Saint John, New Brunswick
Saint John is the coastal port city of the Bay of Fundy in the Canadian province of New Brunswick. The port is Canada’s third largest port by tonnage with a cargo base that includes dry and liquid bulk, break bulk and cruise. In 2016, after more than 40 years of population decline, the city became the second most populous city in the province for the first time, with a population of 67,575 over an area of 315.82 square kilometres. Greater Saint John covers a land area of 3,362.95 square kilometres across the Caledonia Highlands, with a population of 126,202. After the partitioning of the colony of Nova Scotia in 1784, the new colony of New Brunswick was thought to be named'New Ireland' with the capital to be in Saint John before being vetoed by Britain's King George III. Saint John is the oldest incorporated city in Canada. During the reign of George III, the municipality was created by royal charter in 1785. Saint John is the oldest of five chartered cities in Canada along with Montreal, Winnipeg and Lloydminster.
French colonist Samuel de Champlain landed at Saint John Harbour on June 24, 1604 and is where the Saint John River gets its name although Mi'kmaq and Maliseet peoples lived in the region for thousands of years prior calling the river Wolastoq. After over a century of ownership disputes over the land surrounding Saint John between the French and English, the English deported the French colonists in 1755 and constructed Fort Howe above the harbour in 1779. Saint John, as a major settlement, was established by refugees of the American Revolution when two fleets of vessels from Massachusetts, one in the spring and a second in the fall, arrived in the harbour; these Loyalist refugees wished to remain living under Great Britain and were forced to leave their U. S. homes during the American Revolution. In 1785, the City of Saint John was formed from the union of Carleton. Over the next century, waves of Irish immigration, namely during the Great Famine via Partridge Island, would fundamentally change the city's demographics and culture.
Predated by the Maritime Archaic Indian civilization, the northwestern coastal regions of the Bay of Fundy is believed to have been inhabited by the Passamaquoddy Nation several thousand years ago, while the Saint John River valley north of the bay became the domain of the Maliseet Nation. The Mi'kmaq ventured into the territory and named the area"Měnagwĕs", which means "where they collect the dead seals."Samuel de Champlain landed at Saint John Harbour in 1604, though he did not settle the area. The region was conquered by the British by the end of the Seven Years' War. After being incorporated as a city in 1785 with an influx of Loyalists from the northern of the former Thirteen Colonies and immigrants from Ireland, the city grew as a global hub for shipping and shipbuilding. In 1851 the city cemented itself as a global shipbuilding hub when the Marco Polo, built from a Saint John yard, became the fastest in the world. However, the city would struggle with its success. From 1840 to 1860 sectarian violence was rampant in Saint John resulting in some of the worst urban riots in Canadian history.
The city experienced a cholera outbreak in 1854 with the death over 1,500 people, as well as a great fire in 1877 that destroyed 40% of the city and left 20,000 people homeless. 1785: Saint John becomes the first incorporated city in what would become Canada. 1785: First quarantine station in North America, Partridge Island, established by the city's charter. In the early 19th century, it greeted sick and dying Irish immigrants arriving with inhospitable conditions. 1820: The first chartered bank in Canada, the Bank of New Brunswick. Canada's oldest publicly funded high school, Saint John High School 1838: The first penny newspaper in the Empire, the tri-weekly Saint John News, was established. 1842: Canada's first public museum known as the Gesner Museum, named after its Nova Scotian founder Abraham Gesner, the first modern commercial producer of kerosene. The museum is now known as the New Brunswick Museum. 1851: Marco Polo ship launched. She carried emigrants and passengers to Australia from England and was the first vessel to make the trip in under six months.
1849: Canada’s first labour union, the Laborer’s Benevolent Association was formed when Saint John’s longshoremen banded together to lobby for regular pay and a shorter workday. One of their first resolutions was to apply to the city council for permission to erect the bell, which would announce the beginning and end of the labourer’s 10-hour workday. 1854: The automated steam foghorn was invented by Robert Foulis. 1867: Saint John's Paris Crew rowing team became Canada's first international sporting champions when they defeated England at the International Regatta in Paris, France. 1870: Canada's first Y. W. C. A. was established. 1870: First Knights of Pythias in British Empire. 1872: Monitor top railroad cars in the world invented by James Ferguson. The original model is in the New Brunswick Museum in Saint John. 1880: First clockwork time bomb developed in 1880. 1906: The first public playground in Canada was inaugurated. 1907: The first orchestra to accompany a silent moving picture, on the North American continent, was in the old nickel theatre.
