Swami's is an area in San Diego County that contains Swami's Beach and other local attractions. The beach known as "Swami’s Reef'" and "Swamis", is an internationally known surfing spot, a point break located in Encinitas, San Diego County, California. Swami's was named after Swami Paramahansa Yogananda, because the grounds and hermitage of the Self-Realization Fellowship ashram, built in 1937, overlook this reef point; the name "Swami's" is given to the sand beach that extends south from the point to the next beach access point, next to the San Elijo State Beach camping area. The name "Swami's" was an unofficial nickname that surfers had given to the point break, but the name was adopted and used as the name of the cliff-top park, known as "Seacliff Roadside Park". Access to Swami Beach is through the small "Swami" park at the top of the cliff, which has bathrooms, a water fountain, picnic tables, trees. There is a small parking lot. At the edge of the park is a wooden staircase that lead towards the sand beach.
Swami's offers a sand beach available from 4 a.m. to 2 a.m. and has lifeguard towers open from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. during the period of Late June to Labor Day. Beach parking is available from 5 a.m. to 10 p.m. The beach is available on a first-come, first-served basis and is maintained by the Encinitas Parks and Recreation Department. Encinitas beaches, including Swami's, prohibit pet dogs, transportable barbecue grills, drinking glasses, any sort of smoking or alcohol. Swami's is a major surfing destination during good swells in the winter months, because of its standout right point break, as well as fun reef breaks, beach breaks; the number of surfers out can be considerable when conditions are good. Surfing at this location is ideal with a low to mid tide, W or NW swell direction, calm or East wind. Swami's allows all levels of surfers, but is well known as a high-performance wave for both longboard and shortboard surfers. Bodysurfing and bodyboarding are rare due to the competitive nature of the crowd to catch and ride the limited number of waves that come in sets every few minutes.
Swami's is known as challenging spot to paddle, requiring a level of fitness above what other breaks demand. This is due to the distance from the beach to the main peak several hundred yards from shore; as the waves become larger this distance increases, after long rides the paddle back to the main peak can take several minutes. For this reason many surfers will choose to end their rides before the wave reaches the beach. There are two ways in which surfers paddle out to the main peak; the more common way is to approach from south of the break and paddle around the break through the deep water. The other method of paddling out is to walk north two hundred yards and approach the main peak by means of a rougher, more turbulent shortcut. While riskier, it can be a quicker route to the main peak; this is known as "paddling out through the back door." Most novice surfers will avoid this method as it requires fitness. Swami's is a common surfing ground for local professional surfers, including Rob Machado, Taylor Knox.
In 1920, Paramahansa Yogananda founded the Self-Realization Fellowship. Yogananda came from India as a representative for the international congress of religions and wanted to bring the great teachings of meditation to Americans; the meditation garden is filled with flowers, trees and a number of small ponds featuring small waterfalls and koi fish. It extends from the starting point of the meditation garden to the beach cliffs of Swami's. Activities include weekly Sunday services for adults and Sunday school for children, as well as meditations, kirtan chanting, scriptural readings and many opportunities to serve. Swami's ecology has a variety of habitats; these include grassy surf beds, a flourishing forest, rocky reefs where lobsters and various types of fish and invertebrates live and consume food. Additional, visitors can see sea animals and such as sea hares, brittle stars, octopuses in nearby pools. Visitors can view nearly 45-million-year-old fossils in level rocks; the Swami's Reef is a protected area through the California Marine Life Protection Act.
