Vadodara is the third-largest city in the Indian state of Gujarat, after Ahmedabad and Surat. It is the administrative headquarters of Vadodara District and is located on the banks of the Vishwamitri river, 141 kilometres from the state capital Gandhinagar; the railway line and NH 8 that connect Mumbai pass through Vadodara. It is known as a Sanskari nagari of India; as of 2011, Vadodara had a population of 2.065 million people. The city is known for the Lakshmi Vilas Palace, the residence of Baroda State's Maratha royal family, the Gaekwads, it is the home of the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, the largest university in Gujarat. An important industrial and educational hub of western India, the city houses several institutions of national and regional importance while its major industries include petrochemicals, chemicals, plastics, IT and foreign exchange services; the first recorded history of the city is that of the early trader settlers who settled in the region in 812 AD. The province was Hindu-dominated with Hindu kings ruling until 1297.
The Gupta Empire was the first power in the region in the early years of the CE. The region was taken over by the Chaulukya dynasty. By this time Muslim rule had spread across India, the reins of power were snatched by the Delhi Sultans; the city was ruled for a long time by these Sultans. The city used to be called Chandanavati after its ruler Raja Chandan of the Dor tribe of Rajputs; the capital was known as Virakshetra or Viravati. On, it was known as Vadpatraka or Vadodará, which according to tradition is a corrupt form of the Sanskrit word vatodar meaning in the belly of the Banyan tree, it is now impossible to ascertain when the various changes in the name were made. In 1974, the official name of the city was changed to Vadodara. In 1907, a small village and township in Michigan, United States, were named after Baroda, it is believed that early man lived on the banks of the Mahi River, which formed the floodplain during that age. The movements of these hunter-gatherers, living on the banks of the river, grubbing the roots and killing animals with crude stone tools made out of the cobbles and pebbles available on the river bank, were controlled by the availability of convenient raw materials for their tools.
There is evidence of the existence of early man in the Mahi River valley at a number of sites within 10 to 20 kilometres to the north-east of Vadodara. However, no evidence of the existence of these people is found around present-day Vadodara; this may be because of the absence of cobbles on the banks of the Vishwamitri rivulet. Baroda State was a former Indian State. Vadodara's more recent history began when the Maratha general Pilaji Gaekwad conquered Songadh from the Mughals in 1726. Before the Gaekwads captured Baroda, it was ruled by the Babi Nawabs, who were the officers of the Mughal rulers. Most notably, from 1705–1716, Sardar Senapati Khanderao Dabhade led the Maratha Empire forces in Baroda. Except for a short period, Baroda continued to be in the reign of the Gaekwads from 1734 to 1948. Detailed to collect revenue on behalf of the Peshwa in Gujarat, Pilaji Gaekwad remained there to carve out a kingdom for himself. Damajirao, son and successor of Pilaji Gaekwad, defeated the Mughal armies and conquered Baroda in 1734.
His successors consolidated their power over large tracts of Gujarat, becoming the most powerful rulers in the region. After the Maratha defeat in the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761, control of the empire by the Peshwas weakened as it became a loose confederacy, the Gaekwad Maharajas ruled the kingdom until it acceded to Independent Republic of India in 1949. In 1802, the British intervened to defend a Maharaja that had inherited the throne from rival claimants, Vadodara concluded a subsidiary alliance with the British that recognised the Kingdom as a Princely state and allowed the Maharajas of Baroda internal political sovereignty in return for recognising British'Paramountcy', a form of suzerainty in which the control of the state's foreign affairs was surrendered; the golden period in the Maratha rule of Vadodara started with the accession of Maharaja Sayajirao III in 1875. Near Maharaja Sayaji Gaekwad University there is a well known garden, built by Maharaja Sayaji Rao Gaekwad himself in 1879 A.