1918: One of the first police unions in Canada, the Saint John Police Protective Association, was formed in Saint John. 2010: Stonehammer UNESCO Geopark, the first Geopark in North America and centred around Saint John is formed. Situated in the south-central portion of the province, along the north shore of the Bay of Fundy at the mouth of the Saint John River, the city is split by the south-flowing river and
New Brunswick is one of four Atlantic provinces on the east coast of Canada. According to the Constitution of Canada, New Brunswick is the only bilingual province. About two thirds of the population declare themselves a third francophones. One third of the population describes themselves as bilingual. Atypically for Canada, only about half of the population lives in urban areas in Greater Moncton, Greater Saint John and the capital Fredericton. Unlike the other Maritime provinces, New Brunswick's terrain is forested uplands, with much of the land further from the coast, giving it a harsher climate. New Brunswick is 83% forested, less densely-populated than the rest of the Maritimes. Being close to Europe, New Brunswick was among the first places in North America to be explored and settled by Europeans, starting with the French in the early 1600s, who displaced the indigenous Mi'kmaq and the Passamaquoddy peoples; the French settlers were displaced when the area became part of the British Empire.
In 1784, after an influx of refugees from the American Revolutionary War, the province was partitioned from Nova Scotia. The province prospered in the early 1800s and the population grew reaching about a quarter of a million by mid-century. In 1867, New Brunswick was one of four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation, along with Nova Scotia and the Province of Canada. After Confederation, wooden shipbuilding and lumbering declined, while protectionism disrupted trade ties with New England; the mid-1900s found New Brunswick to be one of the poorest regions of Canada, now mitigated by Canadian transfer payments and improved support for rural areas. As of 2002, provincial gross domestic product was derived as follows: services 43%. Tourism accounts for about 9 % of the labour force indirectly. Popular destinations include Fundy National Park and the Hopewell Rocks, Kouchibouguac National Park, Roosevelt Campobello International Park. In 2013, 64 cruise ships called at Port of Saint John carrying on average 2600 passengers each.
Indigenous peoples have been in the area since about 7000 BC. At the time of European contact, inhabitants were the Mi'kmaq, the Maliseet, the Passamaquoddy. Although these tribes did not leave a written record, their language is present in many placenames, such as Aroostook, Petitcodiac and Shediac. New Brunswick may have been part of Vinland during the Norse exploration of North America, Basque and Norman fishermen may have visited the Bay of Fundy in the early 1500s; the first documented European visits were by Jacques Cartier in 1534. In 1604, a party including Samuel de Champlain visited the mouth of the Saint John River on the eponymous Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day. Now Saint John, this was the site of the first permanent European settlement in New Brunswick. French settlement extended up the river to the site of present-day Fredericton. Other settlements in the southeast extended from Beaubassin, near the present-day border with Nova Scotia, to Baie Verte, up the Petitcodiac and Shepody Rivers.
By the early 1700s the area was part of the French colony of Acadia, in turn part of New France. Acadia covered what is now the Maritimes, as well as bits of Maine. In the early 1700s, rivalry between Britain and France for control of territory led to the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, under which Acadia was reduced to Île Saint-Jean and Île-Royale; the ownership of New Brunswick being disputed, with an informal border on the Isthmus of Chignecto. The British prevailed, leading to the 1755 Expulsion of the Acadians. Present-day New Brunswick became part of the colony of Nova Scotia. Hostilities ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1763, Acadians returning from exile discovered several thousand immigrants from New England, on their former lands; some settled along the Saint John River. Settlement was slow. Pennsylvanian immigrants founded Moncton in 1766, English settlers from Yorkshire arrived in the Sackville area. After the American Revolution, about 10,000 loyalist refugees settled along the north shore of the Bay of Fundy, commemorated in the province's motto, Spem reduxit.
