A model is a person with a role either to promote, display or advertise commercial products, or to serve as a visual aid for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography. Modelling is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not considered to be "modelling". Types of modelling include: fashion, fitness, fine art, body-part and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, films, newspapers and television. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films. Celebrities, including actors, sports personalities and reality TV stars take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work. Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed.
The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. This became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs. With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained anonymous, poorly paid, until the late 1950s. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, popular in the 1930s. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Gerard Ford in New York. One of the most popular models during the 1940s was Jinx Falkenburg, paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940s and 1950s, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain recognition in Paris.
However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950s were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33". In the 1960s, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960s, Italy was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay, they would pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents.
It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumoured; this led many agencies to form worldwide chains. By the late 1960s, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling, it was during this period. Models such as Jean Shrimpton, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Penelope Tree, dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of'66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £ 80 an hour. In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents; the formation of this association changed the fashion industry.
With a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding; that same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960s, models were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing; the innovations of the 1960s flowed into the 1970s fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies b
Richard Saturnino Owens, known as Rick Owens, is an American fashion designer from Porterville, California. Rick Owens was raised in California, his parents are Concepción "Connie" Owens. Connie is Mexican. Owens was raised in a Catholic household. After graduating high school, he moved to Los Angeles to study fashion design at Otis College of Art and Design, in Los Angeles, for two years before taking pattern-making and draping courses at Los Angeles Trade-Technical College; this led designing copies of designer clothing. Owens launched his fashion line in 1994, he moved to Paris in 2003 with his companion and wife Michèle Lamy, setting up his home and atelier inside a historic five-storey building that served as offices for former French President François Mitterrand. His runway collections have been mounted in Paris since then. In July 2005, Owens introduced a furniture collection. Using raw plywood and moose antlers, the collection is inspired by his favorite shapes from Eileen Gray to Brâncuși to California skate parks.
The furniture collection has since been shown at the Musée d'Art modern in Paris and the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles. In 2013 Owens exhibited his'Prehistoric' collection at Carpenters Workshop Gallery in London. Owens' design colour palette in this seven piece collection stretches from white to black, stopping nowhere in between. "The show is entitled'Prehistoric' – a name that reflects its inspiration, the origins of humanity, it recalls a mysterious ancient civilisation. Its aura is one of spiritual ritual, archaic ceremony and supreme power". A recipient of the 2002 Perry Ellis award for emerging talent and the lifetime achievement award by the council of fashion designers of America in 2017, Rick owens was awarded the cooper-hewitt design award for fashion design, as well as the fashion group international rule breaker award in 2007. Owens has authored 3 books — l'ai-je bien descendu?, published in 2007, Rick owens, published in 2011, Rick owens furniture. On December 15, 2017, Rick Owens' first museum exhibition and retrospective, chronicling over 20 years of his life's work, entitled, "Subhuman Inhuman Superhuman" opened at the Triennale di Milano.
In January 2019, Owens dedicated his fashion show to Larry LeGaspi, the man he considers his creative forefather. Owens has worked for years on a book about LeGaspi, to be published in 2019. Owen introduced Gaspi in his fall and winter 2019 women’s runway collection, "For me, as a teenager growing up in Porterville, what Larry LeGaspi did was a huge thing—the way he infiltrated middle America with this subversive sensibility e connects with soul culture—black soul culture and music ll of this stuff coming together was important to this kid in Porterville." And, "I do think of Larry’s as a kind of biblical story... about the glory of lust and vice, something I talk about a lot, but about dissipation and decline—which I talk about a lot... When I was 15, I wanted to be dissipated, and now I am, a little bit. But there is responsibility." Owenscorp Rick Owens Official Site Voguepedia - Rick Owens Voguelist - Rick Owens Rick Owens at FMD
Saks Fifth Avenue
Saks Fifth Avenue is an American chain of luxury department stores owned by the oldest commercial corporation in North America, the Hudson's Bay Company. Its main flagship store is located on Fifth Avenue in New York City. Saks Fifth Avenue is the successor of a business founded by Andrew Saks in 1867 and incorporated in New York in 1902 as Saks & Company. Saks died in 1912, in 1923 Saks & Co. merged with Gimbel Brothers, Inc., owned by a cousin of Horace Saks, Bernard Gimbel, operating as a separate autonomous subsidiary. On September 15, 1924, Horace Saks and Bernard Gimbel opened Saks Fifth Avenue in New York City, with a full-block avenue frontage south of St. Patrick's Cathedral, facing what would become Rockefeller Center; the architects were Starrett & van Vleck, who developed a reticent, genteel Anglophile classicizing facade similar to their Gimbels Department Store in Pittsburgh. When Bernard's brother, Adam Gimbel, became president of Saks Fifth Avenue in 1926 after Horace Saks's sudden passing, the company expanded, opening seasonal resort branches in Palm Beach and Southampton, New York, in 1928.