D. This garden is known as Sayaji Baug known for visitors centre; this place is situated on river Vishwamitri. Vadodara is located at 22.30°N 73.19°E / 22.30. It is the 18th-largest city in India with an area of 235 square kilometres and a population of 2.1 million, according to the 2010–11 census. The city sits in central Gujarat; the Vishwamitri dries up in the summer, leaving only a small stream of water. The city is located on the fertile plain between the Narmada Rivers. According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, the cosmopolis falls under seismic zone-III, in a scale of I to V. Despite the 800 mm of precipitation that the city receives annually, Vadodara features a semi-arid climate under Köppen's Climate classification due to the area's high potential evapotranspiration. There are three main seasons: Summer and Winter. Aside from the monsoon season, the climate is dry; the weather is hot during March to July, when the average ma
Diamonds Are a Girl's Best Friend
"Diamonds Are a Girl's Best Friend" is a jazz song introduced by Carol Channing in the original Broadway production of Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, written by Jule Styne and Leo Robin. It was based on a novel by Anita Loos; the song is most famously performed by Marilyn Monroe in the 1953 film Gentlemen Prefer Blondes. Monroe's character, Lorelei Lee, has been followed on a Transatlantic ocean liner by a detective hired by her fiancé's father, who wants assurance that she is not marrying purely for money, he is informed of compromising pictures taken with a British diamond mine owner and cancels her letter of credit before she arrives in France, requiring her to work in a nightclub to survive. Her fiancé arrives at the cabaret to see her perform this song, about exploiting men for riches. Diamonds are an element in another story line in the film, in which Lorelei is given a diamond tiara by the mine owner, in gratitude for her recovering the photographs. In a scene, Jane Russell, who played opposite Monroe, sang "Diamonds Are a Girl's Best Friend" in court, while pretending to be Lorelei.
Most of the song in the film is Monroe's own voice but she needed help in two phrases – "These rocks don't lose their shape, diamonds are a girl's best friend", at the beginning with a series of high-pitched "no's", all of which were dubbed in by the soprano Marni Nixon. The number was re-shot in CinemaScope, to be used as part of a CinemaScope demonstration held on the Fox lot in March 1953. Producer Darryl F. Zanuck told Daily Variety that it only took 3-1/2 hours to shoot the number in CinemaScope versus four days for the original film version; the public saw the CinemaScope version ten years when it closed Fox's documentary tribute to Marilyn, but this has not been released on DVD or VHS. The song was listed as the 12th most important film song of all time by the American Film Institute. Monroe's rendition of the song has been considered an iconic performance and has since been copied by other entertainers ranging from Madonna and Kylie Minogue to Geri Halliwell and Anna Nicole Smith. Madonna's video "Material Girl" uses a similar set and costumes for her male dancers.
The song is featured in the 2001 film Moulin Rouge!, in which it is sung principally by Nicole Kidman in the role of Satine, the star performer of the famous Moulin Rouge nightclub in Paris, at the turn of the 20th century. This film version is technically a musical adaptation that director Baz Luhrmann titled "Sparkling Diamonds". Although it consists entirely of an adaptation of "Diamonds Are a Girl's Best Friend", this version differs from the lyrics in Gentlemen Prefer Blondes in several ways. For example, it does not include the name Harry Winston in the chant of famous jewelers. Black Starr & Frost-Gorham was known by that name only after 1925, but instead of using their 1875-1925 name of "Black Starr & Frost", their name was replaced in the Luhrmann film by nonsense words, and the anachronistic line "help you at the Automat" was altered in the Luhrmann film to "help you feed your pussycat." Additionally, a lyrical snippet from Madonna's song "Material Girl" was worked into this adaptation of the song.
