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Mora (linguistics)

A mora is a unit in phonology that determines syllable weight, which in some languages determines stress or timing. The definition of a mora varies. In 1968, American linguist James D. McCawley defined it as "something of which a long syllable consists of two and a short syllable consists of one"; the term comes from the Latin word for "linger, delay", used to translate the Greek word chronos in its metrical sense. Monomoraic syllables have one mora, bimoraic syllables have two, trimoraic syllables have three, although this last type is rare. In general, morae are formed as follows: A syllable onset does not represent any mora; the syllable nucleus represents one mora in the case of a short vowel, two morae in the case of a long vowel or diphthong. Consonants serving as syllable nuclei represent one mora if short and two if long. Slovak is an example of a language that has both short consonantal nuclei. In some languages, the coda represents one mora, in others it does not. In English, the codas of stressed syllables represent a mora, but for unstressed syllables it is not clear whether this is true.

In some languages, a syllable with a long vowel or diphthong in the nucleus and one or more consonants in the coda is said to be trimoraic. In general, monomoraic syllables are called "light syllables", bimoraic syllables are called "heavy syllables", trimoraic syllables are called "superheavy syllables"; some languages, such as Old English and present-day English, can have syllables with up to four morae. A prosodic stress system in which moraically heavy syllables are assigned stress is said to have the property of quantity sensitivity. For the purpose of determining accent in Ancient Greek, short vowels have one mora, long vowels and diphthongs have two morae, thus long ē can be understood as a sequence of two short vowels: ee. Ancient Greek pitch accent is placed on only one mora in a word. An acute represents high pitch on the last mora of a long vowel. A circumflex represents high pitch on the first mora of a long vowel. In Old English, short diphthongs and monophthongs were monomoraic, long diphthongs and monophthongs were bimoraic, consonants ending a syllable were each a mora, geminate consonants added a mora to the preceding syllable.

In Modern English, the rules are similar. In English, also in Old English, syllables cannot have more than four morae, with loss of sounds occurring if a syllable would have more than 4 otherwise. From the Old English period through to today, all content words must be at least two morae long. In Luganda, a short vowel constitutes one mora. A simple consonant has no morae, a doubled or prenasalised consonant has one. No syllable may contain more than three morae; the tone system in Luganda is based on morae. See Luganda tones. Gilbertese, an Austronesian language spoken in Kiribati, is a trimoraic language; the typical foot in Gilbertese contains three morae. These trimoraic constituents are units of stress in Gilbertese; these "ternary metrical constituents of the sort found in Gilbertese are quite rare cross-linguistically, as far as we know, Gilbertese is the only language in the world reported to have a ternary constraint on prosodic word size." In Hawaiian, both syllables and morae are important.

Stress falls on the penultimate mora, though in words long enough to have two stresses, only the final stress is predictable. However, although a diphthong, such as oi, consists of two morae, stress may fall only on the first, a restriction not found with other vowel sequences such as io; that is, there is a distinction between oi, a bimoraic syllable, io, two syllables. Most dialects of Japanese, including the standard, use morae, known in Japanese as haku or mōra, rather than syllables, as the basis of the sound system. Writing Japanese in kana is said by those scholars who use the term mora to demonstrate a moraic system of writing. For example, in the two-syllable word mōra, the ō is counts as two morae; the word is written in モーラ, corresponding here to mo/o/ra, each containing one mora. Such scholars argue that the 5/7/5 pattern of the haiku in modern Japanese is of morae rather than syllables; the Japanese syllable-final n is said to be moraic, as is the first part of a geminate consonant.