The first full-line year-round Saks store opened in Chicago, in 1929, followed by another resort store in Miami Beach, Florida. In 1938, Saks expanded to the West Coast, opening in California. By the end of the 1930s, Saks Fifth Avenue had a total of 10 stores, including resort locations such as Sun Valley, Mount Stowe, Newport, Rhode Island. More full-line stores followed with Detroit, Michigan, in 1940 and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in 1949. In Downtown Pittsburgh, the company moved to its own freestanding location one block from its former home on the fourth floor in the downtown Gimbel's flagship; the San Francisco location opened in 1952, competing locally with I. Magnin. BATUS Inc. acquired Gimbel Bros. Inc. and its Saks Fifth Avenue subsidiary in 1973 as part of its diversification strategy. More expansion followed from the 1960s through the 1990s including the Midwest, the South in Texas. In 1990, BATUS sold Saks to Investcorp S. A. which took Saks public in 1996 as Saks Holdings, Inc. In 1990, "Saks Off 5th" was launched, an outlet store offshoot of the main brand, with 107 stores worldwide by 2016.
In 1998, Proffitt's, Inc. the parent company of Proffitt's and other department stores, acquired Saks Holdings Inc. Upon completing the acquisition, Proffitt's, Inc. changed its name to Inc.. Since 2000 Saks has opened international locations in Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kazakhstan and Mexico City. In August 2007, the United States Postal Service began an experimental program selling the plus zip code extension to businesses; the first company to do so was Saks Fifth Avenue, which received the zip code of 10022-7463 for the eighth-floor shoe department in its flagship Fifth Avenue store. During the 2007–2009 recession, Saks Fifth Avenue had to close some stores and to cut prices and profit margins, thus according to Reuters "training shoppers to expect discounts, it took three years before it could start selling at closer to full price". In the following years, the company closed stores in locations including Orange County, Pittsburgh, Chicago and in June 2013 its last Dallas store to implement the "strategy of employing our resources in our most productive locations".
As of 2013, the New York flagship store, whose real estate value was estimated between $800 million and over $1 billion at the time, generated around 20% of Saks' annual sales at $620 million, with other stores being less profitable according to analysts. On July 29, 2013, the Hudson's Bay Company, owner of the competing chain Lord & Taylor, announced it would acquire Saks Fifth Avenue's parent company for US$2.9 billion. Plans called for up to seven Saks Fifth Avenues to open in major Canadian markets. Expansion into Canada is expected to compete with Canadian Holt Renfrew chain and challenge Nordstrom's expansion into Canada, which began in summer 2014 with the opening of a Nordstrom store in Calgary. In January 2014, HBC announced the first Saks store in Canada would occupy 150,000 sq ft in its flagship Queen Street building in downtown Toronto, connected to the Toronto Eaton Centre via sky bridge; the store opened in February 2016 with a second Toronto area location in the Sherway Gardens shopping center opening in spring 2016.
On February 22, 2018, Saks Fifth Avenue opened its third Canadian store in Alberta. Starting in 2015 Saks began a $250 million, three-year restoration of its Fifth Avenue flagship store. In the summer of 2015, it was announced that Saks will debut a new location in Greenwich, Connecticut. In the fall of 2015, Saks was planning to replace its existing store at the Houston Galleria with a new store. In February 2017, Saks was reported to be in advanced talks with Indian retailer Aditya Birla Fashion Retail Ltd. to open two stores in India. The stores are expected to be located at Aerocity in Delhi, the Bandra Kurla Complex in Mumbai. In September 2017, Saks Fifth Avenue would be introducing new futuristic salon concept at stores through a partnership with the Warren Tricomi. In 2005, vendors filed against Saks alleging unlawful chargebacks; the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission investigated the complaint for years and, according to the New York Times, "exposed a tangle of illicit tactics that let Saks... keep money it owed to clothing makers", inflating Saks' yearly earnings up to 43% and abusively collecting around $30 million from suppliers over seven years.