Ethel Merman recorded the song in 1950. Jo Stafford recorded the song in 1950. Lena Horne recorded the song in 1958, for her album Give the Lady. Della Reese recorded the song for her album Cha Cha Cha. Julie London recorded the song in 1961. Eartha Kitt recorded the song in 1962. Emmylou Harris recorded a country/rock version for her album White Shoes. Thalía performed this song on Spanish television. Jennifer Saunders and Dawn French, dressed as Marilyn Monroe and Jane Russell parodied the number in their 1993 BBC special Gentlemen Prefer French & Saunders. Kylie Minogue performed this song in 1995, she performed the song in 1999, dressed as Marilyn Monroe for the opening of 20th Century Fox's Australian Studios. In 2007, she recorded another version for her film White Diamond. Anna Nicole Smith recorded the song in 1998; the single went on to reach the top 100 dance singles in France. Nicole Kidman performed the song in the 2001 jukebox romantic comedy film Moulin Rouge!. In 2007, Beyoncé performed an updated version for Giorgio Armani's new fragrance Emporio Armani Diamonds in an ad directed by Jake Nava and titled "Can You Resist?".
Wendi Peters performed a version for BBC Children in Need on November 16, 2007, adding, "I am a Material Girl" halfway through returning to the main song. Nicole Scherzinger performed a version for the 2007 CBS special, Movies Rock, which paid tribute to the strong relationship between films and music. T-Bone Burnett's rock version of the song is both campy and cynical, while capturing the essence of the lyric. Nadine Coyle recorded a demo for this song. Deanna & The Downbeats, a cabaret-jazz quintet from Portland, performs a traditional version of the song that segues into a lounge-swing version of Madonna's "Material Girl". In the cartoon Hey Arnold! an episode called "The Beeper Queen" where Helga's mother Miriam sang, "Beepers Are a Girl's Best Friend", for a commercial in the same manner as Marilyn Monroe's performance. In the episode of The Muppet Show, both Miss Piggy and Carol Channing did the song as a closing number. In the episode of Muppets Tonight, both Miss Piggy and Whoopi Goldberg backed up by penguins in a staging similar to the original film did the song as a closing number.
In the Müller Corner advert from 1997, famed
A royal family is the immediate family of a king or queen regnant, sometimes his or her extended family. The term imperial family appropriately describes the family of an emperor or empress, the term papal family describes the family of a pope, while the terms baronial family, comital family, ducal family, archducal family, grand ducal family, or princely family are more appropriate to describe the relatives of a reigning baron, duke, grand duke, or prince. However, in common parlance members of any family which reigns by hereditary right are referred to as royalty or "royals." It is customary in some circles to refer to the extended relations of a deposed monarch and his or her descendants as a royal family. A dynasty is sometimes referred to as "the House of...". As of July 2013, there are 26 active sovereign monarchies in the world who rule or reign over 43 countries in all. A royal family includes the spouse of the reigning monarch, surviving spouses of a deceased monarch, the children, brothers and paternal cousins of the reigning monarch, as well as their spouses.
In some cases, royal family membership may extend to great grandchildren and more distant descendants of a monarch. In certain monarchies where voluntary abdication is the norm, such as the Netherlands, a royal family may include one or more former monarchs. In certain instances, such as in Canada, the royal family is defined by who holds the styles Majesty and Royal Highness. There is a distinction between persons of the blood royal and those that marry into the royal family. Under most systems, only persons in the first category are dynasts, that is, potential successors to the throne; this is not always observed. In addition, certain relatives of the monarch possess special privileges and are subject to certain statutes, conventions, or special common law; the precise functions of a royal family vary depending on whether the polity in question is an absolute monarchy, a constitutional monarchy, or somewhere in between. In certain monarchies, such as that found in Saudi Arabia or Kuwait, or in political systems where the monarch exercises executive power, such as in Jordan, it is not uncommon for the members of a royal family to hold important government posts or military commands.
