Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
That happens, for example, across large parts of India or the Maghreb. Historically, it happened in various parts of Europe such as between Portugal, southern Belgium and southern Italy, and between Flanders and Austria. Leonard Bloomfield used the dialect area. It is analogous to a species in evolutionary biology. Dialect continua typically occur in long-settled agrarian populations, as innovations spread from their various points of origin as waves, in this situation, hierarchical classifications of varieties are impractical. Instead, dialectologists map variation of language features across a dialect continuum. The influential Atlas linguistique de la France pioneered the use of a trained fieldworker and these atlases typically consist of display maps, each showing local forms of a particular item at the survey locations. Secondary studies may include maps, showing the areal distribution of various variants. A common tool in these maps is an isogloss, a line separating areas where different variants of a particular feature predominate, in a dialect continuum, isoglosses for different features are typically spread out, reflecting the gradual transition between varieties. A bundle of coinciding isoglosses indicate a stronger dialect boundary, as might occur at geographical obstacles or long-standing political boundaries, in other cases, intersecting isoglosses and more complex patterns are found.
Standard varieties may be developed and codified from one or more locations in a continuum, in such cases the local variety is said to be dependent on, or heteronomous with respect to, the standard variety. The Scandinavian languages, Danish and Swedish, are cited as examples. Conversely, a defined in this way may include local varieties that are mutually unintelligible. The choice of standard is determined by a political boundary. As a results, speakers on either side of the boundary may use almost identical varieties, but treat them as dependent on different standards, the choice may be a matter of national, regional or religious identity, and may be controversial. In the Yugoslav republic of Macedonia, a standard was developed from local varieties within a continuum with Serbia to the north, the standard was deliberately based on varieties from the west of the republic that were most different from standard Bulgarian. Now known as Macedonian, it is the standard of the independent Republic of Macedonia.
Europe provides several examples of dialect continua, the largest of which involve the Germanic and Slavic branches of the Indo-European language family
West Frisian Dutch
The West Frisian dialect is a Dutch dialect spoken in the contemporary West Friesland region, Wieringermeer, the coastal area from Den Helder to Castricum, and the island of Texel. It is a Hollandic Dutch dialect but is influenced by Frisian and it is not to be confused with the language of the Friesland Province internationally indicated with the name West Frisian language although they are related to each other. The smaller regions and villages, such as Zijpe, slightly more different from the rest of the group is Derps, the dialect of the village Egmond aan Zee. The dialect descends from a form of the Hollandic dialect. Only about 7 to 9% of the people speak the dialect or a mixture of strong. The light dialect is more widely spoken but it is slowly beginning to become lighter. Since the 1970s there has been more interest in reading and writing the dialect, low Franconian languages Languages of the Netherlands
Primary education or elementary education is typically the first stage of compulsory education, coming between early childhood education and secondary education. Primary education usually takes place in a school or elementary school. In some countries, primary education is followed by school, an educational stage which exists in some countries. In order to achieve the goal by 2015, the United Nations estimated that all children at the entry age for primary school would have had to have been attending classes by 2009. This would depend on the duration of the level, as well as how well the schools retain students until the end of the cycle. As of 2010, the number of new teachers needed in sub-Saharan Africa alone, the gender gap for children not in education had been narrowed. Between 1999 and 2008, the number of not in education worldwide had decreased from 57 percent to 53 percent, however it should be noted that in some regions. According to the United Nations, there are things in the regions that have already been accomplished.
The country doubled its enrollment ratio over the same period, other regions in Latin America such as Guatemala and Nicaragua as well as Zambia in Southern Africa broke through the 90 percent towards greater access to primary education. In Australia, students undertake preschool 13 years of schooling before moving to vocational or higher education, Primary schooling for most children starts after they turn 5 years old. In most states, children can be enrolled earlier at the discretion of individual school principals on the basis of intellectual giftedness, in Victoria, New South Wales, Northern Territory, ACT and Tasmania students move through Kindergarten/Preparatory School/Reception and Years 1 to 6 before starting high school. Pre-School/Kindergarten,4 to 5 years old Prep, currently, at the age of 6 children attend from the grade 1 to 4 what is called Ensino Primário, and afterwards from grade 5 to 9 the Ensino Fundamental. At the age of 15 the teenagers go to Ensino Médio, which is equivalent High School in other countries, Primary school is mandatory and consists in nine years called Ensino Fundamental, separated in Ensino Fundamental I and Ensino Fundamental II.
