Moral absolutism is an ethical view that all actions are intrinsically right or wrong. Stealing, for instance, might be considered to be always immoral if done for the well-being of others, if it does in the end promote such a good. Moral absolutism stands in contrast to other categories of normative ethical theories such as consequentialism, which holds that the morality of an act depends on the consequences or the context of the act. Moral absolutism is not the same as moral universalism. Universalism holds that what is right or wrong is independent of custom or opinion, but not that what is right or wrong is independent of context or consequences. Moral universalism is compatible with moral absolutism, but positions such as consequentialism. Louis Pojman gives the following definitions to distinguish the two positions of moral absolutism and universalism: Moral absolutism: There is at least one principle that ought never to be violated. Moral objectivism: There is a fact of the matter as to whether any given action is morally permissible or impermissible: a fact of the matter that does not depend on social custom or individual acceptance.
Ethical theories which place strong emphasis on rights and duty, such as the deontological ethics of Immanuel Kant, are forms of moral absolutism, as are many religious moral codes. Moral absolutism may be understood in a secular context, as in many forms of deontological moral rationalism. However, many religions have morally absolutist positions as well, regarding their system of morality as deriving from divine commands. Therefore, they regard such a moral system as absolute and unchangeable. Many secular philosophies take a morally absolutist stance, arguing that absolute laws of morality are inherent in the nature of human beings, the nature of life in general, or the universe itself. For example, someone who believes in nonviolence considers it wrong to use violence in self-defense. Catholic philosopher Thomas Aquinas never explicitly addresses the Euthyphro dilemma, but draws a distinction between what is good or evil in itself and what is good or evil because of God's commands, with unchangeable moral standards forming the bulk of natural law.
Thus he contends that not God can change the Ten Commandments, however, that God can change what individuals deserve in particular cases, in what might look like special dispensations to murder or steal
Väinö E. Jokinen was a Finnish journalist and MP. Jokinen was a member of the Parliament of Finland from 1908 to 1918, representing the Social Democratic Party of Finland. In 1918, during the Finnish Civil War, Jokinen was the secretary of the Finnish People's Delegation, the government of the Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic. Jokinen's father was steward Efraim Jokinen, his mother was Fanny Wilhelmiina Tamlander, he graduated from high school in 1899. He translated to Finnish while studying, he worked in Hämeenlinna in Kanerva magazines reporter 1904–1905 and in Kansan Lehti in Tampere 1906–1908, Työmies magazine's reporter in Helsinki 1906–1908, Hämeen Voima magazine's reporter in Hämeenlinna 1908–1912 and Sosialisti magazine's main editor in Turku 1912–1917. Jokinen was Social Democratic MP from Häme southern electoral district 1909-1914 and 1917. Jokinen was the deputy speaker of Finnish Parliament in 1917, chairman of the Grand Committee. In 1917 Jokinen worked as secretary of the Finnish Labour Union and during the Finnish Civil War he was Worker's Head Council's and People's Delegation's secretary.
After the war Jokinen moved to Russia and worked in the Council of Perm in 1918 and Kumous magazine's and Finnish Communist publications department's reporter, translating articles into Finnish. Jokinen was a member of the Finnish Communist Party's central committee and Russian Communist Party's Finnish department's main offices chairman. Jokinen was shot on August 1920 in Petrograd during the Kuusinen Club Incident, he was buried at the Monument to the Fighters of the Revolution on the Field of Mars in Saint Petersburg. His wife Alma Jokinen was a Social Democratic MP
Arlington House is a hostel for homeless men in Camden Town, London that opened in 1905. Arlington House is the last and largest of the Rowton Houses to be built and is the only one to remain in use as a hostel. For its first 80 years since opening in 1905, it had a capacity for 1,200 tenants reduced to 400, it was refurbished in 2009 and opened as a conference centre, plus accommodation for 150 homeless and low-income tenants. It has been described as the biggest homeless hostel in Europe, home to more Irish men than any other building outside Ireland. Arlington House was taken over by Camden London Borough Council in the 1980s, but was subsequently privatised and given without payment to One Housing Group by the Novas Scarman group to ensure that building works were completed; as of 2016 the building continued to be owned and managed by One Housing Group, having undergone major government-funded refurbishment, reopened in 2010. There was much criticism around this matter. One Housing Group issued a press release on 16 December 2009 in which they say that they would work with social enterprise partners City Dining, SPACE and Broadway.