Saks settled with the SEC in 2007, after firing three or more executives involved in the fraudulent activities. In 2014, Saks fired transgender employee Leyth Jamal after she was "belittled by cowo
Cole Haan is a global men's and women's footwear and accessories brand, founded in Chicago, USA in 1928. Cole Haan has headquarters in both New York City and Greenland, New Hampshire, United States; the company name comes from founders Trafton Cole and Eddie Haan, was named “Cole, Rood & Haan” when the company was a men's footwear label. Today it offers many products, including men's and women's dress and casual footwear, hosiery, gloves, hats and sunglasses. Cole Haan was sold to a group of partners headed by George Denney in 1975; these executives built upon the foundation established by Cole and Haan over the following decade, transforming the label into one of the leading U. S. footwear brands. They launched a retail division in 1982, which comprised 40 plus stores worldwide and cumulative annual sales of nearly $70 million by 1996. Nike Inc. announced on May 31, 2012, that it was removing its stake in Cole Haan to focus on other complementary brands and the Nike brand itself. Cole Haan was bought by Apax Partners Worldwide LLP for $570 million on November 16, 2012, from Nike, Inc..
Cole Haan has its headquarters in Greenland, New Hampshire, its design center in New York City. Jack A. Boys is its current CEO; the Cole Haan Maine headquarters relocated from Yarmouth to Scarborough in summer 2011. In October 2013 it was announced that the headquarters would relocate to New Hampshire. Horween Leather Company supplies leather shells for footwear to Cole Haan. Cole Haan stores are located in: Flatiron, New York City World Trade Center, New York City Rockefeller Center, New York City Soho, New York City Columbus Circle, New York City Woodbury Commons, Woodbury, NY Century City, California Costa Mesa, California Honolulu, Hawaii Boston, Massachusetts Dallas, Texas San Francisco, California Tokyo, Japan Doha, Qatar Toronto, Canada Cole Haan products are sold at retailers such as Nordstrom, Shoe Carnival, Macy's, Lord & Taylor, Neiman Marcus, Hudson's Bay Company and other department stores and independent stores nationwide, as well as through its own outlet stores found in outlet malls throughout the country.
Additionally, Cole Haan has stores and shop-in-shops globally in countries including Indonesia, China, Guatemala, Thailand, The Philippines, Canada. Cole Haan has hoped to expand its business into Europe, but does not have any stores there nor in Australia or New Zealand. On February 25, 2008, the company announced it would discontinue using real animal fur in its products for business and sustainability reasons. Cole Haan chose Russian tennis star Maria Sharapova to headline its Spring 2009 and Fall 2009 advertising campaigns. Cole Haan has done collaborations with designers and tastemakers including a men's footwear capsule collection with CFDA-nominated menswear designer Todd Snyder and a collection of women's ballet flats designed in partnership with three dancers of New York City Ballet, Sara Mearns, Megan Fairchild, Gretchen Smith. Cole Haan official website
Hennes & Mauritz AB is a Swedish multinational clothing-retail company known for its fast-fashion clothing for men, women and children. H&M and its associated companies operate in 62 countries with over 4,500 stores and as of 2015 employed around 132,000 people, it is the second-largest global clothing retailer, just behind Spain-based Inditex. The company has a significant online presence, with online shopping available in 33 countries: The company was founded by Erling Persson in 1947, when he opened his first shop in Västerås, Sweden; the shop, called Hennes sold women's clothing. A store was opened in Norway in 1964. In 1968, Persson acquired the hunting apparel retailer Mauritz Widforss, which led to the inclusion of a menswear collection in the product range and the name change to Hennes & Mauritz; the company was listed on the Stockholm Stock Exchange in 1974. Shortly after, in 1976, the first store outside Scandinavia opened in London. H&M continued to expand in Europe, began to retail online in 1998, when it was able to buy the domain hm.com from a company called A1 in a non-published domain transaction.