This act protects habitats from removal. In addition, fishing is prohibited in this particular area. Swami's Surfing Association was established in 1964 by local surfers as a non-profit organization dedicated to improving the beach community and helping environmental issues. SSA sponsors and participates in programs, such as Adopt-a-Beach, Disabled Vietnam Veterans, the Blind Surf Program, many more. For the past 18 years, SSA has held a surfing contest in Encinitas; these events and programs are funded by sponsors from the community. Donations may be tax deductible as charitable contributions. Swami's is mentioned in the 1963 Beach Boys' song Surfin' U. S. A. List of beaches in the San Diego area List of California state parks California State Beaches Magic Seaweed Surfline Wave Watch wetSand Swamis, Dec 21st, 2005 Swamis, Dec 21st, 2005 Video #2 Swamis 2003 Crowded waves at Swamis Phillip Cola Natural History Photography Pbase Photoset Flickr Photos Webshots Photos
Switchfoot is an American alternative rock band from San Diego, California. The band's members are Jon Foreman, Tim Foreman, Chad Butler, Jerome Fontamillas, Drew Shirley. After early successes in the Christian rock scene, Switchfoot first gained mainstream recognition with the inclusion of four of their songs in the 2002 movie A Walk to Remember; this recognition led to their major label debut, The Beautiful Letdown, released in 2003 and featured the hits "Meant to Live" and "Dare You to Move". The album sold over 2.6 million copies. They have since been noted for their energetic live shows, their seventh studio album Hello Hurricane received a Grammy award in 2011 for Best Rock or Rap Gospel Album. According to Jon Foreman, the name "Switchfoot" comes from a surfing term. "We all love to surf and have been surfing all our lives so to us, the name made sense. To switch your feet means to take a new stance facing the opposite direction. It's about change and movement, a different way of approaching life and music."
Switchfoot was founded in 1996 as Chin Up, consisting of Jon Foreman and his brother Tim, along with Chad Butler on drums. After playing only a few shows, the band was contacted by music industry veteran Charlie Peacock and signed to his indie label Re:think Records under the current moniker, Switchfoot. Re:think went on to distribute the first three Switchfoot albums, The Legend of Chin, New Way to Be Human, Learning to Breathe; because Re:think was bought out by Christian giant Sparrow Records before Switchfoot's first release, the band's and Peacock's intentions of being marketed outside of the Contemporary Christian music scene and reaching a wider audience were put on hold. The band was marketed to Christian radio and retail outlets early in their careers, a time Jon Foreman has described as when "half of who we were was lost."Of Switchfoot's first three albums, Learning to Breathe was the most successful, receiving a Grammy nomination for Best Rock Gospel Album. On in 2002, Switchfoot's music was featured prominently in the movie A Walk to Remember, starring singer and actress Mandy Moore, who sang Switchfoot's song "Only Hope" during a scene in the movie.
In addition to Moore's cover of "Only Hope", Switchfoot's songs "You", "Learning to Breathe", "Dare You to Move" were showcased in the film, as well as their own original version of "Only Hope" towards the end of the film. Following the exposure that came from A Walk to Remember, Switchfoot attracted attention from multiple record labels, signed with Columbia Records/SonyBMG, their major label debut, The Beautiful Letdown, under Columbia Records/Red Ink, represented the band's evolution from the predominantly lo-fi, indie rock sound of their early albums, toward a more layered, synth-influenced sound that helped launch the band to mainstream popularity. This shift sonically could be attributed to the fact that the album was the first to include keyboardist Jerome Fontamillas of industrial bands Mortal and Fold Zandura. Fontamillas had been touring with Switchfoot since 2000, following the release of Learning to Breathe; the Beautiful Letdown has since been certified double platinum, selling more than 2.6 million copies, on the strength of constant touring and the huge mainstream radio hits "Meant to Live" and "Dare You to Move".
A live DVD depicting one of the band's live concerts, Live in San Diego, went platinum as well, a third single, "This Is Your Life" was released to radio. In addition, the song "Gone" received major airplay on Christian radio stations as well. Following the runaway success of The Beautiful Letdown, a compilation titled The Early Years: 1997-2000 was released, which featured Switchfoot's first three indie albums released under Re:think records including the original artwork for all the albums; this collection has since been certified Gold, with total sales of over 500,000 copies. Switchfoot received five 2005 Dove Award nominations, won four, including Artist of the year. In 2005, prior to the release of Nothing Is Sound, Switchfoot announced that guitarist Drew Shirley had become the band's fifth member after touring with the band since 2003. Nothing Is Sound was released on September 13, 2005, with Shirley's inclusion saw Switchfoot's sound become more densely layered and guitar-heavy, resulting in an album, edgier and darker than any of their previous work.