For example, the Japanese name for "Japan", 日本, has two different pronunciations, one with three morae and one with four. In the hiragana spelling, the three morae of Ni-ho-n are represented by three characters, the four morae of Ni-p-po-n need four characters to be written out as にっぽん; the names Tōkyō, Ōsaka, Nagasaki all have four morae though, on this analysis, they can be said to have two and four syllables, respectively. The number of morae in a word is not always equal to the number of graphemes. In India, the mora was an acknowledged phenomenon well over two millennia ago in ancient Indian linguistics schools studying the dominant scholarly and religious

North Hertfordshire Museum

North Hertfordshire Museum, England, adjacent to the refurbished Town Hall on Brand Street, displays collections relating to local history and heritage. The museum has architectural design by Buttress and museum layout by Co.. Arranged over two floors, it comprises an entrance and café, three galleries of permanent displays focusing on the history of North Hertfordshire district, a temporary exhibitions gallery with a changing and varied programme, a smaller display space in the upstairs Terrace Gallery; the museum has three galleries containing permanent exhibitions – Discovering North Herts, Living in North Herts and The Terrace Gallery – and two temporary exhibition spaces. The permanent displays focus on the history of the district, from 90 million years ago, through the arrival of the first people and the gradual transformation of the landscape to the present day. There are displays about different characters who have lived in the area, how people lived in the past and the animals found in local gardens.

Two temporary exhibition spaces have a varied programme of displays. This gallery follows the story of the district in chronological order, it highlights how and why North Hertfordshire has transformed over time, from 90 million years ago when it was underwater, to the urban planning that has shaped the district today. This gallery is arranged thematically, to draw out similarities and differences between how people lived at different times in the past; the principal themes include Living off the Land and Games, Making and Selling, Cradle to Crave. This gallery is arranged thematically, it includes the Football Collection, the first established in England by Vic Wayling, secretary of Hitchin Town F. C. opening in 1956 and transferred to Hitchin Museum and Art Gallery in the 1980s. There is a case Collecting the World, in which objects from every continent are displayed. In 2004-5, North Hertfordshire District Council undertook a Fundamental Service Review of its Museum Service. Although it found that visitors valued all aspects of the service, the two museums were both described as unfit for purpose and the Museums Resource Centre at Burymead Road in Hitchin as outdated and inefficient.

The review had five main recommendations, one of, to close the two existing museums at Letchworth Garden City and at Hitchin, instead run a museum and gallery on a single town-centre site. A Feasibility Study was commissioned to investigate the possibility of converting Hitchin Town Hall to museum use, scheduled to open in 2019. Letchworth Museum and Art Gallery Museum closed to the public on 1 September 2012; the proposal to run a new town centre site focused on the former Hitchin Town Hall, the adjacent gymnasium and the Workmen’s Hall, which formed a single complex. After initial suggestions of converting the Town Hall, a decision was made to house the museum in the gymnasium and a new build linking it with the Town Hall. A new entrance on the site of shops dating from the 1840s would provide further displays, a shop and café. Although work began on the site in 2012, unforeseen events delayed the opening until summer 2019, by which time some of the galleries had been open to the public for more than a year.

Hitchin Museum and Art Gallery Letchworth Museum & Art Gallery List of museums in Hertfordshire North Hertfordshire Museum website Former Hitchin Museum website Former Letchworth Museum website Objects from the Museum's collections in an East of England Broadband Network gallery


KYTT is a Christian radio station licensed to Coos Bay, Oregon. The station is owned by Lighthouse Radio Group. KYTT's programming includes Contemporary Christian Music, with some Christian talk and teaching programs. Christian talk and teaching shows heard on KYTT include; the station began broadcasting November 19, 1978, held the call sign KICR. The station broadcast at 98.3 MHz, was owned by Intercontinental Ministries. The station aired a format consisting of religious programming, beautiful music, classical music. In 1983, the station's call sign was changed to KYTT-FM. By 1984, the station was airing religious programming. By 1985, the station's frequency had been changed to 98.7 MHz. K-Light is heard on translator K285GA 104.9 FM in Gold Beach, Oregon. KYTT's official website Query the FCC's FM station database for KYTT Radio-Locator information on KYTT Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for KYTT