The number reached 14,000 by 1784, with about one in ten returning to America. The same year New Brunswick was partitioned from Nova Scotia and that year saw its first elected assembly; the colony was named New Brunswick in honour of George III, King of Great Britain, King of Ireland, Prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg in what is now Germany. In 1785 Saint John became Canada's first incorporated city; the population of the colony reached 26,000 in 1806 and 35,000 in 1812. The 1800s saw an age of prosperity based on wood export and shipbuilding, bolstered by The Canadian–American Reciprocity Treaty of 1854 and demand from the American Civil War. St. Martins became the third most productive shipbuilding town in the Maritimes, producing over 500 vessels; the first half of the 1800s saw large-scale immigration from Ireland and Scotland, with the population reaching 252,047 by 1861. In 1848, responsible home government was granted and the 1850s saw the emergence of political parties organised along religious and ethnic lines.
The notion of unifying the separate colonies of British North America was discussed i
Campbellton, New Brunswick
Campbellton is a city with a population of 6,883 in Restigouche County, New Brunswick, Canada. Situated on the south bank of the Restigouche River opposite Pointe-à-la-Croix, Campbellton was incorporated in 1889 and achieved city status in 1958. Forestry and tourism are major industries in the regional economy, while a pulp mill in nearby Atholville is the largest single employer in the area; as part of the tourism "industry", wealthy sportfishermen seeking Atlantic salmon flock to the scenic Restigouche Valley every summer. The region sees extensive annual snowfall. Alpine and Nordic ski facilities at Sugarloaf Provincial Park provide winter recreation opportunities for both visitors and local residents. Campbellton is a retail and service centre for Restigouche County; the area around the site of the present city was settled by French people circa 1700 with a trading post based upon fishing and fur trading with the Mi'gmaq. More settlers arrived here when Ile St. Jean was lost to the French as the result of the capitulation of Louisbourg in 1758.
The area has had numerous names over the centuries: called Wisiamkik by the Mi'kmaq who inhabited the region, it was named Pointe-des-Sauvages by the French in 1700 and subsequently Pointe-Rochelle, Cavenik's Point, Kavanagh's Point, Quiton's Point and Martin's Point, before settling in 1833 with its current name in honour of Lieutenant-Governor Sir Archibald Campbell. It was here that the Battle of the Restigouche, the final naval battle between the English and French for the possession of North America during the Seven Years' War, was waged in 1760, it marked a turning point for the settlement. Robert Ferguson and the development of Campbellton and Atholville owed their development to the enterprising immigrants from Scotland. In 1769, only nine years after the Battle of Restigouche, Scotsman Hugh Baillie and a partner set up a fur and salted salmon business on the site that would become Campbellton; the business was sold to London merchant John Shoolbred, who in 1773 established the first British settlement on the Restigouche.
His agent, William Smith, brought over eight Scottish fishermen from Aberdeen, Scotland, to work for him. Two of these fishermen were John Duncan and Robert Adams, who brought their families with them as well; these two fishermen devoted themselves to the salmon fishing industry at Old Church Point, today Atholville. In 1794, a Scotsman from Perth named Alexander Ferguson settled in Martin's Point, where his brother Robert joined him two years later. Considered the founder of Restigouche County, Robert Ferguson established his control over the development of northern New Brunswick during the first half of the 19th century. In 1803, Ferguson inherited his brother's business and became the largest merchant and exporter of fish in Restigouche; until the 1840s, he shipped between 1,400 barrels of salted salmon per year. He became the most important landowner in the region, he operated a flour mill and a sawmill and exported hewn wood. He constructed his own boats in the village that now bears the name of Atholville.
In 1812, he built an impressive residence there that he named Athol House in memory of his native region of Scotland. In 1875, the advent of the intercolonial railway, permanent railway station in 1876, had a strong impact on Campbellton, its population increased reaching 1,800 in 1891, development of the settlement shifted westward. In 1889, Campbellton was incorporated as a town, in the late 1880s, an Hôtel Dieu was founded by the Religious Hospitallers of St. Joseph, an order that established hospitals and schools in many towns in Canada. On 11 July 1910, a disastrous fire sparked by a sawmill on the waterfront destroyed a large portion of the town; the fire was spread throughout the town by flaming shingles. Prior to the fire its population was approaching 4,000 citizens and help came from near and far to provide food and supplies in order to come to their aid. Most of the people had to live in tents. Campbellton was subsequently rebuilt. In the months and years following the fire, many of the new buildings were constructed of brick as Water Street had been designated a "Fire District" where all new buildings had to be built with fireproof exterior walls.