"Stars" was released as the first radio single to promote the album, was a solid hit on mainstream and alternative rock radio stations. It was used in ads for HBO. "We Are One Tonight" was released as the second single in early 2006, was featured in ads for the 2006 Winter Olympics. The album debuted at No. 3 on the Billboard 200 albums chart, an all-time high for the band, while bassist Tim Foreman attracted headlines by speaking out against the copy-protection used by the label and providing fans a detailed workaround on the band's message board, deleted by Sony. This copy-protection is known as Extended Copy Protection, identified by leading anti-virus companies as a trojan horse and a rootkit. During the Spring 2006 leg of the Nothing Is Sound Tour, the band introduced "a video diary of life on the road" in the form of free video podcasts available via iTunes and streaming online on YouTube. In addition to featuring snippets of upcoming songs and live performances, the videos gave fans an inside look at the more casual and humorous aspects of the band members' touring lives, as well as featuring footage of the band working on their follow-up to Nothing Is Sound.
Kings Canyon National Park
Kings Canyon National Park is an American national park in the southern Sierra Nevada, in Fresno and Tulare Counties, California. Established in 1890 as General Grant National Park, the park was expanded and renamed to Kings Canyon National Park on March 4, 1940; the park's namesake, Kings Canyon, is a rugged glacier-carved valley more than a mile deep. Other natural features include multiple 14,000-foot peaks, high mountain meadows, swift-flowing rivers, some of the world's largest stands of giant sequoia trees. Kings Canyon is north of and contiguous with Sequoia National Park, the two are jointly administered by the National Park Service as the Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks; the majority of the 461,901-acre park, drained by the Middle and South Forks of the Kings River and many smaller streams, is designated wilderness. Tourist facilities are concentrated in two areas: Grant Grove, home to General Grant and Cedar Grove, located in the heart of Kings Canyon. Overnight hiking is required to access most of the park's backcountry, or high country, which for much of the year is covered in deep snow.
The combined Pacific Crest Trail/John Muir Trail, a backpacking route, traverses the entire length of the park from north to south. General Grant National Park was created to protect a small area of giant sequoias from logging. Although John Muir's visits brought public attention to the huge wilderness area to the east, it took more than fifty years for the rest of Kings Canyon to be designated a national park. Environmental groups, park visitors and many local politicians wanted to see the area preserved. After President Franklin D. Roosevelt expanded the park in 1940, the fight continued until 1965, when the Cedar Grove and Tehipite Valley dam sites were annexed into the park; as visitation rose post–World War II, further debate took place over whether the park should be developed as a tourist resort, or retained as a more natural environment restricted to simpler recreation such as hiking and camping. The preservation lobby prevailed and today, the park has only limited services and lodgings despite its size.
Due to this and the lack of road access to most of the park, Kings Canyon remains the least visited of the major Sierra parks, with just under 700,000 visitors in 2017 compared to 1.3 million visitors at Sequoia and over 4 million at Yosemite. Kings Canyon National Park, located on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada to the east of the San Joaquin Valley, is divided into two distinct sections; the smaller and older western section centers around Grant Grove – home of many of the park's sequoias – and has most of the visitor facilities. The larger eastern section, which accounts for the majority of the park's area, is entirely wilderness, contains the deep canyons of the Middle and South Forks of the Kings River. Cedar Grove, located at the bottom of the Kings Canyon, is the only part of the park's vast eastern portion accessible by road. Although most of the park is forested, much of the eastern section consists of alpine regions above the tree line. Snow free only from late June until late October, the high country is accessible via foot and horse trails.
