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Moral equivalence

Moral equivalence is a term used in political debate to deny that a moral comparison can be made of two sides in a conflict, or in the actions or tactics of two sides. The term had some currency in polemic debates about the Cold War, the Arab–Israeli conflict. "Moral equivalence" began to be used as a polemic term-of-retort to "moral relativism", gaining use as an indictment against political foreign policy that appeared to use only a situation-based application of held ethical standards. International conflicts are sometimes viewed and interested parties periodically urge both sides to conduct a ceasefire and negotiate their differences; however these negotiations may prove difficult in that both parties in a conflict believe that they are morally superior to the other, are unwilling to negotiate on basis of moral equivalence. In the Cold War context, the term was and is most used by anti-Communists as an accusation of formal fallacy for leftist criticisms of United States foreign policy and military conduct.

Many such people believed in the idea that the United States was intrinsically benevolent, that the extension of its power and hegemony was an extension of benevolence and would bring freedom to those people subject to that hegemony. Therefore, those who opposed the United States were by definition evil, trying to deny its benevolence to people; the USSR and its allies, in contrast, practiced a totalitarian ideology. A territory under US hegemony thus would be freed from being in the camp of the totalitarian power and would help to weaken it. Thus, all means were justified in keeping territories away from Soviet influence in this way; this extended to countries not under Soviet influence but instead said to be sympathetic at all in any way with it. Therefore, Chile under Salvador Allende was not under Soviet domination, but removing him would help weaken the USSR by removing a government ruled with the help of a Communist party; the big picture, they would say, justified the tortures carried out by the Augusto Pinochet dictatorship as it served to weaken the totalitarian Communist camp and in time bring about the freedom of those under its domination.

Some of those who criticized US foreign policy at the time contended that US power in the Cold War was used only to pursue an economically-driven agenda. They claim that the underlying economic motivation eroded any claims of moral superiority, leaving the hostile acts to stand on their own. In contrast, those who justified US interventions in the Cold War period always cast these as being motivated by the need to contain totalitarianism and thus fulfilled a higher moral imperative. An early popularizer of the expression was Jeane Kirkpatrick, United States ambassador to the United Nations in the Reagan administration. Kirkpatrick published an article called "The Myth of Moral Equivalence" in 1986, which criticized those who she alleged were claiming that there was "no moral difference" between the Soviet Union and democratic states. In fact few critics of United States policies in the Cold War era argued that there was a moral equivalence between the two sides. Communists, for instance, argued.

Kirkpatrick herself was one of the most outspoken voices calling for the US to support authoritarian military regimes in Central America that were responsible for major human rights violations. When four US churchwomen were raped and murdered by government soldiers in El Salvador, Kirkpatrick downplayed the gravity of the crime, remarking that'the nuns were not just nuns, they were political activists'. According to Congressman Robert Torricelli, Reagan administration officials, including Kirkpatrick, deliberately suppressed information about government abuses in El Salvador: "While the Reagan Administration was certifying human rights progress in El Salvador they knew the terrible truth that the Salvadoran military was engaged in a widespread campaign of terror and torture."Leftist critics argued that the United States itself created a "moral equivalence" when some of its actions, such as President Ronald Reagan's support for the Contra insurgency against the Sandinista government in Nicaragua, put it on the same level of immorality as the Soviet Union.

Moral equivalence has featured in debates over NATO expansion, the overthrow of rogue states, the invasion of Iraq, the War on Terror. Concepts of moral hierarchy have been applied to foreign policy challenges such as Islamic fundamentalists, anti-Israel powers, China, drug traffickers, Serbian nationalists, among others. Moral Equivalent of War speech Morality

Biblical languages

Biblical languages are any of the languages employed in the original writings of the Bible. Owing to the significance of the Bible in society, Biblical languages are studied more than many other dead languages. Furthermore, some debates exist as to which language is the original language of a particular passage, about whether a term has been properly translated from an ancient language into modern editions of the Bible. Scholars recognize three languages as original biblical languages: Hebrew and Koine Greek; the Hebrew Bible known as the Tanakh, consists of 39 books. "Hebrew" in "Hebrew Bible" may refer to either the Hebrew language or to the Hebrew people who used Hebrew as a spoken language, have continuously used the language in prayer and study, or both. The texts were written in Biblical Hebrew, with some portions in Biblical Aramaic. Biblical Hebrew, sometimes called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of the Hebrew language; the first translation of the Hebrew Bible was into Greek. This is known as the Septuagint, which became the received text of the Old Testament in the Catholic church and the basis of its canon.

