The Rideau Canal known unofficially as the Rideau Waterway, connects Canada's capital city of Ottawa, Ontario, to Lake Ontario and the Saint Lawrence River at Kingston, Ontario. It is 202 kilometres in length; the name Rideau, French for "curtain", is derived from the curtain-like appearance of the Rideau River's twin waterfalls where they join the Ottawa River. The canal system uses sections of two rivers, the Rideau and the Cataraqui, as well as several lakes; the Rideau Canal is operated by Parks Canada. The canal was opened in 1832 as a precaution in case of war with the United States, it remains in use today for pleasure boating, with most of its original structures intact, operated by Parks Canada. The locks on the system open for navigation in close in mid-October, it is the oldest continuously operated canal system in North America, in 2007 it was registered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The construction of the Rideau Canal was a preventive military measure undertaken after a report that during the War of 1812 the United States had intended to invade the British colony of Upper Canada via the St. Lawrence River, which would have severed the lifeline between Montreal and Kingston.
The British built a number of other canals as well as a number of forts to impede and deter any future American invasions of Canadian territory. The initial purpose of the Rideau Canal was military, as it was intended to provide a secure supply and communications route between Montreal and the British naval base in Kingston. Westward from Montreal, travel would proceed along the Ottawa River to Bytown southwest via the canal to Kingston and out into Lake Ontario; the objective was to bypass the stretch of the St. Lawrence bordering New York; the canal served a commercial purpose. The Rideau Canal was easier to navigate than the St. Lawrence River because of the series of rapids between Montreal and Kingston; as a result, the Rideau Canal became a busy commercial artery from Montreal to the Great Lakes. However, by 1849, the rapids of the St. Lawrence had been tamed by a series of locks, commercial shippers were quick to switch to this more direct route; the construction of the canal was supervised by Lieutenant-Colonel John By of the Royal Engineers.
Private contractors such as future sugar refining entrepreneur John Redpath, Thomas McKay, Robert Drummond, Thomas Phillips, Andrew White and others were responsible for much of the construction, the majority of the actual work was done by thousands of Irish and French-Canadian labourers. Colonel John By decided to create a slackwater canal system instead of constructing new channels; this was a better approach as it required fewer workers, was more cost effective, would have been easier to build. The canal work started in the fall of 1826, it was completed by the spring of 1832; the first full steamboat transit of the canal was done by Robert Drummond's steamboat, leaving Kingston on May 22, 1832 with Colonel By and family on board, arriving in Bytown on May 29, 1832. The final cost of the canal's construction was £822,804 by the time all the costs, including land acquisitions costs, were accounted for. Given the unexpected cost overruns, John By was recalled to London and was retired with no accolades or recognition for his tremendous accomplishment.
Once the canal was constructed, no further military engagements took place between Canada and the United States. Although the Rideau Canal never had to be used as a military supply route, it played a pivotal role in the early development of Canada. Prior to the locks being completed on the St. Lawrence in the late 1840s, the Rideau served as the main travel route for immigrants heading westward into Upper Canada and for heavy goods from Canada's hinterland heading east to Montreal. Tens of thousands of immigrants from the British Isles travelled the Rideau in this period. Hundreds of barge loads of goods were shipped each year along the Rideau, allowing Montreal to compete commercially in the 1830s and 40s with New York as a major North American port. In 1841, for instance, there were 19 steamboats, 3 self-propelled barges and 157 unpowered or tow barges using the Rideau Canal; as many as one thousand of the workers died from other diseases and accidents. Most deaths were from disease, principally complications from malaria, endemic in Ontario within the range of the Anopheles mosquito, other diseases of the day.
Accidents were rare for a project of this size. Inquests were held for each accidental death; the men and children who died were buried in local cemeteries, either burial grounds set up near work sites or existing local cemeteries. Funerals were held for the workers and the graves marked with wooden markers; some of the dead remain unidentified. Memorials have been erected along the canal route, most the Celtic Cross memorials in Ottawa and Chaffeys Lock; the first memorial on the Rideau Canal acknowledging deaths among the labour force was erected in 1993 by the Kingston and District Labour Council and the Ontario Heritage Foundation at Kingston Mills. Three canal era cemeteries are open to the public today: Chaffey's Cemetery and Memory Wall at Chaffey's Lock—this cemetery was used from 1825 to the late 19th century.