The two-letter domain was registered in the early 1990s. The opening of the first U. S. store on 31 March 2000, on Fifth Avenue in New York marked the start of the expansion outside of Europe. In 2008, the company announced in a press release. Distributed through the company's online catalog, there are now H&M Home stores located internationally. Following expansion in Asia and the Middle East and the launch of concept stores including COS, Weekday and Cheap Monday, in 2009 and 2010, branding consultancy Interbrand ranked the company as the twenty-first most-valuable global brand, making it the highest-ranked retailer in the survey, its worth was estimated at $12–16 billion. H&M operated 2,325 stores at the end of 2011, 2,629 stores at the end of August 2012, its 3,000 th store opened in September 2013 in China. In November 2004, selected company stores offered an exclusive collection by fashion designer Karl Lagerfeld; the press reported large crowds and that the initial inventories in the larger cities were sold out within an hour, although the clothes were still available in less fashion-sensitive areas until the company redistributed them to meet with demand.
In November 2006, the company launched a collection by Stella McCartney and, in November 2006, by avant-garde Dutch designers Viktor & Rolf. In March 2007, it launched another collaboration designed by the pop star Madonna. In June 2007 the company worked with game developers Maxis to create a stuff pack for the latter's The Sims 2 computer game, H&M Fashion Stuff. In November 2007, the company launched a collection by Italian designer Roberto Cavalli, it was reported that the clothing sold out quickly. In 2007, another design with Kylie Minogue was launched in Shanghai, China. In the spring of 2008 the Finnish company Marimekko was selected as guest designer and was followed by Japanese Comme des Garçons in the fall. In 2008, H&M used the song "Hang On" by British singer-songwriter Lettie as background music to its UK website. For spring and summer 2009, the British designer Matthew Williamson created two exclusive ranges for the company – the first being a collection of women's clothes released in selected stores.
The second collection saw Williamson branch into menswear for the first time, only in selected stores. The second collection featured swimwear for men and women and was available in every company store worldwide. On 14 November 2009, the company released a limited-edition diffusion collection by Jimmy Choo featuring shoes and handbags, ranging from £30 to £170 including a range of men's shoes; the collection included clothing designed by Choo for the first time, many garments made from suede and leather, was available in 200 stores worldwide, including London's Oxford Circus store. Sonia Rykiel collaborated with the company, by designing a ladies knitwear and lingerie range, released in selected company stores on 5 December 2009. For Fall 2010, the company collaborated with French fashion house Lanvin as its 2010 guest designer. In March 2011, the brand's clothing was featured in an interactive fashion art film by Imagine Fashion called "Decadent Control", starring Roberto Cavalli, Kirsty Hume, Eva Herzigová and Brad Kroenig.
For Spring/Summer 2011, the company collaborated with fashion blogger Elin Kling, available at selected stores only. In June 2011, H&M announced a collaboration with Versace, released on 19 November. Versace planned a Spring collaboration with H&M, only available in countries with online sales. Similar to previous collaborations, Versace agreed to let H&M use the renowned name of the company for a agreed upon sum, without having a role in the design process. In November 2011, H&M announced a collaboration plan with Marni, that launched in March 2012; the campaign was directed by award-winning director Sofia Coppola. Lana Del Rey was the face of the plotted music video for the 2012 global summer collection, where she sang a cover of “Blue Velvet”. On 4 October 2012, Japanese Vogue editor Anna Dello Russo launched an accessories collection at H&M as Paris Fashion Week drew to an end; the collection was stocked in 140 H&M stores worldwide and sold through the H&M website On 12 June 2012, H&M confirmed that it would launch a collaboration with avant-garde label Maison Martin Margiela for a fall rollout.
The Maison Martin Margiela collection for H&M hit stores on 15 November 2012. Beyoncé was the face of H&M in summer 2013, her campaign, which b
J. Crew Group, Inc. is an American multi-channel, specialty retailer. The company offers an assortment of women's, men's and children's apparel and accessories, including swimwear, lounge-wear, sweaters, dresses, suiting and shoes; as of August 2016, it operates more than 450 retail stores throughout the United States. The company conducts its business through retail, crew cuts, Madewell stores and online. In 1947, Mitchell Cinader and Saul Charles founded Popular Merchandise, Inc. a store which did business as Popular Club Plan and sold low-priced women's clothing marketed through in-home demonstrations. Throughout the mid-1980s, sales from catalog operations grew rapidly. "Growth was explosive—25 to 30 percent a year," Cinader recollected in The New York Times. Annual sales grew from $3 million to more than $100 million over five years. In 1985, the "Clifford & Wills" brand was launched, selling women’s clothing, more affordable than the Popular Merchandise line. In 1987, two executives left the company to start Tweeds.
