National Geographic is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society. It has been published continuously since its first issue in 1888, nine months after the Society itself was founded, it contains articles about science, geography and world culture. The magazine is known for its thick square-bound glossy format with a yellow rectangular border and its extensive use of dramatic photographs. Controlling interest in the magazine has been held by The Walt Disney Company since 2019; the magazine is published monthly, additional map supplements are included with subscriptions. It is available through an interactive online edition. On occasion, special editions of the magazine are issued; as of 2015, the magazine was circulated worldwide in nearly 40 local-language editions and had a global circulation of 6.5 million per month according to data published by The Washington Post or 6.7 million according to National Geographic. This includes a US circulation of 3.5 million. The current Editor-in-Chief of the National Geographic Magazine is Susan Goldberg.
Goldberg is Editorial Director for National Geographic Partners, overseeing the print and digital expression of National Geographic’s editorial content across its media platforms. She is responsible for news, National Geographic Traveler magazine, National Geographic History magazine and all digital content with the exception of National Geographic Kids. Goldberg reports to CEO of National Geographic Partners; the first issue of National Geographic Magazine was published on September 22, 1888, nine months after the Society was founded. It was a scholarly journal sent to 165 charter members and nowadays it reaches the hands of 40 million people each month. Starting with its January 1905 publication of several full-page pictures of Tibet in 1900–1901, the magazine changed from being a text-oriented publication closer to a scientific journal to featuring extensive pictorial content, became well known for this style; the June 1985 cover portrait of the presumed to be 12-year-old Afghan girl Sharbat Gula, shot by photographer Steve McCurry, became one of the magazine's most recognizable images.
National Geographic Kids, the children's version of the magazine, was launched in 1975 under the name National Geographic World. From the 1970s through about 2010 the magazine was printed in Corinth, Mississippi, by private printers until that plant was closed. In the late 1990s, the magazine began publishing The Complete National Geographic, a digital compilation of all the past issues of the magazine, it was sued over copyright of the magazine as a collective work in Greenberg v. National Geographic and other cases, temporarily withdrew the availability of the compilation; the magazine prevailed in the dispute, in July 2009 it resumed publishing a compilation containing all issues through December 2008. The compilation was updated to make more recent issues available, the archive and digital edition of the magazine are available online to the magazine's subscribers. On September 9, 2015, the National Geographic Society announced a deal with 21st Century Fox that would move the magazine to a new partnership, National Geographic Partners, in which 21st Century Fox would hold a 73 percent controlling interest.
In December 2017, Disney announced that it would acquire 21st Century Fox, including the latter's interest in National Geographic Partners. The magazine had a single "editor" from 1888–1920. From 1920–1967, the chief editorship was held by the president of the National Geographic Society. Since 1967, the magazine has been overseen by its own "editor-in-chief"; the list of editors-in-chief includes three generations of the Grosvenor family between 1903 and 1980. John Hyde Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor John Oliver LaGorce Melville Bell Grosvenor Frederick Vosburgh Gilbert Melville Grosvenor Wilbur E. Garrett William Graves William L. Allen Chris Johns Susan Goldberg During the Cold War, the magazine committed itself to presenting a balanced view of the physical and human geography of nations beyond the Iron Curtain; the magazine printed articles on Berlin, de-occupied Austria, the Soviet Union, Communist China that deliberately downplayed politics to focus on culture. In its coverage of the Space Race, National Geographic focused on the scientific achievement while avoiding reference to the race's connection to nuclear arms buildup.
There were many articles in the 1930s, 40s and 50s about the individual states and their resources, along with supplement maps of each state. Many of these articles were written by longtime staff such as Frederick Simpich. There were articles about biology and science topics. In years, articles became outspoken on issues such as environmental issues, chemical pollution, global warming, endangered species. Series of articles were included focusing on the history and varied uses of specific products such as a single metal, food crop, o
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
In archaeology, timber circles are circular arrangements of wooden posts interpreted as being either complexes of freestanding totem poles or as the supports for large circular buildings. Timber circles in the British Isles date to the late Neolithic and early Bronze Age; the posts themselves have long since disappeared and the sites are identified from the circles of postholes that they stood in. Aerial photography and geophysical survey have led to the discovery of increasing numbers of the features. A postpipe survives in the posthole fill aiding diagnosis, they are more than 20 metres, up to 60 metres, in diameter and the posts that constituted them were more than 50 centimetres wide. Technically, they always consist of at least two concentric circles or ovals of timbers although there are variations on the rule such as the monuments of Seahenge and Arminghall, both in East Anglia which are described as being timber circles. Wider gaps between the posts are thought to have served as entrance routes.