In most constitutional monarchies, members of a royal family perform certain public, social, or ceremonial functions, but refrain from any involvement in electoral politics or the actual governance of the country. The specific composition of royal families varies from country to country, as do the titles and royal and noble styles held by members of the family; the composition of the royal family may be regulated by statute enacted by the legislature, the sovereign's prerogative and common law tradition, or a private house law. Public statutes, constitutional provisions, or conventions may regulate the marriages and personal titles of royal family members; the members of a royal family may not have a surname or dynastic name. In a constitutional monarchy, when the monarch dies, there is always a law or tradition of succession to the throne that either specifies a formula for identifying the precise order of succession among family members in line to the throne or specifies a process by which a family member is chosen to inherit the crown.
In the former case the exact line of hereditary succession among royal individuals may be identified at any given moment during prior reigns whereas in the latter case the next sovereign may be selected only during the reign or shortly after the demise of the preceding monarch. Some monarchies employ a mix of these selection processes, providing for both an identifiable line of succession as well as authority for the monarch, dynasty or other institution to alter the line in specific instances without changing the general law of succession; some countries have abolished royalty altogether, as in post-revolutionary Russia. Whilst mediatization occurred in other countries such as France and Russia, only the certain houses within the former Holy Roman Empire are collectively called the Mediatized Houses. Arenberg ducal family Fürstenberg princely family Ligne princely family Merode princely family Schwarzenberg princely family Thurn und Taxis princely family Media related to Royal families at Wikimedia Commons
A necklace is an article of jewelry, worn around the neck. Necklaces may have been one of the earliest types of adornment worn by humans, they serve ceremonial, magical, or funerary purposes and are used as symbols of wealth and status, given that they are made of precious metals and stones. The main component of a necklace is the chain, or cord that wraps around the neck; these are most rendered in precious metals such as gold and platinum. Necklaces have additional attachments suspended or inset into the necklace itself; these attachments include pendants, amulets and precious and semi-precious materials such as diamond, rubies, emeralds and sapphires. Prehistoric peoples used natural materials such as feathers, bone and plant materials to create necklaces, but by the Bronze Age metallic jewelry had replaced pre-metallic adornments. Necklaces were first depicted in the statuary and art of the Ancient Near East, early necklaces made of precious metals with inset stones were created in Europe.
In Ancient Mesopotamia, cylinder seals were strung and worn as jewelry. In Ancient Babylon, necklaces were made of carnelian, lapis lazuli and gold, made into gold chains. Ancient Sumerians created necklaces and beads from gold, lapis lazuli and carnelian. In Ancient Egypt, a number of difference necklace types were worn. Upper-class Ancient Egyptians wore collars of organic or semi-precious and precious materials for religious and funerary purposes; these collars were ornamented with semi-precious, glass and hollow beads. Beads made from a variety of precious and semi-precious materials were commonly strung together to create necklaces. Gold, fashioned into stylized plant and insect shapes were common as well. Amulets were turned into necklaces. In Ancient Crete necklaces were worn by all classes. Pendants shaped into birds and humans were worn, in addition to paste beads. In Ancient Greece, delicately made gold necklaces created with repoussé and plaited gold wires were worn. Most these necklaces were ornamented with blue or green enameled rosettes, animal shapes, or vase-shaped pendants that were detailed with fringes.
It was common to wear long gold chains with suspended cameos and small containers of perfume. New elements were introduced in the Hellenistic period. Ancient Etruscans used granulation to create granulated gold beads which were strung with glass and faience beads to create colorful necklaces. In Ancient Rome necklaces were among the many types of jewelry worn by the Roman elite. Gold and silver necklaces were ornamented with foreign and semi-precious objects such as amber, amethyst and diamond. In addition, ropes of pearls, gold plates inset with enamel, lustrous stones set in gold filigree were worn. Many large necklaces and the materials that adorned the necklaces were imported from the Near East. In the empire, following barbarian invasions and gaudy jewelry became popular. In the Byzantine era, ropes of pearls and embossed gold chains were most worn, but new techniques such as the use of niello allowed for necklaces with brighter, more predominant gemstones; the Early Byzantine Era saw a shift to distinctly Christian jewelry which displayed the new Christian iconography.