This began sometime in the 2nd or 3rd century BC, with the first portion of the Hebrew Bible, the Torah, being translated into Koine Greek. Over the next century, other books were translated as well; this translation became known as the Septuagint and was used by Greek-speaking Jews, by Christians. It differs somewhat from the standardized Hebrew; this translation was promoted by way of a legend that seventy separate translators all produced identical texts. The Latin Vulgate by Jerome was based upon the Hebrew for those books of the Bible preserved in the Jewish canon, on the Greek text for the rest. Other ancient Jewish translations, such as the Aramaic Targums, conform to the Masoretic Text, all medieval and modern Jewish translations are based upon the same. Christian translations tend to be based upon the Hebrew, though some denominations prefer the Septuagint. Bible translations incorporating modern textual criticism begin with the Masoretic Text, but take into account possible variants from all available ancient versions.

The books of the Christian New Testament are agreed to have been written in Greek Koine Greek though some authors included translations from Hebrew and Aramaic texts. The Pauline Epistles were written in Greek for Greek-speaking audiences. See Greek primacy for further details. Koine Greek was the popular form of Greek which emerged in post-classical antiquity, marks the third period in the history of the Greek language, it is called Alexandrian, Common, or New Testament Greek. Some scholars believe that some books of the Greek New Testament are translations of a Hebrew or Aramaic original. A famous example of this is the opening to the Gospel of John, which some scholars argue to be a Greek translation of an Aramaic hymn. Of these, a small number accept the Syriac Peshitta as representative of the original. See Aramaic primacy; some traditional Roman Catholic scholars believed the Gospel of Mark was written in Latin. However, the received text of the New Testament is Greek and nearly all translations are based upon the Greek text

George H. Taggart

George H. Taggart was an American genre painter and portraitist. Taggart was born in March 1865 in Evans Mills, New York, he attended the Académie Julian in Paris, where he was trained by William-Adolphe Bouguereau, Gabriel Ferrier, Jules Joseph Lefebvre. He first exhibited his work in France in Toulouse. Taggart returned to New York, where he exhibited his work at the National Academy of Design in 1898, he moved to Salt Lake City, Utah in 1900, he was asked to do paintings for Brigham Young University and the Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. For example, he did a portrait of Joseph Smith in 1902, a group portrait of the Quorum of the Twelve in 1903, he painted many portraits of prominent Utahns, including Salt Lake City Mayor Ezra Thompson. He traveled to Mexico to do a portrait of President Porfirio Díaz in 1903, his artwork was collected by German Emperor. Taggart married Mary Dickson Sample, he died August 26, 1958 in Port Washington, New York, he was buried in the Brookside Cemetery in Watertown, New York.

Search Results: "Taggart, George Henry 1865-1924" on the Smithsonian Institution website

Spring Harvest

Spring Harvest exists to'equip the Church for action' through a range of events, conferences and resources. The tone is evangelical with modern worship music and Bible study groups; the programme offers different streams for age groups such as children, young people, adults, etc. The organisation runs a number of events and courses and produces a range of resources. First held in 1979 as a one-week one-site event at Prestatyn, Spring Harvest evolved and is now held at Butlins resorts in Minehead and Skegness every year - with the addition of one week at Harrogate in 2018; the format for 2010 changed to five'event-weeks' each consisting of six days - three event-weeks at Minehead and two at Skegness - one week fewer than in 2009. This pattern remained for 2011, with 28,000 people attending over these five event-weeks, including day visitors. In 2012 and 2013 whilst the three Minehead weeks were retained there was only one Skegness week. In 2014 three of the four weeks available were reduced by one day.

In 2017, the three weeks held in Minehead were reduced to just two, with one being shorter than the other by one day, one week in Skegness remaining the same. The Spring Harvest programme was held in Harrogate again in 2019, alongside both Butlin’s Minehead and Skegness Resorts; this new venue is expected to be continually used for the foreseeable future, it is thought that the Essentail Christian Brand will be hosting the event in new sites as guest capacity demands increase. 1979: The first Spring Harvest event at Prestatyn, North Wales with 2,701 attending. 1986: For the first time Spring Harvest took place at two locations in the UK: three weeks in Prestatyn, two weeks in Butlins Minehead. 1987: Spring Harvest met at Skegness for the first time. 1988: At the 10th Spring Harvest, the attendance was over 50,000 mark. 1989: Spring Harvest expanded to three locations, opening up a new Centre at Butlin's Ayr, Scotland. 1994: Over 70,000 Christians attended Spring Harvest at its four locations in Ayr, Minehead and Skegness.