The builders replaced the posts as they decomposed and in some cases stone circles were adopted instead during phases. They appear either alone or in the context of other monuments, namely henges, such as that at Woodhenge and henge enclosures such as those at Durrington Walls; the only excavated examples of timber circles that stood alone from other features are Seahenge and Arminghall in Norfolk and the early phases of The Sanctuary in Wiltshire. They served ritual purposes. Animal bone and domestic waste found at many timber circle sites implies some form of temporary habitation and seasonal feasting, they were built on high ground and would have been conspicuous. Isolated burials have been found at some sites but not enough to suggest a strong funerary purpose. Timber circles have a long history among Native American societies. From the 3400 year old Archaic period Poverty Point site in Louisiana to 2000 year old Hopewell tradition circles found in Ohio to the Sun Dance performed in wooden pole "corrals" by the Dhegihan-Siouan and Caddoan speaking peoples of the Great Plains.
An early example of a timber circle witnessed by Europeans was recorded by watercolor artist John White in July 1585 when he visited the Algonquian village of Secotan in North Carolina. White was the artist-illustrator and mapmaker for the Roanoke Colony expedition sent by Sir Walter Raleigh to begin the first attempts at British colonization of the Americas. White's works represent the sole-surviving visual record of the native inhabitants of the Americas as encountered by England's first colonizers on the Atlantic seaboard. Whites watercolor and the writings of the chronicler who accompanied him, Thomas Harriot, describes a great religious festival the Green Corn ceremony, with participants holding a ceremonial dance at a timber circle; the posts of the circle were carved with faces. Harriot noted that many of the participants had come from surrounding villages and that "every man attyred in the most strange fashion they can devise havinge certayne marks on the backs to declare of what place they bee." and that "Three of the fayrest Virgins" danced around a central post at the center of the timber circle.
The oldest known timber circles in North American archaeology were found at Poverty Point in 2009 by archaeologists from the University of Louisiana at Monroe and Mississippi State University, led by Poverty Point station archaeologist Dr. Diana Greenlee, they discovered evidence in the 37.5 acres plaza area for multiple wooden post circular structures ranging from 82 feet to 206 feet in diameter. The site now has a ring of concrete posts marking the position of one of the circles. Other examples have been found at Hopewell culture sites in Ohio. Moorehead Circle was constructed about two millennia ago at the Fort Ancient Earthworks, it was discovered in 2005 by Jarrod Burks during magnetic surveys at the large hilltop enclosure near Lebanon, Ohio. The site consists of three concentric circles. Robert Riordan, Professor of Archaeology at Wright State University and lead archaeologist investigating the site, estimates that about two hundred wooden 10 feet to 15 feet tall posts were set in the outer circle.
According to radiocarbon dates performed on charcoal found at the site, it was built between 40 BCE and 130 CE, with other charcoal fragments from burnt posts dating to 250 to 420 CE, suggesting the circle was in use for several centuries. In September 2005 archaeologist Frank Cowan conducted excavations at the smaller circular enclosure at the Stubbs Earthworks in Warren County, Ohio. Carbon dating of charcoal found in post molds at the site have dated the structure to 200-300 CE; the existence of the series of woodhenges at Cahokia was discovered during salvage archaeology undertaken by Dr. Warren Wittry in the early 1960s in preparation for a proposed highway interchange. Although the majority of the site contained village house features, they formed a series of arcs of evenly spaced posts. Wittry hypothesized that the arcs could be whole circles and that the site was a calendar for tracking solar events such as solstice and equinoxes, he began referring to the circles as "woodhenges". Additional excavations found evidence for five timber circles in the general vicinity, now designated Woodhenges I through V in Roman numerals.
Each was a different diameter a
Urbana is a city in and the county seat of Champaign County, United States. The population is estimated at 41,989 as of July 1, 2017. Urbana is the tenth-most populous city in Illinois outside of the Chicago metropolitan area, it is included in the Champaign–Urbana metropolitan area. Urbana is notable for sharing the campus of the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign with its sister city of Champaign; the Urbana area was first settled in 1822, when it was called "Big Grove". When the county of Champaign was organized in 1833, the county seat was located on 40 acres of land, 20 acres donated by William T. Webber and 20 acres by Col. M. W. Busey, considered to be the city's founder, the name "Urbana" was adopted after Urbana, the hometown of State Senator Vance; the creation of the new town was celebrated for the first time in July 4, 1833. Stores began opening beginning in 1834; the first mills were founded in c.1838-50. The town's first church was built c.1840 with the Baptist Church following in 1855 and the Methodist Church in 1856.