The Sequoia-Kings Canyon Wilderness encompasses over 768,000 acres in Kings Canyon and Sequoia National Parks, or nearly 90 percent of their combined area. In addition to Sequoia National Park on the south, Kings Canyon is surrounded by multiple national forests and wilderness areas; the Sierra National Forest, Sequoia National Forest and Inyo National Forest border it on the northwest and east, respectively. The John Muir Wilderness wraps around much of the northern half of the park, the Monarch Wilderness preserves much of the area between the park's two sections. Kings Canyon is characterized by some of the steepest vertical relief in North America, with numerous peaks over 14,000 feet on the Sierra Crest along the park's eastern border, falling to 4,500 feet in the valley floor of Cedar Grove just ten miles to the west; the Sierran crest forms the eastern boundary of the park, from Mount Goethe in the north, down to Junction Peak, at the boundary with Sequoia National Park. Several passes cross the crest into the park, including Bishop Pass, Taboose Pass, Sawmill Pass, Kearsarge Pass.
All of these passes are above 11,000 feet in elevation. There are several prominent subranges of the Sierra around the park; the Palisades, along the park's eastern boundary, have four peaks over 14,000 feet including the highest point in the park, 14,248 feet NAVD 88 at the summit of North Palisade. The Great Western Divide extends through the south-central part of the park and has many peaks over 13,000 feet, including Mount Brewer; the Monarch Divide, stretching between the lower Middle and South Forks of the Kings, has some of the most inaccessible terrain in the entire park. In the northwest section of the park are other steep and rugged ranges such as the Goddard Divide, LeConte Divide and Black Divide, all of which are dotted with high mountain lakes and separated by deep chasms. Most of the mountains and canyons, as in other parts of the Sierra Nevada, are formed in igneous intrusive rocks such as granite and monzonite, formed at least 100 million years ago due to subduction along the North American–Pacific Plate boundary.
However, the Sierra itself is a young mountain range, no more than 10 million years old. Huge tectonic forces along the western edge of the Great Basin forced the local crustal block to tilt and uplift, crea
Coastal California known as the California Coastline and the Golden Coast, refers to the coastal regions of the U. S. state of California. The term is not geographical as it describes an area distinguished by cultural and political attributes; the area includes the North Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, Central Coast, South Coast. During the 2000 Census a third of households had incomes exceeding $75,000, compared to 17.6% in the Central Valley and 22.5% at the national average. The region is known for being home to artisan communities such as Laguna Beach and Carmel as well as the natural environment of the Redwood Forests of the North Coast. While the area has always been expensive, when compared to inland regions and the national average, the recent real estate boom has left it as the most expensive housing market in the nation. An October 2004 CNN Money publication found that a 2,200-square-foot home in a "middle management neighborhood" would cost an average of $1.8 million. The counties seen as constituting coastal California are: Alameda County, California Contra Costa County, California Del Norte County, California Humboldt County, California Los Angeles County, California Marin County, California Mendocino County, California Monterey County, California Napa County, California Orange County, California San Benito County, California San Diego County, California San Francisco, California San Luis Obispo County, California San Mateo County, California Santa Barbara County, California Santa Clara County, California Santa Cruz County, California Solano County, California Sonoma County, California Ventura County, California California Coast Ranges California Coastal Records Project low altitude photographs of the entire coast California State Route 1 California's congressional districts Greater Los Angeles Area Left Coast Geology of the California Coast by geologist Andrew Alden
Rosie the Riveter/World War II Home Front National Historical Park
Rosie the Riveter/World War II Home Front National Historical Park is a United States national historical park located in Richmond, near San Francisco. The park preserves and interprets the legacy of the United States home front during World War II, including the Kaiser Richmond Shipyards, the Victory ship SS Red Oak Victory, a tank factory, housing developments and other facilities built to support America's entry into World War II. In particular, the role of women and African-Americans in war industries is explored and honored; the park is a "partnership park", meaning that no land or buildings are owned by the National Park Service, which only administers the park. This new National Park was established in 2000 and is still under development. Bus tours of the park began in 2007; the park has a visitor center in the restored Ford Building, with a number of permanent and temporary exhibits about the history of Richmond's wartime industries and workers. A film illustrates the home-front battle.