Primary school is followed by the three years called Ensino Médio. 1st grade, 15- to 16-year-olds, 2nd grade, 16- to 17-year-olds, 3rd grade, in Canada, primary school usually begins at ages three or four, starting with either Kindergarten or Grade 1 and lasts until age 13 or 14. Many places in Canada have a split between primary and elementary schools, in Nova Scotia elementary school is the most common term. The provincial government of Nova Scotia uses the term Primary instead of Kindergarten, most children are pupils in the Danish Folkeskolen, which has the current grades, Kindergarten, 3–6 years https, //meta. wikimedia. The first three grades of school are called Algkool which can be translated as beginning school and can be confused with primary school
A bog is a wetland that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, sphagnum moss. It is one of the four types of wetlands. Other names for bogs include mire and muskeg and they are frequently covered in ericaceous shrubs rooted in the sphagnum moss and peat. The gradual accumulation of decayed plant material in a bog functions as a carbon sink, Bogs occur where the water at the ground surface is acidic and low in nutrients. In some cases, the water is derived entirely from precipitation, water flowing out of bogs has a characteristic brown colour, which comes from dissolved peat tannins. In general, the low fertility and cool climate results in relatively slow plant growth, large areas of landscape can be covered many metres deep in peat. Bogs have distinctive assemblages of animal and plant species, Bogs are widely distributed in cold, temperate climes, mostly in boreal ecosystems in the Northern Hemisphere. The worlds largest wetland is the bogs of the Western Siberian Lowlands in Russia.
Large peat bogs occur in North America, particularly the Hudson Bay Lowland and they are less common in the Southern Hemisphere, with the largest being the Magellanic moorland, comprising some 44,000 square kilometres. Sphagnum bogs were widespread in northern Europe but have often been cleared and drained for agriculture, a 2014 expedition leaving from Itanga village, Republic of the Congo discovered a peat bog as big as England which stretches into neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo. There are many highly specialised animals and plants associated with bog habitat, most are capable of tolerating the combination of low nutrient levels and waterlogging. Sphagnum moss is generally abundant, along with ericaceous shrubs, the shrubs are often evergreen, which is understood to assist in conservation of nutrients. In drier locations, evergreen trees can occur, in case the bog blends into the surrounding expanses of boreal evergreen forest. Sedges are one of the more common herbaceous species, carnivorous plants such as sundews and pitcher plants have adapted to the low-nutrient conditions by using invertebrates as a nutrient source.
Orchids have adapted to these conditions through the use of fungi to extract nutrients. Some shrubs such as Myrica gale have root nodules in which nitrogen fixation occurs, Bogs are recognized as a significant/specific habitat type by a number of governmental and conservation agencies. They can provide habitat for mammals, such as caribou, the United Kingdom in its Biodiversity Action Plan establishes bog habitats as a priority for conservation. Russia has a reserve system in the West Siberian Lowland
Gronings and the strongly related varieties in East Frisia have a strong Frisian influence and take a remarkable position within West Low German. The dialect is characterized by an accent and vocabulary, which differ strongly from the other Low Saxon dialects. The name Gronings can almost be defined geographically, as can be seen on the map below and this is especially true for the northern part of Drenthe. The Drents, spoken in the north of the province of Drenthe is somewhat related with the Groninger language, but the core linguistics is Drents. For the dialects in the southeast, called Veenkoloniaals, its a bit different on both sides of the Groningen-Drenthe border, as the dialect spoken there is more related to Gronings. In the Frisian municipality of Kollumerland en Nieuwkruisland, the dialect called Westerkwartiers is spoken. The latter is spoken in the Frisian village of Kollumerpomp and has more West Frisian influences, most words are written the same way, but the pronunciation can differ.