The Presbyterian Church was founded in 1856. The city's first school was built in 1854. Urbana suffered a setback when the Chicago branch of the Illinois Central Railroad, expected to pass through town, was instead laid down two miles west, where the land was flatter; the town of West Urbana grew up around the train depot built there in 1854, in 1861 its name was changed to Champaign. The competition between the two cities provoked Urbana to tear down the ten-year-old County Courthouse and replace it with a much larger and fancier structure, to ensure that the county seat would remain in Urbana. Champaign-Urbana was selected as the site for a new state agricultural school, thanks to the efforts of Clark Griggs. Illinois Industrial University, which would evolve into the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, opened in 1868 with 77 students. A number of efforts to merge Urbana and Champaign have failed at the polls. On October 9, 1871 a fire burned much of downtown Urbana. Children playing with matches started the fire.
Downtown Urbana is located west of the intersection of its two busiest streets: U. S. 10 and U. S. 45. Most of Urbana lies south of I-74. There are three exits: Lincoln and University; the Lincoln exit is closest to the University of Illinois, while the Cunningham exit goes to downtown Urbana. The University exit goes to downtown Urbana as well as Illinois Route 130 to Philo; the Norfolk Southern operates an east to west line through Urbana. The NS line connects industries in eastern Urbana to the Norfolk Southern main line at Mansfield, west of Champaign; the line now operated by Norfolk Southern is the former Peoria & Eastern Railway operated as part of the Big Four, New York Central, Penn Central, Conrail systems, being sold by Conrail to Norfolk Southern in 1996. Construction of the line was begun by the Danville, Urbana and Pekin Railroad; this short-lived entity became part of the Indianapolis and Western Railway before the railroad was completed. A branch line of the Norfolk and Western Railway used to connect Urbana with the main line from Danville to Decatur at Sidney, but this was first rerouted and closed in the early 1990s.
Willard Airport serves the city. As of the census of 2000, there were 36,395 people, 14,327 households, 6,217 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,468.3 people per square mile. There were 15,311 housing units at an average density of 1,459.1/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 67.01% White, 14.34% African American, 0.18% Native American, 14.24% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.76% from other races, 2.45% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.54% of the population. There were 14,327 households out of which 20.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.2% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 56.6% were non-families. 36.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.14 and the average family size was 2.83. In the city, the population was spread out with 14.9% under the age of 18, 36.2% from 18 to 24, 26.4% from 25 to 44, 13.2% from 45 to 64, 9.3% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 25 years. For every 100 females, there were 111.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 111.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,819, the median income for a family was $42,655. Males had a median income of $32,827 versus $26,349 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,969. About 13.3% of families and 27.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.5% of those under age 18 and 7.2% of those age 65 or over. Urbana has Mayor-Council government, of the strong-mayor form; the city council has seven members, each elected from a different ward. The mayor is elected in a citywide vote. Urbana is located at 40°6′35″N 88°12′15″W. According to the 2010 census, Urbana has a total area of 11.69 square miles, of which 11.65 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water. Urbana borders the city of Champaign; the main campus of the University of Illinois is situated on this border. Together, these two cities are referred to as Urbana-Champaign (the designation used by th
Fortified Hill Works
Fortified Hill Works is a registered historic site near Hamilton, listed in the National Register on July 12, 1974. The site was surveyed in 1847 by Edwin Hamilton Davis; the works would be documented in Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley. They noted; as of 1847, they described the ditch as being "equal" at the steepest points of the hill, "almost obliterated" in other areas. The wall is noted as being eight to ten feet high, following the shape of the hill it was built on. There are three entrances into the earthwork; the top part of the earthwork is described as enclosing a small circle, one hundred feet in diameter, with two small mounds inside of it. A third mound, "truncated" was just north of the small circle. Both the small mounds had altars found in them after excavation. Ash and sherd were found in the altars; the two men believed. This group is called the Newark Group. Fortification
Indian Mound Reserve
Indian Mound Reserve is a public country park near the village of Cedarville, United States. Named for two different earthworks within its bounds — the Williamson Mound and the Pollock Works — the park straddles Massies Creek as it flows through a small canyon. Both forks of Massies Creek flow through Cedarville Township from the east to their confluence in the township's center, whence the creek flows westward toward the Little Miami River. For the first 2 miles below the confluence of the forks, the creek utilizes a shallow but sheer canyon that reaches as deep as 40 feet below the surface of the surrounding terrain. Nathaniel Massie is reputed to have battled a Shawnee band under Tecumseh and forced them over the stream at the canyon. By the early twentieth century, local residents had known the vicinity of the "Cliffs" as a picnicking ground for the past hundred years, calls were being made for its conversion into a park. In 1929, owners D. S. Williamson and a Xenia bank donated the Williamson Mound to the Ohio Historical Society.