Rangers are available to answer questions, lead guided tours and conduct other interpretive programs. A self-guided auto tour with optional walking tour is available for downloading. In the summer of 2007, preliminary bus tours were begun with a new guideless model, which instead filled half of the bus with residents who spoke of their experiences from the time to put what are otherwise everyday streets for residents into a greater historical perspective; the Rosie the Riveter Memorial in Marina Bay Park is open year-round, dawn to dusk, as are the other Richmond city parks within the National Park's boundaries. The park's creation was spurred by the construction of a Rosie the Riveter memorial in a city shoreline park, to honor the "Rosies", women who made up much of the workforce at the shipyards; the four Richmond shipyards, with their combined 27 shipways, produced 747 ships, more than any other shipyard complex in the country. Richmond was home to 56 different war industries, more than any other city of its size in the United States.
The city grew nearly overnight from 24,000 people to 100,000 people, overwhelming the available housing stock, schools and community services. The effort behind the memorial was initiated by then-Councilwoman Donna Powers, it grew under Project Director Donna Graves to become the first national tribute to home front American women. The memorial is located at Marina Bay Park, the site of former Kaiser Richmond Shipyard #2, it is the length of a Liberty ship with a form of the ship being built. The simple metal pier represents the stern at the water's edge, a simple cylinder frame is the smoke stack, the bow is made of prefabricated parts similar to those assembled by the shipyard workers. A timeline of World War II is placed along the walkway running the length of the memorial. Interpretive panels within the structures present information on women's history, labor history, the home front; the Ford Motor Company Assembly Plant was the largest assembly plant. One of only three tank depots in the entire country 49,000 jeeps were assembled and 91,000 other military vehicles were processed here.
Ford employed thousands of workers at the site during World War II, many of them women who were entering the work force for the first time. "Rosie the Riveter" was a period song representing these women. In mobilizing the wartime production effort to its full potential, Federal military authorities and private industry began to work together on a scale never seen before in American history; this laid the groundwork for what became known as the "military-industrial complex" during the Cold War years. Noted architect Albert Kahn is credited with the design of the Ford plant in Richmond. After World War II, Ford moved its Northern California factory to Milpitas, where it became known as the San Jose Assembly Plant; the plant building has been restored and now houses a variety of private businesses along with the NPS visitor center. The four Richmond Shipyards were part of the Kaiser Shipyards; the construction of 747 ships during the war here is a feat not equaled anywhere else in the world, before or since.
The park's Rosie memorial is located on the former grounds of Shipyard No. 2. Shipyard No. 3 is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Both Liberty and Victory ships were constructed here; these ships were completed in two-thirds the amount of time and at a quarter of the cost of the average of all other shipyards. The SS Robert E. Peary was assembled in less than five days as a part of a special competition among shipyards; the SS Red Oak Victory is a Victory ship preserved as a museum ship. It was one of 414 Victories built during World War II, but one of only a few of these ships to be transferred from the Merchant Marine to the U. S. Navy; the vessel issued cargo and munitions to various ships in the fleet throughout 1945. During a hazardous tour of duty in the Pacific, SS Red Oak Victory handled many tons of ammunition, supplying the fleet without a single casualty; the huge explosion of workers coming to live in cities like Richmond, caused intense strain on city infrastructure.
One of these strains was the severe lack of housing. Workers arriving in these expanding urban centers were forced to find what they could, they shared "hot beds", or just camped out. Atchison Village Housing Project is an example of the local-Federal collaboration that provided much needed housing and domesti
Ford Model T
The Ford Model T is an automobile produced by Ford Motor Company from October 1, 1908, to May 26, 1927. It is regarded as the first affordable automobile, the car that opened travel to the common middle-class American; the Ford Model T was named the most influential car of the 20th century in the 1999 Car of the Century competition, ahead of the BMC Mini, Citroën DS, Volkswagen Type 1. Ford's Model T was successful not only because it provided inexpensive transportation on a massive scale, but because the car signified innovation for the rising middle class and became a powerful symbol of America's age of modernization. With 16.5 million sold it stands eighth on the top ten list of most sold cars of all time as of 2012. Although automobiles had existed for decades, they were still scarce and unreliable at the Model T's introduction in 1908. Positioned as reliable maintained, mass-market transportation, it was a runaway success. In a matter of days after the release, 15,000 orders were placed.