2008: Spring Harvest Main Event take place over five weeks across the Skegness and Minehead sites, to accommodate the varied times of UK schools' Easter holidays. 2018: The programme took place at the Harrogate Convention Centre for the first time. Each year's main event has a teaching theme. 2020: Unleashed 2019: Unlimited. 2002: You've Got Mail: Jesus writes to His Church - Looking at the seven churches in the Book of Revelation. 2001: King of the Hill: looking at the Sermon on the Mount. 2000: A Royal Banquet: The inspiration for the Millennium - Looking at John's Gospel. 1999: Past Imperfect Future Tense 1998: Across the border line 1997: Solid Rock: The Ten Commandments. 1996: Beyond Belief 1995: Take off your shoes 1994: Dancing in the dark 1993: Living on the edge 1992: Meanwhile, back at the cross 1991: Shaken but not Stirred 1990: Uncage the Lion 1989: Deckchairs on the Titanic: What influences the church today. 1988: Who's pulling your strings: Looking at the pressures which influence the world.

1987: Where Truth and Justice Meet 1986: This is your God 1985: Lights to the World 1984: The Servant King 1983: The Power and the Glory In Week 2 at Minehead in 2003, Spring Harvest was featured on the BBC programme Songs of Praise. The first'week', still in Minehead, Spring Harvest was featured on both local and national news as a sickness bug spread around the event. In Week 3 at Minehead in 2006, the BBC returned to pre-record a Pentecost edition of Songs of Praise, to transmit a live Easter morning service from the event. Spring Harvest has featured in other media, including BBC radio, regularly in Christian media. In 2019, Songs of Praise was filmed at both Minehead and Skegness as it celebrated 40 years of the event, they interviewed key players in the first Spring Harvest event and featured prayer walking on the streets of Minehead. One for All: Spring Harvest Live Worship, 2017. Game Changers: Spring Harvest Live Worship, 2016 New Songs for the church, 2016 Kids Praise Party Megamix, 2016 Little Kids Praise Party Megamix, 2016 Immeasurably More: Spring Harvest Live Worship, 2015 New Songs for the Church, 2015 Newsongs For Kids: 12 Fresh New Songs For Kids' Worship, 2015 The Big Start Boxset, 2015 Unbelievable: Spring Harvest Live Worship, 2014 New Songs For Unbelievable Worship - Spring Harvest, 2014 Spring Harvest Presents The Big Start 3, 2014 Your Great Grace: 30 Worship Anthems Of Grace, Mercy & Justice, 2014 Kids Praise Party 2, 2014 Bottled At The Source: Live Worship From Spring Harvest, 2013 The Source: 22 New Songs For The Church, 2013 Spring Harvest Presents The Big Start 2, 2013 Live Worship Actually: Spring Harvest Live Worship, 2012 Acoustic Worship 2, 2012 Favourite Worship Songs From The Big Start, 2012 Fresh: New Songs For The Church, 2012 Pre-School Praise Boxset 1-3, 2012 Pre-School Praise Boxset 4-6, 2012 Kids Praise Party, 2012 Route 66: Spring Harvest Live Worship, 2011 Route 66: New Songs, 2011 20 More New Songs For The Church, 2011 Pre-School Praise 6, 2011 Kids Praise Party 6: C'mon Everybody Thr

Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissues Act, 1994

The Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissues Act, 1994 is the Law enacted by the Parliament of India and introduced by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare dated 4 February 1994, which deals with the transplantation and donation of 11 human organs and tissues of an alive donar or deceased person. This act is applicable to only those Indian administered states where the act has been adopted or enforced by the state governments, but it applies to all Union territories. The primary objectives of the Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissues Act, 1994 is to prevent commercial and illegal donations or advertisements of human organs. Any person whether they are transplantation coordinator, or associated to any medical college or hospital or those who helps in removing of human organ or tissues from an alive or deceased body without any authority, shall be imprisoned for the term of three years with a fine of 5 lakh rupees. Any person in any manner if conducting negotiations or making arrangements or assisting with any intention, such as offering or receiving payment, or donating to a relative, or supplying human organs and tissues with any intention is subject to punishment in accordance with the applicable sections of this act.