2000 B. C. E. – 400 C. E: Bronze amulets embossed with coral were common. In Celtic and Gallic Europe, the most popular necklace was the heavy metal torc, made most out of bronze, but sometimes out of silver, gold, or glass or amber beads. 400 C. E. – 1300 C. E: Early European barbarian groups favored wide, intricate gold collars not unlike the torc. Germanic tribes wore gold and silver pieces with complex detailing and inlaid with colored glass and semi-precious stones garnet. Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian groups worked in silver, due to a deficit of gold, wrought patterns and animal forms into neck-rings. In the Gothic period necklaces were uncommon, though there are a few records of diamond and pearl necklaces, it was not until the adoption of lower necklines in the Middle Ages that necklaces became common. 1400 C. E. – 1500 C. E: During the Renaissance it was fashionable for men to wear a number of chains and pendants around their necks, by the end of the 15th century the wealthiest men would wear great, shoulder covering collars inlaid with gems.
Women wore simpler pieces, such as gold chains, or strung beads or pearls. By the end of the period, more adorned pieces were common among the wealthy in Italy.1500–1600 C. E: Long pearl ropes and chains with precious stones were worn. In the latter half of the century, natural adornments, such as coral and pearl, were joined with enamel and metals to create intricate pendants. Jeweled, delicately framed cameo pendants were popular as well. Chokers, last worn in antiquity made a resurgence at this time.1600–1700: Few men in the Baroque period wore jewelry, for women necklaces were unsophisticated a simple strand of pearls or delicately linked and embellished strands of metal with small stones. In the century, after the invention of new diamond cutting techniques, priority was for the first time given to the jewels themselves, not their settings. Miniatures grew in popularity, were ofte
Gentlemen Prefer Blondes (1953 film)
Gentlemen Prefer Blondes is a 1953 American musical comedy film based on the 1949 stage musical of the same name. It was directed by Howard Hawks and stars Jane Russell and Marilyn Monroe, with Charles Coburn, Elliott Reid, Tommy Noonan, George Winslow, Taylor Holmes and Norma Varden in supporting roles; the film is filled with comedic gags and musical numbers, choreographed by Jack Cole, while the music was written by Hoagy Carmichael, Harold Adamson, Jule Styne and Leo Robin. The songs by Styne and Robin are from the Broadway show, while the songs by Carmichael and Adamson were written for the film. Despite the film's title, Monroe was paid her usual contract salary of $500 a week, while Russell the better known actress, earned $200,000. While Russell's down-to-earth, sharp wit has been observed by most critics, it was Monroe's turn as the gold-digging Lorelei Lee for which the film is remembered. Neither star was an experienced dancer, but Cole's coaching of Monroe, made them look like song-and-dance aces.
Monroe's rendition of the song "Diamonds Are a Girl's Best Friend" and her pink dress are considered iconic, the performance has inspired homages by Beyonce, Geri Halliwell, Kylie Minogue, Nicole Kidman, Anna Nicole Smith, Christina Aguilera and James Franco. Lorelei Lee and Dorothy Shaw are American showgirls and best friends. Lorelei has a passion for diamonds, believing that attracting a rich husband is one of the few ways a woman can succeed economically, she is engaged to Gus Esmond, a naïve nerd willing to do or buy anything for her. However, Gus is under the control of his wealthy, upper-class father. Dorothy, on the other hand, is looking for a different kind of love, attracted only to men who are good-looking and fit. Lorelei plans to wed Gus in France, but Esmond, Sr. stops his son from sailing, believing that Lorelei is bad for him. Although Lorelei's job requires that she travel to France with or without Gus, before she leaves, Gus gives her a letter of credit to cover expenses upon her arrival, promises to meet her in France.