Following the fire the railway station was moved to Roseberry St. and helped to define Campbellton in its early years. The town was bidding to become the leading commercial center in the North Shore and had three banks, five churches, two schools, 6 hotels and a hospital by the 1920s. At this time Campbellton was seeing upwards of 16 trains a day at the Central Station. In 1928, a pulp mill was built in nearby Atholville which continued to propel the population growth being experienced. Campbellton was experiencing strong growth as the population grew at a steady rate: 3,817 in 1911, 5,570 in 1921, 6,505 in 1931, 6,714 in 1941, 9,257 in 1949. In 1951, Campbellton opened its new arena, the Memorial Gardens, with an exhibition game featuring the Montreal Canadiens. In 1958, Campbellton was incorporated as a City and its population was approaching 13,000. At this time the construction of the J. C. Van Horne Interprovincial bridge commenced, designed to facilitate travel between Quebec and Northern New Brunswick.
The bridge was completed in 1961 and allowed the cross-river town of Pointe-à-la-Croix to integrate itself commercially with the City of Campbellton. The Salmon Festival was inaugurated in 1967 and has been a popular annual week-long event, enjoyed by tourists and residents alike. Campbellton's city limits were expanded in 1979. In 2009, Mayor Bruce MacIntosh and Council made significant p
Saint Croix (electoral district)
Saint Croix is a provincial electoral district for the Legislative Assembly of New Brunswick, Canada. It was created as Western Charlotte in 1994 by merging the old districts of Charlotte West and St. Stephen-Milltown save for Deer Island and Campobello Island which became part of Fundy Isles, the rather atypical name of "Western Charlotte" was chosen to prevent confusion with the old smaller district of "Charlotte West". In 2006, the district again added Campobello Island and the name was changed from Western Charlotte to Charlotte-Campobello. In 2013, the district expanded northward adding the McAdam area; the district includes the the Town of St. Andrews. In 2016, the riding was renamed Saint Croix. Website of the Legislative Assembly of New Brunswick
Fredericton is the capital of the Canadian province of New Brunswick. The city is situated in the west-central portion of the province along the Saint John River, which flows west to east as it bisects the city; the river is the dominant natural feature of the area. One of the main urban centres in New Brunswick, the city had a population of 56,224 in the 2011 census, it is the third-largest city in the province after Saint John. An important cultural and educational centre for the province, Fredericton is home to two universities, the New Brunswick College of Craft and Design, cultural institutions such as the Beaverbrook Art Gallery, the Fredericton Region Museum, The Playhouse, a performing arts venue; the city hosts the annual Harvest Jazz & Blues Festival, attracting regional and international jazz, blues and world artists. Fredericton is an important and vibrant centre point for the region's top visual artists. Fredericton has been home to some great historical Canadian painters as well, including Goodridge Roberts, Molly and Bruno Bobak.
As a provincial capital, its economy is tied to the public sector. The city has the highest percentage of residents with a post-secondary education in the province and the highest per capita income of any city in New Brunswick; the earliest known inhabitation of the area dates back 12,000 years, according to archaeologists, evidenced by recent finds. Excavations unearthed a campsite with firepit and more than 600 artifacts including stone tool fragments and arrowheads; the area of the present-day city of Fredericton was first used for seasonal farming by the Maliseet peoples. Maliseet cultivated food plants including: beans, Jerusalem artichokes, ground nuts, maize on the river banks and islands of the Saint John River. In the mid-18th century their principal village of Aucpaque was located several kilometres upriver from the site of present-day Fredericton; the first European contact was by the French in the late 17th century. Joseph Robineau de Villebon was appointed governor of Acadia. During King William's War, Villebon built Fort Nashwaak on the north side of the Saint John River, at the mouth of the Nashwaak River.