According to the press release, City Dining was proposing to provide catering for residents and staff at Arlington and training for a group of customers, with the aim of offering them permanent positions. SPACE was proposing to run an art studio and creative space for residents, to develop opportunities for creative and media training. Broadway were in discussions to deliver an employment and training service for residents, setting up a Business Centre providing training and business support facilities. In a 4 March 2010 press release OHG said that the refurbished Arlington House would be a modern building with 95 high-quality units for homeless people, 35 sub-market-rent flats, 3,000 m2 of "social economy and training" space; the building was to reopen after refurbishment with government investment. Arlington House was opened after completion of major rebuilding by Mayor of London Boris Johnson on 10 June 2010. In 2016 it called itself "Arlington Conference Centre, part of One Housing Group", described as "a multipurpose hub of commercial and support services", having "95 residential rooms for homeless and vulnerable adults and 44 studio flats for low-income workers as well as the Conference Centre.
Arlington has a range of social economy partners who rent office spaces and artist studios." After reopening it was visited by several well-known people, including Tracey Emin, Iain Duncan Smith, Nick Clegg, Prince Charles. The Aisling Project was involved with the Irish Tenants Association of Arlington House, who constituted about a third of the residents before refurbishment; these tenants were older than the others and had lived in the hostel for longer. George Orwell lived in one of the Rowton Houses and wrote about the experience in Down and Out in Paris and London, his semi-autobiographical account of living in poverty in both cities. Brendan Behan lived in Arlington House; the Pogues reference Arlington House in the song Transmetropolitan by Shane MacGowan from their album 1984 Red Roses for Me. "Arlington House - address, no fixed abode" is the first line of the 1984 top 20 song "One Better Day" by Camden pop group Madness. The song is about homeless people. Irish-born photographer Deirdre O'Callaghan spent four years photographing the men of Arlington House for a personal photographic project, her first book, Hide That Can, resulted.
Published in 2002 by Trolley in London, it was awarded Book of the Year by both the International Centre of Photography in New York and Les Rencontres de la Photographie in Arles. "Men of Arlington" is a 2011 documentary film directed by Enda Hughes that portrays the tragedies and triumphs of the emigrant Irish in London. Brief History The Irish at AH Redevelopment Plans during Novas Scarman involvement Arlington House website http://www.irishpost.co.uk/tabId/279/itemId/426/Hostel-renovation-works-bring-a-chill-for-resident.aspx https://web.archive.org/web/20160409204159/http://www.insidehousing.co.uk/ihstory.aspx?storycode=6501754 https://web.archive.org/web/20120723020528/http://www.insidehousing.co.uk/ihstory.aspx?storycode=6502567 https://web.archive.org/web/20160407171921/http://www.insidehousing.co.uk/ihstory.aspx?storycode=6501663 https://web.archive.org/web/20120723020634/http://www.insidehousing.co.uk/ihstory.aspx?storycode=6501620 https://web.archive.org/web/20120723020703/http://www.insidehousing.co.uk/ihstory.aspx?storycode=6502139 https://web.archive.org/web/20120723020717/http://www.insidehousing.co.uk/ihstory.aspx?storycode=6502000 http://www.thecnj.com/camden/2008/091808/news091808_04.html?headline=Fears_over_future_of_Arlington_House http://www.thecnj.com/camden/2008/120408/news120408_07.html http://www.thecnj.com/camden/2008/110608/news110608_02.html?headline=Investigators_pore_over_books_of_charity_behind_%C2%A322m_revamp_at_hostel
The Way Out is a German-Russian 2015 short film directed and produced by Mikhail Uchitelev. The film has been premiered at the 2015 Cannes Film Festival, has been awarded Grand Prix at the International Festival "Reflections of Spirit" and the Award for the Best Supporting Actor at The Short Film Awards International Festival in New-York, for the Best Actress at the Blow-up International Film Festival and selected at the Roving Eye International Film Festival; the story takes place in Eastern Europe in late 1941. Edith is a Jewish opera diva, hidden away from the Nazis by Gustav, who puts her in the theater's cellar during the occupation. Despite his reassurances that she will not be found, Edith knows that Gustav's help puts his own life at risk and decides that she must leave the theater to avoid this. Gustav tries to convince her that there must be a different option, but Edith is too terrified to listen and tries to escape. She's brought back by Gustav but is seen by Nazis in the process.