However, he warns her to behave, noting that his father will prohibit their marriage if rumors of misdeeds make their way to Esmond, Sr. Unbeknownst to both of them, Esmond, Sr. has hired a private detective, Ernie Malone, to spy on Lorelei. During the Atlantic crossing, Malone falls in love with Dorothy, but Dorothy has been drawn to the members of the Olympic athletics team. Lorelei meets the rich and foolish Sir Francis "Piggy" Beekman, the owner of a diamond mine, is attracted by his wealth. Lorelei invites piggy to the cabin she shares with Dorothy, whereupon he recounts his travels to Africa. While Piggy demonstrates how a python squeezes a goat by hugging Lorelei, Malone spies on them through the window and takes pictures of the two, but is caught by Dorothy as he walks away nonchalantly, she tells Lorelei, who fears for her reputation. They come up with a scheme to intoxicate Malone and search him to recover the incriminating film while he is unconscious, they find the film in his pants, Lorelei promptly prints and hides the negatives.
Revealing her success to Piggy, she persuades him to give her Lady Beekman's tiara as a thank you gift. However, Malone reveals he had planted a recording device in Lorelei's cabin, has heard her discussion with Piggy about the pictures and the tiara. Malone implies that Lorelei is a golddigger and, when Dorothy scolds him for his actions, admits that he himself is a liar. However, Dorothy reveals to Lorelei she is falling for Malone, after which Lorelei chastises her for choosing a poor man when she could have a rich one; the ship arrives in France, Lorelei and Dorothy spend time shopping. However, the pair are kicked out of their hotel and discover Lorelei's letter of credit has been cancelled due to the information Malone shared with Esmond, Sr; when Gus shows up at their show, Lorelei rebuffs him, after which she performs Diamonds are a Girl's Best Friend, the musical number whose lyrics explain why and how women need to pursue men with money. Meanwhile, Lady Beekman has filed charges regarding her missing tiara, Lorelei is arraigned for theft.
Dorothy persuades Lorelei to return the tiara, but the pair discover it is missing from her jewelry box. Piggy tries to weasel out of his part in the affair when Malone catches him at the airport. Dorothy stalls for time in court by pretending to be Lorelei, disguised in a blonde wig and mimicking her friend's breathy voice and mannerisms; when Malone appears in court and is about to unmask "Lorelei" as Dorothy, she reveals to Malone in covert language that she, loves him but would never forgive him if he were to do anything to hurt her best friend, Lorelei. Malone withdraws his comments, but reveals Piggy has the tiara, exonerating Lorelei. Back at the nightclub, Lorelei impresses Esmond, Sr. with a speech on the subject of paternal money, makes an argument that if Esmond, Sr. had a daughter instead of a son, he would want the best for her, to which he agrees and consents to his son's marriage to Lorelei. The film closes with a double wedding for Lorelei and Dorothy, who marry Esmond and Malone, respectively.
The film earned $5.3 million at the box office worldwide, $5.1 million in North America, was the ninth highest-grossing film of 1953. Monroe's next feature, How to Marry a Millionaire, was the fourth; the film received positive reviews from critics. Monroe and Russell were both praised for their performances as Lorelei and Dorothy among those critics who were not otherwise impressed by the fi
Mahārāja is a Sanskrit title for a "great ruler", "great king" or "high king". A few ruled mighty states informally called empires, including ruler Maharaja Ranjit Singh, founder of the Sikh Empire, Maharaja Sri Gupta, founder of the ancient Indian Gupta Empire, but'title inflation' soon led to most being rather mediocre or petty in real power, while compound titles were among the attempts to distinguish some among their ranks; the female equivalent, denotes either the wife of a Maharaja, in states where, customary, a woman ruling without a husband. The widow of a Maharaja is known as a Rajmata "queen mother". Maharaja Kumar denotes a son of a Maharaja, but more specific titulatures are used at each court, including Yuvaraja for the heir; the form Maharaj indicates a separation of noble and religious offices, although the fact that in Hindi the suffix -a is silent makes the two titles near homophones. The word Maharaja originates in Sanskrit and is a compound karmadhāraya term from mahānt- "great" and rājan "ruler, king").
