Girraween National Park
Girraween National Park is an area of the Granite Belt in the Darling Downs region of Queensland, Australia reserved as a national park. Girraween is known for dramatic landscapes and unique wildlife. Bushwalking and rock climbing are the most popular activities in the park; the park is situated 40 km south of Stanthorpe. The southern boundary of the park is the state border between New South Wales, it is a twin park with Bald Rock National Park, which lies across the border in New South Wales, features Bald Rock, the second-largest monolith on the continent. Curiously, South Bald Rock and West Bald Rock lie in Girraween National Park in Queensland, not in Bald Rock National Park in New South Wales, it features granite landscapes, balancing boulders, clear streams, wetlands and open forest. The granite outcroppings, such as the Pyramids and Castle Rock at 1112 m, dominate the local scenery; the park contains many kilometres of graded walking trails to the park's major features like the First Pyramid, Second Pyramid, The Sphinx, Turtle Rock, Underground Creek, the Eye of the Needle and Mount Norman - the highest point in the park at 1267 metres.
Fire trails can be followed when venturing into the eastern sections of the park. The park has a temperate climate. During winter snow can fall in the area. Girraween is an Aboriginal word meaning'place of flowers' and the best time to see the local flora is late in July when the Golden Wattle blooms; the park has abundant fauna, including some that are seen elsewhere in Queensland, such as the common wombat, spotted quoll and the turquoise parrot. The area is noted for its diverse flora; the eucalypt forests and heathlands provide habitat for abundant birdlife. In spring, many wildflowers bloom, this led to its being called "place of flowers" in the indigenous language; the area is the only place. In 1992, Taronga Park Zoo staff discovered the rare Bald Rock Creek turtle; the species has only been found within a ten km stretch of the creek. Camping facilities are provided by the Queensland Department of National Parks at Bald Rock Creek and Castle Rock. Both sites have toilets and showers available, the latter is suitable for caravans and has disabled access to the amenities block.
Protected areas of Queensland C. R. Twidale. Landforms and Geology of Granitic Terrains. CRC Press. ISBN 0-415-36435-3. Queensland Government and Resource Management, Official site for Girraween National Park Girraween National Park, Australia Girraween National Park QLD www.exploroz.com
Keppel Bay Islands National Park
Keppel Bay Islands are part of both a national park and a scientific national park in Queensland, Australia 538 km and 518 km northwest of Brisbane. The islands are positioned in Keppel Bay, off the coast of Yeppoon and Emu Park on the Capricorn Coast; the largest island and a popular tourist attraction is Great Keppel Island. From the early 1950s to about 1994, a small resort of about twelve cabins on North Keppel Island was operated by old Mr Walls, a former train driver. Old Mr Walls was assisted by his daughter and her husband, who lived on the island, his son Tim Walls operated the boat service to the Island, firstly in a boat called the Somerset, out of Ross Creek, Yeppoon in a larger boat called the Keppel Star, out of the Roslyn Bay Boat Harbour. More the island has been run by the Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service. Camping, reef walking, fishing, wildlife watching and snorkelling are all popular activities within the park. Protected areas of Queensland
Palmgrove National Park
Palmgrove is a national park in south-central Queensland, Australia. It lies 458 km north-west of Brisbane, it is listed as a National Park under the Nature Conservation Act 1992, so giving it the highest level of protection possible under the Act. It was established in order to protect ecosystems of exceptional scientific value, it is located within the Dawson River catchment area. Palmgrove lies in moderately dry, dissected sandstone country; the vegetation includes a variety of eucalypt woodland and forest communities as well as vine and Acacia thickets. The area is isolated. Threatened ecosystems present in the park include: Acacia harpophylla - Eucalyptus cambageana open forest to woodland on fine-grained sedimentary rocks Semi-evergreen vine thicket on fine grained sedimentary rocks Acacia harpophylla and/or Casuarina cristata open forest on fine-grained sedimentary rocks Macropteranthes leichhardtii thicket on fine grained sedimentary rocks Semi-evergreen vine thicket in sheltered habitats on medium to coarse-grained sedimentary rocksNorthern quolls have been recorded in the park.
The park has been identified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area because it supports an isolated, the westernmost, population of black-breasted buttonquails, listed as vulnerable. The rare and threatened ecosystems contained in the park are buttonquail habitat. Glossy black cockatoos considered to be vulnerable, are present. Protected areas of Queensland
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund
Capricorn Coast National Park
Capricorn Coast is a national park in the Shire of Livingstone, Australia. The park is 535 km northwest of Brisbane, it covers about 114 hectares, is divided into five sections: Vallis Park, Rosslyn Head, Double Head, Bluff Point, Pinnacle Point. The five sections were amalgamated into a single national park in 1994. Protected areas of Queensland
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Crows Nest National Park
Crows Nest is a national park on the Darling Downs of southern Queensland, Australia. It is divided into a number of section which are located in both Crows Nest and Grapetree, 40 km west of Esk in the South East Queensland bioregion. A 236 ha national park was first declared in 1967; the park has been extended south along the Great Dividing Range and now covers 17.9 km2. The geology of the area is dominated by granites with domed outcrops; the vegetation in the park is open eucalypt forest. Species such as the hoop pine, weeping bottlebrush, river she-oak and swamp mahogany can be found along creek banks; the main watercourse in the park is Crows Nest Creek, a tributary of Cressbrook Creek, itself a tributary of the Brisbane River. About 4% of the park is riverine wetlands. Crows Nest is known for its rugged landscape, a sparkling gorge called Valley of Diamonds; this valley is so-called because of the mineral felspar. Lookouts, wildflower heaths, wildlife observing and birdwatching are popular attractions for visitors.
A total of 10 rare or threatened species have been identified in Crows Nest National Park. The park has lookouts, camping, to which fees apply. Protected areas of Queensland