The Nazi commandant storms into the theater and demands that Gustav hands over Edith or he will be killed. Viewing all of this from a corner of the theater, Edith decides that she must leave for the commandant's office and surrender. Aware that this is her intention, Gustav tries to intercept her and in the process witnesses a murder of someone that he believes to be Edith; however unbeknownst to him this was not Edith, who instead locked herself in the cellar while she tries to find another way out. The next day she decides to save Gustav's life; as the theater is cordoned off she sees only one way out. Elina Amromina as Edith Goldschmidt Alexander Alexeyev as Gustav, a theater director Alexey Morozov as Tenor Tatiana Ryabokon as Make-up artist Artur Kharitonenko as SS commandant The Way Out received positive reviews and the Saint Petersburg Evening Post praised the work for using its 33-minute length to its advantage. A reviewer for Jüdische Rundschau gave a favorable review for the work, comparing it positively to Caravaggio's masterpieces.
The Gazeta Strela had praise for the film, which they felt told its story in a "heartfelt and intimate manner". The film has been presented at the Russian Pavilion at the Cannes Festival and this event has been covered by Proficinema. and by ROSKINO. The film received a positive review at the TMFF; the Way Out on IMDb kino-teatr.ru website
The 2009–10 EIHL season is the seventh season of the Elite Ice Hockey League. It began in September 2009 and concluded in April 2010. On 25 March 2009, Basingstoke Bison announced their decision to depart from the Elite Ice Hockey League to join the second tier English Premier League, citing considerable financial losses as their reason for withdrawing. In the build up to the 2008–09 season finale, rumours circulated over the possible exclusion from the league of the Edinburgh Capitals, Manchester Phoenix and Newcastle Vipers, the EIHL operating with six teams. Although it was stated that the league would continue with nine teams, it was announced on 1 May 2009 that Manchester Phoenix would play in the English Premier League; the resulting change in the format will see teams play a 56-game schedule, facing each of their opponents 8 times during the course of the regular season. Team positions determine seeding for Play Offs GP=Games Played W=Win, OTW=Over Time Wins, OTW=Over Time Loses, L=Loses, Pts=Points, After two legged quarter finals the end of season playoffs were held at the National Ice Centre in Nottingham from 3 to 4 April.
The final was contested between the Belfast Giants. The match stayed 2-2 after 10 minutes of sudden death overtime; the match went to a shootout which the Belfast Giants won in the sudden death stage of the shootout 1-0. The 2009-10 Elite League Ice hockey season begun with a one-day competition at Sheffield Steelers, Sheffield Arena; the tournament was called the 20/20 Hockey fest and was designed to make British Ice hockey more exciting. It contested of 2 periods of 20 minute non-stop clock; the tournament winners were the hosts the Sheffield Steelers. Quarter Finals Sheffield Steelers 5-1 Hull Stingrays Belfast Giants 2-3 Cardiff Devils Edinburgh Capitals 0-1 Newcastle Vipers Coventry Blaze 6-0 Nottingham Panthers Semi Finals Sheffield Steelers 4-1 Cardiff Devils Newcastle Vipers 2-3 Coventry Blaze Final Sheffield Steelers 3-2 Coventry Blaze
The Colorado National Monument Visitor Center Complex is a group of structures in Colorado National Monument in Mesa County, United States, listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The structures are an example of the park services facilities designed and built as part of the Mission 66 program; the complex includes the visitor center, designed by National Park Service architect Cecil J. Doty, the Bookcliff Shelter, designed by NPS architect Phil Romigh, the Canyon Rim Trail, designed by NPS landscape architects Babbitt Hughes, built between 1963 and 1965; the structures follow the precedent set by earlier park structures by using native sandstone laid in a random ashlar pattern. National Register of Historic Places listings in Mesa County, Colorado Media related to Colorado National Monument Visitor Center Complex at Wikimedia Commons