It has the Latin cognates magnum "great" and rex "king". Due to Sanskrit's major influence on the vocabulary of most languages in Greater India and Southeast Asia, the term Maharaja is common to many modern languages of India and Southeast Asian languages such as Kannada, Hindi, Rajasthani, Telugu, Punjabi, Sylheti, Gujarati and Thai; the Sanskrit title Maharaja was used only for rulers who ruled a large region with minor tributary rulers under them. Since medieval times, the title was used by monarchs of lesser states claiming descent from ancient Maharajas. On the eve of independence in 1947, British India contained more than 600 princely states, each with its own native ruler styled Raja or Rana or Thakur or Nawab, with a host of less current titles as well; the British directly ruled two-thirds of the Indian subcontinent. The word Maharaja may be understood to mean "ruler" or "king", in spite of its literal translation as "great king"; this was because only a handful of the states were powerful and wealthy enough for their rulers to be considered'great' monarchs.
The word, can mean emperor in contemporary Indian usage. The title of Maharaja was not as common before the gradual British colonisation of India and after which many Rajas and otherwise styled Hindu rulers were elevated to Maharajas, regardless of the fact that scores of these new Maharajas ruled small states, sometimes for some reason unrelated to the eminence of the state, for example, support to the British in Afghanistan, World War I or World War II. Two Rajas who became Maharajas in the twentieth century were the Maharaja of Cochin and the legendary Maharaja Jagatjit Singh of Kapurthala. Variations of this title include the following, each combining Maha- "great" with an alternative form of Raja'king', so all meaning'Great King': Maharana, Maharawat and Maharaol. Maharajah has taken on new spellings due to migration, it has been shortened to Mahraj and Maraj but the most common is Maharajah and Maharaj. Despite its literal meaning, unlike many other titles meaning Great King, neither Maharaja nor Rajadhiraja, nor its equivalent amongst.
Maharaja,'Maharajadhiraja', never reached the standing required for imperial rank, as each was soon the object of title inflation. Instead, the Hindu title, rendered as Emperor is Samraat or Samraj, a personal distinction achieved by a few rulers of ancient dynasties such as the Mauryas and Guptas. Dharma-maharaja was the devout title of the rulers of the Ganga dynasty. In the Mughal Empire it was quite common to award to various princes a series of lofty titles as a matter of protocolary rank; the British would, as paramount power do the same. Many of these elaborate explicitly on the title Maharaja, in the following descending order: Maharajadhiraja Bahadur: Great Prince over Princes, a title of honour, one degree higher than Maharajadhiraja. Maharajadhiraja: Great Prince over Princes, a title of honour, one degree higher than Sawai Maharaja Bahadur. Sawai Maharaja Bahadur: a title of honour, one degree higher than Sawai Maharaja. Sawai Maharaja: a title of honour one degree higher than Maharaja Bahadur.
Maharaja Bahadur: a title of honour, one degree higher than Maharaja. Maharaja itself could be granted as a personal. H. the Maharaj Rana of Jhalawar Maharaja-i-Rajgan: great prince amongst princes Maharaja Sena Sahib Subah of Nagpur, another Mahratta s
Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg. She was the sovereign of Austria, Croatia, Transylvania, Milan and Galicia, the Austrian Netherlands, Parma. By marriage, she was Duchess of Grand Duchess of Tuscany and Holy Roman Empress, she started her 40-year reign when her father, Emperor Charles VI, died in October 1740. Charles VI paved the way for her accession with the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 and spent his entire reign securing it, he neglected the advice of Prince Eugene of Savoy, who averred that a strong military and a rich treasury were more important than mere signatures. He left behind a weakened and impoverished state due to the War of the Polish Succession and the Russo-Turkish War. Moreover, upon his death, Prussia and France all repudiated the sanction they had recognised during his lifetime. Frederick II of Prussia promptly invaded and took the affluent Habsburg province of Silesia in the seven-year conflict known as the War of the Austrian Succession.
