's Dream, or for a more modern example the skits from Saturday Night Live. A nonsensical genre of play, farces are acted and involve humor.
An example of a farce includes William Shakespeare's play The Comedy of Errors, or Mark Twain's play Is He Dead?. A satire play takes a comic look at current events people while at the same time attempting to make a political or social statement, for example pointing out corruption. An example of a satire would be Nikolai Gogol's The Government Inspector and Aristophanes' Lysistrata. Satire plays are one of the most popular forms of comedy, considered to be their own genre entirely. Restoration comedy is a genre that explored relationships between men and women, was considered risqué in its time. Characters featured in restoration comedy included stereotypes of all kinds, these same stereotypes were found in most plays of this genre, so much so that most plays were similar in message and content. However, since restoration comedy dealt with unspoken aspects of relationships, it created a type of connection between audience and performance, more informal and private, it is agreed that restoration comedy has origins in Molière’s theories of comedy, but differs in intention and tone.
The inconsistency between restoration comedy’s morals and the morals of the era is something that arises during the study of this genre. This may give clues as to why, despite its original success, restoration comedy did not last long in the seventeenth century. However, in recent years, it has become a topic of interest for theatre theorists, who have been looking into theatre styles that have their own conventions of performance; these plays contain darker themes such as disaster. The protagonist of the play has a tragic flaw, a trait which leads to their downfall. Tragic plays convey all emotions and have dramatic conflicts. Tragedy was one of the two original play types of Ancient Greece; some examples of tragedies include William Shakespeare's Hamlet, John Webster's play The Duchess of Malfi. These plays focus on actual historical events, they can be tragedies or comedies, but are neither of these. History as a separate genre was popularized by William Shakespeare. Examples of historical plays include Friedrich Schiller's Demetrius and William Shakespeare's King John.
Ballad opera, a popular theatre style at the time, was the first style of musical to be performed in the American colonies. The first musical of American origin was premiered in Philadelphia in 1767, was called “The Disappointment”, this play never made it to production. Around the 1920s, theatre styles were beginning to be defined more clearly. For musical theatre, this meant that composers gained the right to create every song in the play, these new plays were held to more specific conventions, such as thirty-two-bar songs; when the Great Depression came, many people left Broadway for Hollywood, the atmosphere of Broadway musicals changed significantly. A similar situation occurred during the 1960s, when composers were scarce and musicals lacked vibrancy and entertainment value. By the 1990s, there were few original Broadway musicals, as many were recreations of movies or novels. Musical productions have songs to help move the ideas of the play along, they are accompanied by dancing. Musicals can be elaborate in settings and actor performances.
Examples of musical productions include Fiddler on the Roof. This theatre style originated in the 1940s when Antonin Artaud hypothesized about the effects of expressing through the body as opposed to “by conditioned thought.” In 1946, he wrote a preface to his works in which he explained how he came to write what and the way he did. Above all, Artaud did not trust language as a means of communication. Plays within the genre of theatre of cruelty are abstract in content. Artaud wanted his plays to accomplish something, his intention was to symbolise the subconscious through bodily performances, as he did not believe language could be effective. Artaud considered his plays to be an enactment rather than a re-enactment, which meant he believed his actors were in reality, rather than re-enacting reality, his plays dealt with heavy issues such as patients in psych wards, Nazi Germany. Through these performances, he wanted to “make the causes of suffering audible”, audiences reacted poorly, as they were so taken aback by what they saw.
Much of his work was banned in France at the time. Artaud did not believe that conventional theatre of the time would allow the audience to have a cathartic experience and help heal the wounds of World War II. For this reason, he moved towards radio-based theatre, in which the audience could use their imagination to connect the word
Eileen Evelyn Greer Garson, was a British-American actress popular during the Second World War, being listed by the Motion Picture Herald as one of America's top-ten box office draws from 1942 to 1946. A major star at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer during the 1940s, Garson received seven Academy Award nominations, including a record-tying five consecutive nominations for acting and all in the Best Actress category, winning the award for Mrs. Miniver. Greer Garson was born on 29 September 1904 in Manor Park, East Ham in Essex, now part of London, the only child of Nina and George Garson, a commercial clerk in a London importing business, her father was born in London to Scottish parents, her mother was born at Drumalore, a townland near Belturbet in County Cavan, Ireland. The name "Greer" is another family name, her maternal grandfather was David Greer from Kilrea, County Londonderry, an RIC sergeant stationed for a time in Castlewellan, County Down. In the 1870s or 1880s, he became a land steward to the Annesley family, wealthy landlords who built the town of Castlewellan.