The 1980s marked a booming sales period for catalog retail giants Lands' End, L. L. Bean. Popular Merchandise initiated its own catalog operation, focusing on leisurewear for upper-middle-class customers, aiming for a Ralph Lauren look at a much lower price; the first Popular Club Plan catalog was mailed to customers in January 1983 and continued under that name until 1989. Popular Club Plan catalogs showed the same garment in more than one picture with close-up shots of the fabrics, so customers could get a sense of how the garment looked on the body and be assured of the company's claims of quality. In 1983, Popular Merchandise, Inc. became known as J. Crew, Inc; the company failed to sell the Popular Club Plan brand. In 1989, J. Crew opened its first retail store, in South Street Seaport in downtown Manhattan. J. Crew Group was owned by the Cinader family for most of its existence, but in October 1997 investment firm Texas Pacific Group Inc. purchased a majority stake. By the year 2000, Texas Pacific held an approximate 62 percent stake, a group of J.
Crew managers held about 10 percent, Emily Cinader Woods, the chairman of J. Crew, along with her father, Arthur Cinader, held most of the remainder; the brand Clifford & Wills was sold to Inc. in 2000 with the intent to boost sales. In 2004, J. Crew bought the rights to the brand Madewell, a defunct workwear manufacturer founded in 1937, used the name from 2006 onwards as "a modern-day interpretation", targeted at younger women than their main brand. In 2011, TPG Capital LP and Leonard Green & Partners LP privatized J. Crew in a $3 billion leveraged buyout. On November 23, 2010, the company had agreed to be taken private in a $3 billion deal led by management with the backing of TPG Capital and Leonard Green & Partners, two large private equity firms; the announcement of the offer from two investment firms—including one that used to own J. Crew—came as the retailer reported that its third-quarter net income fell by 14 percent due to weak women's clothing sales; the company lowered its guidance for the 2010 year.
Under the deal as proposed, J. Crew shareholders would receive $43.50 per share in cash, representing a 16 percent premium to the stock's closing price the prior day of $37.65. CEO Mickey Drexler, the former Gap Inc. chief credited with turning J. Crew around since coming aboard in 2003, remained in that role and retained a "significant" stake in the company. TPG, one of the investment firms in the deal, took a majority stake in J. Crew Group Inc. in 1997 and remained majority shareholder until the company went public in 2006. Shortly after the announcement of the deal, some in the business community criticized the terms of the deal involving the company's CEO and a majority shareholder; as a result, the "go-shop" period was extended shortly after the initial announcement. In addition, several investigations relating to potential shareholder actions against the company were announced. After the deal, TPG and Leonard Green borrowed more to help finance dividends totaled $787 million to them. In June 2015, The New York Times reported that J.
Crew's women's division was undergoing a slump because of the company's failure to react to two market trends: cheap "fast fashion" and "athleisure" items. In 2016, J. Crew partnered with Nordstrom to begin selling their products in online. In December 2016, the company faced litigation after it moved its intellectual property "out of the reach of lenders."In April 2017, the company cut 250 jobs from its headquarters. The company underwent several management changes, long-term creative director Jenna Lyons left the company in April; the brand’s longtime head of menswear, Frank Muytjens, left the company that month as well, in June 2017, the company's CEO, Mickey Drexler, announced that he would be stepping down as CEO role after 14 years with the company. Drexler announced he would still own 10 % of the company. On June 12, 2017, J. Crew Group Inc. announced it had "made an offer to some of its bondholders to push back its most pressing debt obligation—about $567 million due in May 2019—and amend its term loan."
At the time, J. Crew Group had around $2 billion in debt. In 2017, Drexler approached Amazon Inc about selling J. Crew to the tech giant. In the summer of 2017, the company avoided a bankruptcy filing by having bondholders do a debt swap tapping into its brand name value; the majority of the bondholders agreed to the deal, with several others failing to stock the deal with a lawsuit. The deal lowered the company’s debt. In September 2018, JCrew began selling it's JCrew Merchantile brand on Amazon. On Feb