For most of the war, Fort Nashwaak served as the capital of the French colony of Acadia. French and English hostilities continued along the border. Within weeks of an attack of French and Indigenous forces launched from Fort Nashwaak on Pemaquid, the New Englanders struck back. In 1696, an expedition under command of Major Benjamin Church set out to destroy Fort Nashwaak. Commander Villebon had been prepared his defences. On 18 October, the British troops arrived near the fort, landed three cannons, assembled earthworks on the south bank of the Nashwaak River; the siege of Fort Nashwaak last for two days gunfire was fiercely exchanged, with the advantage going to the better-sited Acadian guns. The New Englanders were defeated, with 17 wounded; the Acadians sustained losses of two wounded. After Villebon's death in 1700 and a devastating flood that destroyed several French farms in the area, the fort was abandoned; the Fredericton area was first permanently settled and named Pointe-Sainte-Anne in 1732 by Acadians fleeing Nova Scotia after the British took over the territory.
Their townsite was on the south side of the river a mile upriver from Fort Nashwaak. The British captured Ste. Anne's Point during the expulsion of the Acadians, burning the settlement to the ground in the St. John River Campaign during the French and Indian War, the North American front of their Seven Years' War in Europe against France. A 1762 settlement attempt by the British was unsuccessful due to the hostility of local Acadian and Aboriginal populations; these settlers erected a community downriver at what is today the town of Maugerville. However, three fur traders settled permanently here in 1768. In 1783, United Empire Loyalists were settled in Ste. Anne's Point after the American Revolution, having left their properties in the United States, they were granted land in compensation in British North America by the Crown. Many died during the long first winter in Fredericton; the dead were buried in what became the Loyalist cemetery, still found on the south bank of the Saint John River. When spring came, more Loyalists left the new settlement to take up land grants in other areas.
When New Brunswick became a separate colony from Nova Scotia in 1784, Ste. Anne's Point became the provincial capital, winning out over Parrtown due to its central inland location; this made it less prone to American attack from the sea. A street plan was laid out to the west of the original townsite, King's College was founded, the locale was renamed "Frederick's Town", in honour of the second son of King George III of the United Kingdom, Prince Frederick Augustus, Duke of York; the name was shortened to Fredericton shortly after the city became the official provincial capital of New Brunswick on 25 April 1785. Thus, in a period of less than three years, the area of Fredericton went from being a sparsely populated region to being the capital of the new colony of New Brunswick; the same attributes that made Fredericton the capital city made it an ideal spot for a military installation. Many of th
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
New Brunswick Southwest
New Brunswick Southwest is a federal electoral district in New Brunswick, represented in the House of Commons of Canada since 2004. Its population in 2006 was 63,232; as the name implies, the district comprises the southwestern portion of New Brunswick. It includes all of Charlotte County and portions of York, Queens and Saint John Counties. Major towns include St. Stephen, St. Andrews, St. George, Grand Bay–Westfield, McAdam, Harvey Station, Fredericton Junction and the Kingsclear and Hanwell regions near Fredericton; the neighbouring ridings are Tobique—Mactaquac, Fundy Royal, Saint John. According to the Canada 2011 Census. In 1966, it was merged into Carleton—Charlotte. "Charlotte" riding was re-created in 1996 from Carleton—Charlotte, incorporating parts of Fundy—Royal, Saint John, Fredericton—York—Sunbury ridings. Shortly after the 1997 election, the riding became known as "New Brunswick Southwest"; the 2003 redistribution abolished New Brunswick Southwest. The territory of the riding was combined with the area around Belleisle Bay in south-central New Brunswick), named "St. Croix—Belleisle".
This riding was renamed "New Brunswick Southwest" in 2004. The 2012 federal electoral redistribution will see this riding gain territory from Fredericton, lose small portions to Fredericton and Fundy Royal; this riding has elected the following Members of Parliament: This riding will gain territory from Fredericton, lose small portions to Fredericton and Fundy Royal for the 42nd Canadian federal election. List of Canadian federal electoral districts Past Canadian electoral districts " Census Profile". 2011 census. Statistics Canada. 2012. Retrieved 2011-03-03. Riding history from the Library of Parliament: Charlotte 1867-1966 Charlotte 1996-1998 NBSW 1998-2003 St. Croix-Belleisle 2003-2004 NBSW 2004-present