Hog's Back Road
Hog's Back Road is a 1 km road in Ottawa, Canada. The road connects Meadowlands Drive and Prince of Wales Drive to Riverside Drive and Brookfield Road; the road is used as the boundary line between Hog's Back Park. It goes over the dam creating Mooney's Bay and Hog's Back Falls, continues over the Hog's Back swing bridge over the Rideau Canal, to allow taller boats navigating the canal to pass; the road runs past the spot where the Rideau Canal separates from the Rideau River. Prince of Wales Drive / Meadowlands DriveHog's Back BridgeColonel By DriveBridge over Rideau River and Hog's Back FallsRiverside Drive / Brookfield Road
Terry Fox Stadium
Terry Fox Stadium known as the Terry Fox Athletic Facility is an athletic field in Ottawa, Canada, named after cancer research activist Terry Fox. It has a regulation-size natural grass soccer field, surrounded by a 400-metre track. Surrounding the track are bleachers with a capacity of 2,000, it is located in Mooney's Bay Park, on the west side of Riverside Drive, south of Heron Road, south of downtown Ottawa. The stadium hosted the field events at the 2001 Francophone Games; the complex includes a polyurethane running track and three lighted natural grass sports fields. The fields are suitable for soccer, lacrosse, cross-country running and other field sports. Terry Fox Stadium has been the site of several professional soccer teams, including the Ottawa Intrepid, Capital City F. C.. It hosts the semi-pro League1 Ontario team Ottawa South United Force; the track is the site of field training for public schools in Ottawa. In the winter-time, the facility is adapted for cross-country skiing. City of Ottawa site - Terry Fox Athletic Facility
Riverside Drive (Ottawa)
Riverside Drive is a major road in Ottawa, Canada that follows along the eastern bank of the Rideau River. Its northern terminus is at the Transitway/Via Rail underpass just south of the Queensway, the road proceeds south to Limebank Road where it continues as River Road until the city limits. North of the Queensway, Riverside continues as Vanier Parkway, which travels through Vanier until Beechwood Avenue; the road's name is linked to Vanier, named for former Governor General of Canada Georges Vanier. Most of the road is a four-lane divided principal arterial, with a speed limit of 60 km/h, although the general flow is faster in many sections. Riverside is home to the Riverside Hospital, the Billings Bridge Plaza, the RA Centre, Canada Post headquarters, Public Works Canada headquarters, Canadian Labour Congress headquarters, Vincent Massey Park, Terry Fox Athletic Facility, Mooney's Bay Park. Riverside was re-aligned between Smyth Road and Industrial Avenue in 1986. Riverside once ended at Industrial, while it was Alta Vista Drive that carried traffic across the Queensway to become the Vanier Parkway.
The old alignment of Riverside Drive in Riverview continues to be known as Riverside Drive, serves a number of apartment building complexes, has a cul-de-sac at each end. Limebank Road is an arterial road in Ottawa, a southbound continuation of Riverside Drive that starts at River Road, continues south through Riverside South and to Mitch Owens Rd, it continues southbound through West Greely as Dozois Road. On Vanier Parkway Beechwood Avenue / St. Patrick Street Montreal RoadOn Riverside Drive The Queensway / Highway 417, exit 117 Industrial Avenue / Bus Access to Hurdman Transit Station Smyth Road / Main Street Bank Street Bronson Avenue Heron Road Walkley Road Hunt Club RoadOn River Road Limebank Road Leitrim Road Earl Armstrong Road Mitch Owens Road Riverview Alta Vista Billings Bridge Uplands/South KeysRiver Road Riverside South Manotick Edgewater ParkVanier Parkway Vanier Overbrook Riverside Drive/River Road/Limebank Road project Google Maps: Riverside Drive routing
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada. It stands on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of southern Ontario. Ottawa borders Gatineau, Quebec; as of 2016, Ottawa had a city population of 964,743 and a metropolitan population of 1,323,783 making it the fourth-largest city and the fifth-largest CMA in Canada. Founded in 1826 as Bytown, incorporated as Ottawa in 1855, the city has evolved into the political centre of Canada, its original boundaries were expanded through numerous annexations and were replaced by a new city incorporation and amalgamation in 2001 which increased its land area. The city name "Ottawa" was chosen in reference to the Ottawa River, the name of, derived from the Algonquin Odawa, meaning "to trade". Ottawa has the most educated population among Canadian cities and is home to a number of post-secondary and cultural institutions, including the National Arts Centre, the National Gallery, numerous national museums. Ottawa has the highest standard of living in low unemployment.
With the draining of the Champlain Sea around ten thousand years ago, the Ottawa Valley became habitable. Local populations used the area for wild edible harvesting, fishing, trade and camps for over 6500 years; the Ottawa river valley has archaeological sites with arrow heads and stone tools. Three major rivers meet within Ottawa, making it an important trade and travel area for thousands of years; the Algonquins called the Ottawa River Kichi Sibi or Kichissippi meaning "Great River" or "Grand River". Étienne Brûlé regarded as the first European to travel up the Ottawa River, passed by Ottawa in 1610 on his way to the Great Lakes. Three years Samuel de Champlain wrote about the waterfalls in the area and about his encounters with the Algonquins, using the Ottawa River for centuries. Many missionaries would follow the early traders; the first maps of the area used the word Ottawa, derived from the Algonquin word adawe, to name the river. Philemon Wright, a New Englander, created the first settlement in the area on 7 March 1800 on the north side of the river, across from the present day city of Ottawa in Hull.