Before transplanting human organs and tissues for donation, or storage purposes, it shall be the responsibility and duty of hospital management to consult authorized person for making necessary official arrangements amended in applicable sections


The XTS-400 is a multilevel secure computer operating system. It is multitasking that uses multilevel scheduling in processing data and information, it works in networked environments and supports Gigabit Ethernet and both IPv4 and IPv6. The XTS-400 is a combination of Intel x86 hardware and the Secure Trusted Operating Program operating system. XTS-400 was developed by BAE Systems, released as version 6.0 in December 2003. STOP provides high-assurance security and was the first general-purpose operating system with a Common Criteria assurance level rating of EAL5 or above; the XTS-400 can host, be trusted to separate, concurrent data sets and networks at different sensitivity levels. The XTS-400 provides both an untrusted environment for normal work and a trusted environment for administrative work and for privileged applications; the untrusted environment is similar to traditional Unix environments. It provides binary compatibility with Linux applications running most Linux commands and tools as well as most Linux applications without the need for recompiling.

This untrusted environment includes an X Window System GUI, though all windows on a screen must be at the same sensitivity level. To support the trusted environment and various security features, STOP provides a set of proprietary APIs to applications. In order to develop programs that use these proprietary APIs, a special software development environment is needed; the SDE is needed in order to port some complicated Linux/Unix applications to the XTS-400. A new version of the STOP operating system, STOP 7 has since been introduced, with claims to have improved performance and new features such as RBAC; as a high-assurance, MLS system, XTS-400 can be used in cross-domain solutions, which need a piece of privileged software to be developed which can temporarily circumvent one or more security features in a controlled manner. Such pieces are outside the CC evaluation of the XTS-400; the XTS-400 can be used as server, or network gateway. The interactive environment, typical Unix command line tools, a GUI are present in support of a desktop solution.

Since the XTS-400 supports multiple, concurrent network connections at different sensitivity levels, it can be used to replace several single-level desktops connected to several different networks. In support of server functionality, the XTS-400 can be implemented in a rackmount configuration, accepts a uninterruptible power supply, allows multiple network connections, accommodates many hard disks on a SCSI subsystem, provides a trusted backup/save tool. Server software, such as an Internet daemon, can be ported to run on the XTS-400. A popular application for high-assurance systems like the XTS-400 is to guard information flow between two networks of differing security characteristics. Several customer guard solutions are available based on XTS systems. XTS-400 version 6.0. E completed a Common Criteria evaluation in March 2004 at EAL4 augmented with ALC_FLR.3 Version 6.0. E conformed with the protection profiles entitled Labeled Security Protection Profile and Controlled Access Protection Profile, though both profiles are surpassed in functionality and assurance.

XTS-400 version 6.1. E completed evaluation in March 2005 at EAL5 augmented with ALC_FLR.3 and ATE_IND.3, still conforming to the LSPP and CAPP. The EAL5+ evaluation included analysis of covert channels and additional vulnerability analysis and testing by the National Security Agency. XTS-400 version 6.4. U4 completed evaluation in July 2008 at EAL5 augmented with ALC_FLR.3 and ATE_IND.3 still conforming to the LSPP and CAPP. Like its predecessor, it included analysis of covert channels and additional vulnerability analysis and testing by the National Security Agency; the official postings for all the XTS-400 evaluations can be seen on the Validated Product List. The main security feature that sets STOP apart from most operating systems is the mandatory sensitivity policy. Support for a mandatory integrity policy sets STOP apart from most MLS or trusted systems. While a sensitivity policy deals with preventing unauthorized disclosure, an integrity policy deals with preventing unauthorized deletion or modification.

Normal users do not have the discretion to change the integrity levels of objects. The Bell–LaPadula and Biba formal models are the basis for these policies. Both the sensitivity and integrity policies apply to all objects on the system. STOP provides 16 hierarchical sensitivity levels, 64 non-hierarchical sensitivity categories, 8 hierarchical integrity levels, 16 non-hierarchical integrity categories; the mandatory sensitivity policy enforces the United States Department of Defense data sensitivity classification model, but can be configured for commercial environments. Other security features include: Identification and authentication, which forces users to be uniquely identified and authenticated before using any system services or accessing any information.