Bobby Messano

Bobby Messano is an American artist and musician. He has recorded and toured with STARZ, Lou Gramm, Steve Winwood, Clarence Clemons and the Knockouts, Peter Criss. Messano was born in Teaneck, New Jersey and his family lived in nearby Ridgefield Park, New Jersey until he went to college in Maryland. In 1976, Messano joined the band Stanky Brown who were signed to Sire Records and managed by John Scher. Stanky Brown toured with Boston, The Allman Brothers, NRPS. Messano recorded with the band on their third and final record on Sire, called "Stanky Brown". Messano joined STARZ who were signed to Capitol Records and Aucoin management. STARZ released Coliseum Rock. Bobby moved into session work, working with Gloria Gaynor, Peter Criss, Michael Pare', Benny Mardones. In 1983 Bobby was Music Director for Steve Winwood on his European tour, he joined Franke & The Knockouts in 1984. In 1985, Messano started working with Joe Lynn Turner and Fiona and played on both their CD's "Rescue You" and "Fiona", he played guitar on Fiona's sophomore record Beyond The Pale.

He played on Glen Burtnick's "Talking In Code" record and toured with him. He played guitar on Clarence Clemons Hero Album and played the only guitar solo on the Big-Man's LP. In 1987 Messano was asked to tour on the Lou Gramm "Ready or Not" tour in the U. S. and Germany. He was putting the finishing touches on his 1989 "MESSANO: CD, released by Strategic/Relativity in 1989. In 1990 Bobby toured Germany with Robin Beck. Messano was inducted into the Delaware Blues Hall Of Fame in 2012 and "That's Why I Don't Sing the Blues" was the #1 U. S. release on the Blues Underground 2012 US Blues Rock Chart. Bobby continues to place songs in TV and cable shows. In July/August 2015 "Love and Money" was in Billboard Top 10 Blues Albums, for 6 weeks, reaching #1 on August 8. In August 2015 Bobby Messano "Love & Money" was nominated for a Blues Blast Award for Rock Blues Album Of The Year On April 15, 2017 "Bad Movie" was released and debuted at #1 on Sirius/XM B. B. King's Bluesville and stayed in the Top 40 on the Roots Music Charts Blues Rock Album Chart for 10 months.

On November 16, 2017 Bobby's Bad Movie song won a prestigious Hollywood Music In Media Award for Blues. "Lemonade" was released om July 12,2019 on Fish Head/Warner Brothers Records to rave reviews. That's Why I Don't Sing the Blues, 2011 Welcome to Deltaville, 2013 Love and Money, 2015 Bad Movie 2017 Messano Re-Release 2019 Holdin' Ground Re-Release 2019 Lemonade 2019 Official Site "Bobby Messano | Discography | AllMusic". AllMusic. "Bobby Messano | Credits | AllMusic". AllMusic

Maria Izabela WiƂucka-Kowalska

Antonina Maria Izabela Wiłucka-Kowalska was a Polish religious leader, who served as the first archpriestess of the Catholic Mariavite Church. Wiłucka-Kowalska was the first woman to receive the sacrament of holy orders in Poland and consecration as a bishop. September 8, 1922 – 1935: Superior General of the Congregation of the Mariavite Sisters 1929 – 1935: Bishop of the Old Catholic Mariavite Church. 1935 – 1946: Superior General of the Congregation of the Mariavite Sisters 1935 – 1940: Bishop of the Catholic Mariavite Church, a schism from the Old Catholic Mariavite Church. 1940 – 1946: Archpriestess and President of the Council of Major Superiors of the Catholic Mariavite Church. Wiłucka was a member of the Polish landed gentry, she was the daughter of Maria Antonina née Horn. She attended the Russian gymnasium in Warsaw for several years, enrolled in Marta Łojkówna's pedagogical institute for women in Warsaw, she graduated in 1909. The following year, she tutored children of a Polish landed gentry family in Polesie, Orda, at their estate in Perekale, Minsk Governorate for four years.