He, with five other families and twenty-five labourers, set about to create an agricultural community called Wrightsville. Wright pioneered the Ottawa Valley timber trade by transporting timber by river from the Ottawa Valley to Quebec City. Bytown, Ottawa's original name, was founded as a community in 1826 when hundreds of land speculators were attracted to the south side of the river when news spread that British authorities were constructing the northerly end of the Rideau Canal military project at that location; the following year, the town was named after British military engineer Colonel John By, responsible for the entire Rideau Waterway construction project. The canal's military purpose was to provide a secure route between Montreal and Kingston on Lake Ontario, bypassing a vulnerable stretch of the St. Lawrence River bordering the state of New York that had left re-supply ships bound for southwestern Ontario exposed to enemy fire during the War of 1812. Colonel By set up military barracks on the site of today's Parliament Hill.
He laid out the streets of the town and created two distinct neighbourhoods named "Upper Town" west of the canal and "Lower Town" east of the canal. Similar to its Upper Canada and Lower Canada namesakes "Upper Town" was predominantly English speaking and Protestant whereas "Lower Town" was predominantly French and Catholic. Bytown's population grew to 1,000 as the Rideau Canal was being completed in 1832. Bytown encountered some impassioned and violent times in her early pioneer period that included Irish labour unrest that attributed to the Shiners' War from 1835 to 1845 and political dissension evident from the 1849 Stony Monday Riot. In 1855 Bytown was incorporated as a city. William Pittman Lett was installed as the first city clerk guiding it through 36 years of development. On New Year's Eve 1857, Queen Victoria, as a symbolic and political gesture, was presented with the responsibility of selecting a location for the permanent capital of the Province of Canada. In reality, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald had assigned this selection process to the Executive Branch of the Government, as previous attempts to arrive at a consensus had ended in deadlock.
The "Queen's choice" turned out to be the small frontier town of Ottawa for two main reasons: Firstly, Ottawa's isolated location in a back country surrounded by dense forest far from the Canada–US border and situated on a cliff face would make it more defensible from attack. Secondly, Ottawa was midway between Toronto and Kingston and Montreal and Quebec City. Additionally, despite Ottawa's regional isolation it had seasonal water transportation access to Montreal over the Ottawa River and to Kingston via the Rideau Waterway. By 1854 it had a modern all season Bytown and Prescott Railway that carried passengers and supplies the 82-kilometres to Prescott on the Saint Lawrence River and beyond. Ottawa's small size, it was thought, would make it less prone to rampaging politically motivated mobs, as had happened in the previous Canadian capitals; the government owned the land that would become Parliament Hill which they thought would be an ideal location for the Parliament Buildings. Ottawa was th
Thomas Mooney (Chaplain)
Thomas Edmund Mooney was a Canadian chaplain who served in World War II. Mooney was the first Canadian Catholic Chaplain reported killed in action during World War II. Mooney served as Director of Music at St. Mary's Roman Catholic Cathedral in Ontario. Mooney was born in Westport, Ontario on January 21, 1906, to parents Michael Edmund and Anna Cecelia Mooney. Mooney's father and great-grandfather were lockmasters at the Rideau Canal. Mooney's Bay Park was named after the Mooney family of lockmasters. After graduating from high school, Mooney entered St. Michael's University of Toronto, he was a member of the Oratorical Club, the Quindecim Club, the Literary Society. He was a member of the Intercollegiate Boxing and Fencing Team, winning letters for wrestling in the 158-pound class. While at St. Michael's he decided to enter the priesthood, he attended St. Augustine's Seminary and was ordained in the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, Kingston on May 21, 1932, he served as Curate and Director of the Choir until January 10, 1942, when he became a Canadian Chaplain.