The first production Model T was produced on August 12, 1908 and left the factory on September 27, 1908, at the Ford Piquette Avenue Plant in Detroit, Michigan. On May 26, 1927, Henry Ford watched the 15 millionth Model T Ford roll off the assembly line at his factory in Highland Park, Michigan. Henry Ford conceived a series of cars between the founding of the company in 1903 and the introduction the Model T. Ford named his first car the Model A and proceeded through the alphabet up through the Model T, twenty models in all. Not all the models went into production; the production model before the Model T was the Model S, an upgraded version of the company's largest success to that point, the Model N. The follow-up was the Ford Model A; the company publicity said this was because the new car was such a departure from the old that Henry wanted to start all over again with the letter A. The Model T was Ford's first automobile mass-produced on moving assembly lines with interchangeable parts, marketed to the middle class.
Henry Ford said of the vehicle: I will build a motor car for the great multitude. It will be small enough for the individual to run and care for, it will be constructed of the best materials, by the best men to be hired, after the simplest designs that modern engineering can devise. But it will be so low in price that no man making a good salary will be unable to own one – and enjoy with his family the blessing of hours of pleasure in God's great open spaces. Although credit for the development of the assembly line belongs to Ransom E. Olds, with the first mass-produced automobile, the Oldsmobile Curved Dash, having begun in 1901, the tremendous advancements in the efficiency of the system over the life of the Model T can be credited entirely to the vision of Ford and his engineers; the Model T was designed by Childe Harold Wills, Hungarian immigrants Joseph A. Galamb and Eugene Farkas. Henry Love, C. J. Smith, Gus Degner and Peter E. Martin were part of the team. Production of the Model T began in the third quarter of 1908.
Collectors today sometimes classify Model Ts by build years and refer to these as "model years", thus labeling the first Model Ts as 1909 models. This is a retroactive classification scheme; the nominal model designation was "Model T", although design revisions did occur during the car's two decades of production. The Model T had a front-mounted 177-cubic-inch inline four-cylinder engine, producing 20 hp, for a top speed of 40–45 mph. According to Ford Motor Company, the Model T had fuel economy on the order of 13–21 mpg‑US; the engine was capable of running on gasoline, kerosene, or ethanol, although the decreasing cost of gasoline and the introduction of Prohibition made ethanol an impractical fuel for most users. The engines of the first 2,447 units were cooled with water pumps; the ignition system used in the Model T was an unusual one, with a low-voltage magneto incorporated in the flywheel, supplying alternating current to trembler coils to drive the spark plugs. This was closer to that used for stationary gas engines than the expensive high-voltage ignition magnetos that were used on some other cars.
This ignition made the Model T more flexible as to the quality or type of fuel it used. The system did not need a starting battery, since proper hand-cranking would generate enough current for starting. Electric lighting powered by the magneto was adopted in 1915, replacing acetylene and oil lamps, but electric starting was not offered until 1919; the Model T engine was produced for replacement needs, as well as stationary and marine applications until 1941, well after production of the Model T had ended. The Fordson Model F tractor engine, designed about a decade was similar to, but larger than, the Model T engine; the Model T was a rear-wheel drive vehicle. Its transmission was a planetary gear type billed as "three speed". In today's terms it would be considered a two-speed; the Model T's transmission was controlled with three floor-mounted pedals and a lever mounted to the road side of the driver's seat. The throttle was controlled with a lever on the steering wheel; the left pedal was used to engage the transmission.
With the floor lever in either the mid position or forward an
Point Reyes National Seashore
Point Reyes National Seashore is a 71,028-acre park preserve located on the Point Reyes Peninsula in Marin County, California. As a national seashore, it is maintained by the US National Park Service as an important nature preserve; some existing agricultural uses are allowed to continue within the park. Clem Miller, a US Congressman from Marin County wrote and introduced the bill for the establishment of Point Reyes National Seashore in 1962 to protect the peninsula from development, proposed at the time for the slopes above Drake's Bay. All of the park's beaches were listed as the cleanest in the state in 2010; the Point Reyes peninsula is a well defined area, geologically separated from the rest of Marin County and all of the continental United States by a rift zone of the San Andreas Fault, about half of, sunk below sea level and forms Tomales Bay. The fact that the peninsula is on a different tectonic plate than the east shore of Tomales Bay produces a difference in soils and therefore to some extent a noticeable difference in vegetation.