One of the Orda proposed marriage. She became familiar with the English, French and Russian languages, she was musically talented. After the outbreak of the World War I and the death of the estate owner, with his family Ordów, she was deported to Crimea, after three years, in 1918, she returned to the Second Polish Republic, to his family in Warsaw. In the same year, while she was with a family in Płock, she encountered Mariavitism and Feliksa Kozłowska, its founder. Soon afterward, despite her family's objections, she joined the Mariavite Sisters. In 1920, she took the religious name of Maria Izabela. Wiłucka was Kozłowska's suggested successor as Superior General of the Mariavite Sisters, which Wiłucka became after she professed perpetual vows on 8 September 1922. In the same year, after the introduction of clerical marriage into the Old Catholic Mariavite Church, she married the charismatic leader of the church, Archbishop Jan Maria Michał Kowalski on 3 October 1922, in one of the first secret mystical marriages – between a priest and a nun.

In 1929, after the introduction of the ordination of women in the Old Catholic Mariavite Church, Wiłucka-Kowalska and 11 other nuns were ordained in Płock on 28 March 1929. in Plock, Wiłucka-Kowalska was consecrated as a bishop. From that time, having the title of archpriestess, she was a member of the Old Catholic Mariavite Church synod of bishops, along with Maria Jakub Próchniewski, Maria Filip Feldman, Maria Bartholomew Przysiecki, her responsibilities included care of the priesthood of sisters. In 1926, Wiłucka-Kowalska participated in an unsuccessful Old Catholic Mariavite Church bishops delegation to the Balkans and Middle East, where she presented the mission and activities of the Old Catholic Mariavite Church to Eastern Christian Churches; the schism of the Catholic Mariavite Church from the Old Catholic Mariavite Church, in 1935, forced Wiłucka-Kowalska and her husband and their followers to move to Felicjanów. She remained the Superior General of the Congregation of the Mariavite Sisters and participated in the management of the Catholic Mariavite Church, which separated from the main Mariavite denomination.

While her husband, served 18 months of a prison sentence beginning in July 1936 for his 1928 and 1929 convictions, Wiłucka-Kowalska exercised authority over the church. From 1936 to 1939, she resumed publication of a fortnightly periodical, Królestwo Boże na Ziemi, in Felicjanów. Following the arrest by the Gestapo of Kowalski in January 1940 and his deportation to the Priest Barracks of Dachau Concentration Camp, Wiłucka-Kowalska took over the management of the Catholic Mariavite Church until her death in 1946. In March 1941, all the inhabitants of the church commune in Felicjanów were deported to Soldau concentration camp to a camp in the Modlin Fortress and to Pomiechówek. After her release, Wiłucka-Kowalska lived in Plonsk; as far as possible, she led the Catholic Mariavite Church and maintained correspondence with her husband, imprisoned in Dachau concentration camp. After the front passed through, in the spring of 1945 she returned to the destroyed Felicjanów, she died on 28 November 1946.

She was buried in the park in front of the manor house in Felicjanów. After her death, she was regarded by Catholic Mariavite Church adherents as a saint. Media related to Izabela Wiłucka at Wikimedia Commons


Jimone was the first release by Mancunian band James, released in November 1983 by Factory Records. It contained three tracks that later appeared on the band's Village Fire EP. According to the band's biography Folklore by Stuart Maconie, the band were fearful of tarnishing their best songs in the studio, so instead opted to record the three songs they felt were their worst; the track "What's The World" has been covered by The Smiths. It has remained popular among die-hard James fans to the present day and was still being featured in setlists as late as 1998."Folklore" lent its name to Stuart Maconie's biography of the band in 2000, while "Fire So Close" was radically reworked under the title of "Why So Close" on the band's debut 1986 album Stutter. "Folklore" – 2:46 "What's The World" – 1:52 "Fire So Close" – 1:46 Tim Booth - Vocals Jim Glennie - Bass guitar Paul Gilbertson - Lead guitar Gavan Whelan - Drums