On September 14, 1944, the chaplain was killed in action at Moerkerke."...padre Thomas Mooney, from Hamilton, was killed by shellfire while ministering to wounded a few weeks after D-Day: he was buried in the Canadian cemetery at Eccloo, Belgium. As a tribute, the Protestant chaplains of his formation served as pallbearers." The Observer, "Killed in Action" Casey, Daniel Aloysius. A White Knight of God. Kingston, Ontario: The Canadian Register. Pp. 5–35. "Captain The Reverend Thomas Edmund Mooney – Jennifer Clark". Www.jenniferclark.ca. Retrieved October 13, 2016. Http://www.waymarking.com/waymarks/WMB8DT_Newboro_War_Memorial_Newboro_Ontario
Kappa Sigma known as Kappa Sig, is an American collegiate social fraternity founded at the University of Virginia in 1869. Kappa Sigma is one of the five largest international fraternities with 318 active chapters and colonies in North America, its endowment fund, founded in 1919, has donated more than $5 million to undergrads since 1948. In 2012 alone, the Fraternity's endowment fund raised over $1 million in donations. According to the traditions of the fraternity, Kappa Sigma evolved from an ancient order, known in some accounts as "Kirjath Sepher", said to have been founded between 1395 and 1400 at the University of Bologna; the story says that the corrupt governor of the city, one-time pirate and papal usurper Baldassare Cossa, took advantage of the students at Bologna, one of Europe's preeminent universities which attracted students from all over the continent, by sending his men to assault and rob them. On December 10, 1869, five students at the University of Virginia met in 46 East Lawn and founded the Kappa Sigma Fraternity in America.
William Grigsby McCormick, George Miles Arnold, John Covert Boyd, Edmund Law Rogers, Jr. and Frank Courtney Nicodemus established the fraternity based on the traditions and of the ancient order in Bologna. These five founders became collectively known as the "Five Friends and Brothers". In 1872, Kappa Sigma initiated Stephen Alonzo Jackson, who would go on to transform a struggling local fraternity into a strong international Brotherhood; the organization attributes much of its success to Jackson noting that, "Since his death in 1892, the success of the Order is the direct result of Jackson's devotion'to make Kappa Sigma the leading college fraternity of the world.'"In 1873, Kappa Sigma expanded to Trinity College, the University of Maryland, Washington and Lee University. The fraternity attributes this growth to the initiation of Stephen Alonzo Jackson in 1872. During his membership, Jackson revised the ritual of Kappa Sigma, he created the Supreme Executive Committee, which now serves as the governing body of the Kappa Sigma Fraternity on an international level.
Jackson introduced the idea of a frequent, national convention of all Kappa Sigmas, a practice now continued by the biennial Grand Conclave, characterized the event as "the finest hour" of Kappa Sigma. In 1885, the publication of Kappa Sigma's quarterly magazine was commissioned under the name The Quarterly This publication ran for 5 years until it was reorganized to run bi-monthly and renamed The Caduceus, the name it holds to this day. In 1912, Wilbur F. Denious struck upon the idea to establish a charitable endowment for Kappa Sigma; as a result of the hard work of him and many others, the Kappa Sigma Endowment Fund was established in 1919 "to support the charitable and beneficent purposes of the Kappa Sigma Fraternity." In 2002, along with Phi Delta Theta, Kappa Sigma ended its involvement in the North-American Interfraternity Conference at the national level due to disenchantment with the strategic direction of the organization. However, many individual chapters remain members of their host university's Interfraternity Conference, but no chapter is required to recognize or be involved with their university's IFC if they should choose not to.
In 2003, the Kappa Sigma Fraternity ushered in an unprecedented era of growth for the fraternity. In the Spring of 2005, Kappa Sigma Fraternity began fundraising for and construction of a new headquarters; this $6 million project had its grand opening on June 2, 2007. At the 66th Conclave, the Kappa Sigma Endowment Fund was declared to be the only official educational foundation of the fraternity and is housed at the new headquarters. Kappa Sigmas are taught to live their lives by the Star and Crescent, which are the symbols of the Fraternity that make up the official badge: They follow the four pillars of the Fraternity: Fellowship, Leadership and Service; the Star and Crescent is used as part of the guidelines behind Kappa Sigma's strict no-tolerance anti-hazing policy. The Fraternity takes all allegations of hazing seriously and revokes charters from guilty chapters which can be as old as 130 years. To be eligible for membership a prospective member must profess a belief in God, though adherence to a specific religion is not required.
In at least one situation, Kappa Sigma has revoked a chapter's charter for omitting the fraternity's religious requirements from its initiation. The Kappa Sigma Fraternity consists of over colonies; each chapter is led by a five-member Executive Committee, each referred to as an officer. These officers consist of the Grand Master, Grand Procurator, Grand Master of Ceremonies, Grand Scribe, Grand Treasurer; each chapter and colony has a number of committee chairs that are assigned to specific areas. Over 1,500 alumni volunteer as advisors for Kappa Sigma. At the international level, the Supreme Executive Council sets policy for the fraternity, disciplines chapters, approves the formation of colonies and chapter; the offices of the SEC mirror the office of the undergraduate EC and consist of the Worthy Grand Master, the Worthy Grand Procurator, the Worthy Grand Master of Ceremonies, the Worthy Grand Scribe, the Worthy Grand Treasurer. The WGM, WGP, the WGMC each serve a two-year term, while the WGS and WGT each