The small town of Point Reyes Station, although not located on the peninsula provides most services to it, though some services are available at Inverness on the west shore of Tomales Bay. The smaller town of Olema, about 3 miles south of Point Reyes Station, serves as the gateway to the Seashore and its visitor center, located on Bear Valley Road; the peninsula includes wild coastal beaches and headlands and uplands. Although parts of the Seashore are commercially farmed, parts are under the jurisdiction of other conservation authorities, the National Park Service provides signage and seeks to manage visitor impact on the entire peninsula and all of Tomales Bay; the Seashore administers the parts of the Golden Gate National Recreation area, such as the Olema Valley, that are adjacent to the Seashore. The northernmost part of the peninsula is maintained as a reserve for tule elk, which are seen there; the preserve is very rich in raptors and shorebirds. The Point Reyes Lighthouse attracts whale-watchers looking for the gray whale migrating south in mid-January and north in mid-March.
The Point Reyes Lifeboat Station is a National Historic Landmark. It is the last remaining example of a rail launched lifeboat station, common on the Pacific coast. Nova Albion, Francis Drake's 1579 campsite; this encompasses 5,965 acres along the coast of Drakes Bay. Kule Loklo, a recreated Coast Miwok village, is a short walk from the visitor center. More than 30,000 acres of the Point Reyes National Seashore are designated as the Phillip Burton Wilderness, named in honor of California Congressman Phillip Burton, who wrote the legislation creating the Golden Gate National Recreation Area and was instrumental in helping to pass the California Wilderness Act of 1984; the Point Reyes National Seashore attracts 2.5 million visitors annually. Hostelling International USA maintains a 45-bed youth hostel at the Seashore. Point Reyes National Seashore Association, formed in 1964, collaborates with the Seashore on maintenance and educational projects. Point Reyes State Marine Reserve & Point Reyes State Marine Conservation Area, Estero de Limantour State Marine Reserve & Drakes Estero State Marine Conservation Area and Duxbury Reef State Marine Conservation Area adjoin Point Reyes National Seashore.
Like underwater parks, these marine protected areas help conserve ocean wildlife and marine ecosystems. A large shellfish farm raising Japanese oysters, Crassostrea gigas, was located in Drakes Estero until, under court order, it closed down at end of 2014. Court appeals to keep the operation in place were dropped in December, 2014; the farm was purchased by the National Park Service in 1972, the agency issued a permit to allow the previous owner to continue operations for 40 years. The business was sold to a new owner in 2004, the Drakes Bay Oyster Company, informed by the NPS at the time of purchase that their permit to operate would not be renewed beyond the November 30, 2012 expiration date. A federal law enacted in 2009 authorized, but did not require, Interior Secretary Ken Salazar to renew the permit; the NPS and conservation groups viewed the farm as an inappropriate and environmentally-insensitive use of the estero, designated a "potential wilderness area" by Congress. The farm's supporters argued that it was not ecologically harmful and was important to the local economy.
On November 29, 2012, Salazar announced that he would not renew the permit, citing the original intent of the Point Reyes Wilderness Act to designate the area as wilderness upon the removal of the oyster farm. Salazar visited the farm the previous week and personally phoned the farm's owner to give him the news; the oyster farm closure was challenged in U. S. District Court on January 25, 2013; the challenge was rejected by a federal court judge, who ruled that the law gave Salazar unfettered discretion to approve or deny a renewal of the permit. The California Coastal Commission voted on February 7, 2013 to unanimously approve cease and desist and restoration orders for violations of the California Coastal Act; the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit rejected an appeal of the district court's decision, ruling on Sept. 3, 2013 that the oyster farm's owner had not shown a likelihood of success on the merits because Salazar had acted within his discretion in denying the permit.
An attempt to have the appeals court rehear the case was rejected on January 14, 2014 and a petition to the U