Today, Indian Mound Reserve is operated as a unit of the Greene County Parks, which uses it to host events such as children's camps. Hiking trails, picnic grounds, a log cabin, Cedar Cliff Falls, the ancient earthworks are among the attractions within the park, which lies along U. S. Route 42; the earthworks are located on opposite sides of the creek: the Pollock Works on the southern side, the Williamson Mound 100 rods away on the northern side. The Williamson Mound is a large mound in a field near Massies Creek. In 1881, it was described as being "about forty feet high and one hundred and fifty in circumference, it is oval in form, has on its surface trees of a century's growth, denoting that the mound is old. From its summit can be seen a distance of several miles in every direction." Its construction was attributed to the mysterious Mound Builders of old, who constructed it as a watchtower from which to observe enemies from afar. Local residents are believed to have dug around the mound around the turn of the twentieth century, but little damage appears to have been done.
In the early 1970s, its dimensions were reported as being 150 feet in diameter by 27.5 feet in height. More recent archaeological studies of the site have concluded that it was constructed as a burial mound by people of the Adena culture in the final centuries before Christ. While the mound has never been scientifically excavated, its great size suggests that its construction took place over an extended period of time, leading archaeologists to conclude that it may contain evidence of multiple stages of Adena society as well as in the mortuary traditions practiced on those buried in the mound; the Pollock Works occupy a high promontory above the southern side of Massies Creek: both the northern and southern sides are the steep limestone walls, here averaging 25 feet in height, from which the name of "Cliffs" was derived. Although occasional fissures pierce the cliff, permitting access through the old creek channel on the promontory's southern side, only via an isthmus on the western side is the promontory accessible, due to its gentle slope.
The area of the promontory is 12 acres. Across the isthmus are the remnants of small crescent-shaped earthworks and an artificial wall, which in the 1840s measured 30 feet thick at the base and 10 feet high. Due to its comparatively inaccessible location and Davis proposed in their Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley that the site was a fortification at which a simple palisade could render the promontory impregnable; the works were discovered soon after Greene County was settled in the early nineteenth century and first made known to outsiders by Squier and Davis. In the 1910s, they were believed to have been the work of the Fort Ancient people, who were "totally different from the higher culture of the Scioto valley", who would in times of danger retreat to the isolated Fort Ancient site, it was one of eighty-four archaeological sites observed in 1914 by William C. Mills' countywide archaeological survey, which deemed the Pollock Works the county's premier site. Scientific excavations under a Wright State University archaeologist have demonstrated that the Pollock Works were built by the Hopewell in a five-stage process that started in the first century after Christ.
It appears that Squier and Davis ascertained the defensive capabilities of the site. Although the site was employed as a hill fort for part of its history, it appears to have been a religious location and one of numerous Hopewell hilltop ceremonial sites. Indian Mound Reserve is managed by the Greene County Parks, which promotes the beauty of the creek canyon and the history of the earthworks; the archaeological importance of the reserve forms the basis for programs educating elementary-school children about archaeology. Williamson Mound was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in December 1971 — becoming Greene County's first site on the Register aside from Huffman Prairie, where the Wright brothers learned to fly — and the Pollock Works followed two months later
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, the tenth most densely populated; the state's capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, whose name in turn originated from the Seneca word ohiːyo', meaning "good river", "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, Ohio was the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, the first under the Northwest Ordinance. Ohio is known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees, Ohioans are known as "Buckeyes". Ohio rose from the wilderness of Ohio Country west of Appalachia in colonial times through the Northwest Indian Wars as part of the Northwest Territory in the early frontier, to become the first non-colonial free state admitted to the union, to an industrial powerhouse in the 20th century before transmogrifying to a more information and service based economy in the 21st.
The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives. Ohio is known for its status as both a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected. Ohio is an industrial state, ranking 8th out of 50 states in GDP, is the second largest producer of automobiles behind Michigan. Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic expansion; because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity. To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River, much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, West Virginia on the southeast.
Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows: Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid. Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U. S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia, the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.
The border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated till plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp; this glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests; the rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state.
In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region." This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia. While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River, the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio River and the Mississippi; the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton; as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.
Grand Lake St. Marys in the west-central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for ca