While he lived in Castlewellan, David Greer lived in a large detached house built on the lower part of what was known as Pig Street, or known locally as the Back Way, near Shilliday's builder's yard. The house was called "Claremount", today the street is named Claremount Avenue, it was reported erroneously that Greer Garson was born in this house. Garson was educated at King's College and the University of Grenoble, where she earned degrees in French and 18th-century literature. While aspiring to be an actress, she worked at an advertising agency as a company secretary along with George Sanders, who wrote in his autobiography that it was Garson who suggested he take up a career in acting. Greer Garson's early professional appearances were on stage, starting at Birmingham Repertory Theatre in January 1932 when she was 27 years old, she appeared on television during its earliest years, most notably starring in a 30-minute production of an excerpt of Twelfth Night in May 1937 with Dorothy Black.
These live transmissions were part of the BBC's experimental service from Alexandra Palace, this is the first known instance of a Shakespeare play performed on television. Louis B. Mayer discovered Garson. Garson was signed to a contract with MGM in late 1937 but did not begin work on her first film, Goodbye, Mr. Chips, until late 1938, she received her first Oscar nomination for the role but lost to Vivien Leigh for Gone with the Wind. She received critical acclaim the next year for her role as Elizabeth Bennet in the 1940 film and Prejudice. Garson starred with Joan Crawford in When Ladies Meet in 1941 and that same year became a major box-office star with the sentimental Technicolor drama Blossoms in the Dust, which brought her the first of five consecutive Best Actress Oscar nominations, tying Bette Davis's 1938–1942 record, which still stands. Garson won the Academy Award for Best Actress in 1942 for her role as a strong British wife and mother in the middle of World War II in Mrs. Miniver.
The Guinness Book of World Records credits her with the longest Oscar acceptance speech, at five minutes and 30 seconds, after which the Academy Awards instituted a time limit. In 1942, Garson co-starred in the powerful, dramatic film Random Harvest with Academy Award winner Ronald Colman. Set at the end of World War I with Ronald Colman as a shell-shocked, amnesiac soldier and Greer Garson as his love interest, Random Harvest received seven Academy Award nominations, including Best Picture, it lost to Mrs. Miniver, Garson won the Academy Award for that role. Colman was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor for his role in Random Harvest, Garson could not be nominated for her role in that movie because she was nominated for her title role in Mrs. Miniver. Garson was nominated for Madame Curie, Mrs. Parkington, The Valley of Decision, she co-starred with Walter Pidgeon making eight pictures with him: Blossoms in the Dust, Mrs. Miniver, Madame Curie, Mrs. Parkington, Julia Misbehaves, That Forsyte Woman, The Miniver Story, Scandal at Scourie.
Garson was partnered with Clark Gable after his return from war service in Adventure. The film was advertised with the catch-phrase "Gable's back, Garson's got him!". Gable argued for "He put the Arson in Garson". Garson's popularity declined somewhat in the late 1940s, but she remained a prominent film star until the mid-1950s. In 1951, she became a naturalised citizen of the United States, she made only a few films after her MGM contract expired in 1954. In 1958, she received a warm reception on Broadway in Auntie Mame, replacing Rosalind Russell, who had gone to Hollywood to make the film version. In 1960, Garson received her seventh and final Oscar nomination for Sunrise at Campobello in which she played Eleanor Roosevelt, this time losing to Elizabeth Taylor for BUtterfield 8. Greer was special guest on an episode of the TV series Father Knows Best playing herself. On 4 October 1956, Garson appeared with Reginald Gardiner as the first two guest stars of the series in the premiere of NBC's The Ford Show, Starring Tennessee Ernie Ford.
She appeared a