In defiance of the grave situation, she managed to secure the vital support of the Hungarians for the war effort. Over the course of the war, despite the loss of Silesia and a few minor territories in Italy, Maria Theresa defended her rule over most of the Habsburg empire. Maria Theresa unsuccessfully tried to reconquer Silesia during the Seven Years' War. Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, had eleven daughters, including the Queen of France, the Queen of Naples and Sicily, the Duchess of Parma, five sons, including two Holy Roman Emperors, Joseph II and Leopold II. Of the sixteen children, ten survived to adulthood. Though she was expected to cede power to Francis and Joseph, both of whom were her co-rulers in Austria and Bohemia, Maria Theresa was the absolute sovereign who ruled with the counsel of her advisers. Maria Theresa promulgated institutional and educational reforms, with the assistance of Wenzel Anton of Kaunitz-Rietberg, Friedrich Wilhelm von Haugwitz and Gerard van Swieten.
She promoted commerce and the development of agriculture, reorganised Austria's ramshackle military, all of which strengthened Austria's international standing. However, she despised the Jews and the Protestants, on certain occasions she ordered their expulsion to remote parts of the realm, she advocated for the state church and refused to allow religious pluralism. Her regime was criticized as intolerant by some contemporaries; the second and eldest surviving child of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI and Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Archduchess Maria Theresa was born on 13 May 1717 in Vienna, a year after the death of her elder brother, Archduke Leopold, was baptised on that same evening. The dowager empresses, her aunt Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg and grandmother Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg, were her godmothers. Most descriptions of her baptism stress that the infant was carried ahead of her cousins, Maria Josepha and Maria Amalia, the daughters of Charles VI's elder brother and predecessor, Joseph I, before the eyes of their mother, Wilhelmine Amalia.
It was clear that Maria Theresa would outrank them though their grandfather, Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I, had his sons sign the Mutual Pact of Succession, which gave precedence to the daughters of the elder brother. Her father was the only surviving male member of the House of Habsburg and hoped for a son who would prevent the extinction of his dynasty and succeed him. Thus, the birth of Maria Theresa was the people of Vienna. Maria Theresa replaced Maria Josepha as heir presumptive to the Habsburg realms the moment she was born. Charles sought the other European powers' approval for disinheriting his nieces, they exacted harsh terms: in the Treaty of Vienna, Great Britain demanded that Austria abolish the Ostend Company in return for its recognition of the Pragmatic Sanction. In total, Great Britain, Saxony, United Provinces, Prussia, Denmark, Sardinia and the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire recognised the sanction. France, Saxony and Prussia reneged. Little more than a year after her birth, Maria Theresa was joined by a sister, Maria Anna, another one, named Maria Amalia, was born in 1724.
The portraits of the imperial family show that Maria Theresa resembled Elisabeth Christine and Maria Anna. The Prussian ambassador noted that she had large blue eyes, fair hair with a slight tinge of red, a wide mouth and a notably strong body. Unlike many other members of the House of Habsburg, neither Maria Theresa's parents nor her grandparents were related to each other. Maria Theresa was a reserved child who enjoyed singing and archery, she was barred from horse riding by her father, but she would learn the basics for the sake of her Hungarian coronation ceremony. The imperial family staged opera productions conducted by Charles VI, in which she relished participating, her education was overseen by Jesuits. Contemporaries thought her Latin to be quite good, but in all else, the Jesuits did not educate her well, her spelling and punctuation were unconventional and she lacked the formal manner and speech which had characterised her Habsburg predecessors. Maria Theresa developed a close relationship with Countess Marie Karoline von Fuchs-Mollard