North German Low Saxon, Dat eenzige, dat wi nich doot, is Snabbelkraam uutdeeln, Standard Dutch, Het enige wat we niet doen is snoep uitdelen. Standard German, Das einzige, was wir nicht machen, ist Süßigkeiten austeilen, The anerly thing we dinnae dae is gie oot snashters. English, The only thing we dont do is hand out sweets, there are many uncertainties about the classification and categorization of Gronings. Some linguists see it as a variety of Low German, called Nedersaksisch in the Netherlands and these words are actually more political than linguistic, because they unite a large group of very differing varieties. Categorizing Gronings as Low German could be considered correct, but there is controversy surrounding the existence of the unity of Low German. Others, especially German linguists, see Gronings-East Frisian as a group of German dialects. The Frisian influence, the sounds ou, ai and ui, Gronings-East Frisian would be categorized as Friso-Saxon dialects instead of Low German. Other linguists categorize all Gronings-East Frisian dialects as North Low German, in that case, all the other Low German varieties in the Netherlands are categorized as Westphalian.
Dutch linguists in particular classify Gronings as Dutch Low Saxon, in Germany called Westplatt, in this case the Dutch influence is crucial, while the dialects on the other side of the national border are strongly influenced by High German languages. In this case there is no separation between Groningen-East Frisian and Westphalian, but rather a difference between Groningen and East Frisian, the national border would equal the linguistic border. The Gronings dialects are a kind of mix between two languages, Old Frisian and Middle Low German, Frisian was spoken in the Ommelanden, while the city, the surrounding rural area called Gorecht and the eastern lordship of Westerwolde were Low Saxon
Old Frisian is a West Germanic language spoken between the 8th and 16th centuries in the area between the Rhine and Weser on the European North Sea coast. The Frisian settlers on the coast of South Jutland spoke Old Frisian, the language of the earlier inhabitants of the region between the Zuiderzee and Ems River is attested in only a few personal names and place-names. Old Frisian evolved into Middle Frisian, spoken from the 16th to the 19th century, in the early Middle Ages, Frisia stretched from the area around Bruges, in what is now Belgium, to the Weser River in northern Germany. At the time, the Frisian language was spoken along the entire southern North Sea coast and this region is referred to as Greater Frisia or Frisia Magna, and many of the areas within it still treasure their Frisian heritage. However, by 1300, their territory had been pushed back to the Zuiderzee, hence, a close relationship exists between Old Frisian and Old English. Generally, Old Frisian phonologically resembles Old English, in particular, it shares the palatalisation of velar consonants found in Old English.
For example, whereas the closely related Old Saxon and Old Dutch retain the velar in dag, Old Frisian has dei, when followed by front vowels the Germanic /k/ changed to a /tʃ/ sound. The Old Frisian for church was tzirke or tzerke, in Old English it was ċiriċe, while Old Saxon, another feature shared between the two is Anglo-Frisian brightening, which fronted a to e under some circumstances. In unstressed syllables, o merges into a, and i into e as in Old English, the old Germanic diphthongs *ai and *au become ē/ā and ā, respectively, in Old Frisian, as in ēn/ān from Proto-Germanic *ainaz, and brād from *braudą. In comparison, these diphthongs become ā and ēa in Old English, the diphthong *eu generally becomes ia, and Germanic *iu is retained. These diphthongs initially began with a i, but the stress shifts to the second component, giving to iā. For example, thiād and liūde from Proto-Germanic *þeudō and *liudīz, between vowels, h generally disappears, as in Old English and Old Dutch. Word-initial h- on the hand is retained.
Some of the texts that are preserved from this period are from the 12th or 13th centuries, all these texts are restricted to legal writings. These runic writings however usually consist of no more than inscriptions of a single or few words and Philadelphia, John Benjamins,2009. They show a degree of linguistic uniformity. Westeremden yew-stick Fon Alra Fresena Fridome Hunsigo MSS H1, H2, Ten Commandements,17 petitiones Londriucht Thet Freske Riim Skeltana Riucht law code
Eiderstedt Frisian was a dialect of the North Frisian language which was originally spoken on Eiderstedt, formerly part of the Danish Duchy of Schleswig. The Frisian language became extinct on Eiderstedt in mid-18th-Century, in contrast to the northern hundreds, Eiderstedt was economically strong and wealthy and was oriented towards the southern, Low German parts of Holstein. During the 16th century there was moreover a strong Dutch immigration, Eiderstedt Frisian is attributed to the insular dialects, but there are characteristics of the mainland dialects. The difference between the insular and the mainland dialects dates back to the Frisian immigrants during several different centuries, nils Århammar, Das Nordfriesische im Sprachkontakt In, Horst Haider Munske, Handbuch des Friesischen / Handbook of Frisian Studies. Tübingen 2001, ISBN 978-3-484-73048-9, S.328 f