Hubert Renfro Knickerbocker
Hubert Renfro Knickerbocker was an American journalist and author. He was nicknamed "Red" from the color of his hair. Knickerbocker was born in Texas. Knickerbocker's father was Rev. Hubert Delancey Knickerbocker. Knickerbocker graduated from the Southwestern University in Texas and studied psychiatry at Columbia University. Knickerbocker was a journalist. Knickerbocker was noted for reporting on German politics before and during World War II. From 1923 to 1933 he reported from Berlin, but because of his opposition to Adolf Hitler he was deported when Hitler came to power. Back in America, he continued writing about the threat posed by Nazism. On April 15, 1933, he wrote in the New York Evening Post: "An indeterminate number of Jews have been killed. Hundreds of Jews have been tortured. Thousands of Jews have fled. Thousands of Jews have been, or will be, deprived of their livelihood." In 1931, as a correspondent for the New York Evening Post and the Philadelphia Public Ledger, he won the Pulitzer Prize for "a series of articles on the practical operation of the Five Year Plan in Russia".
After World War II, Knickerbocker went to work in Newark, New Jersey. He was on assignment with a team of journalists touring Southeast Asia when they were all killed in a plane crash near Bombay, India, on July 12, 1949. Knickerbocker was married first to Laura Patrick in 1918, they had one son, who became a daily book reviewer for The New York Times, his second marriage was to Agnes Schjoldager, with whom he had three daughters, including Miranda, who married actor Sorrell Booke. Fighting the Red Trade Menace The New Russia Soviet Trade and World Depression The Soviet Five Year Plan and Its Effect on World Trends Can Europe Recover? The German Crisis Germany-Fascist or Soviet? The Truth about Hitlerism The Boiling Point: Will War Come in Europe? Newspaper clippings about Hubert Renfro Knickerbocker in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Motivation is the reason for people's actions and goals. Motivation is derived from the word motive in the English language, defined as a need that requires satisfaction; these needs could be wants or desires that are acquired through influence of culture, lifestyle, etc. or innate. Motivation is one's direction to behaviour, or what causes a person to want to repeat a behaviour, a set of force that acts behind the motives. An individual's motivation may be inspired by others or events or it may come from within the individual. Motivation has been considered as one of the most important reasons that inspires a person to move forward in life. Motivation results from the interaction of both unconscious factors. Mastering motivation to allow sustained and deliberate practice is central to high levels of achievement e.g. in the worlds of elite sport, medicine or music. Motivation as a desire to perform an action is defined as having two parts, directional such as directed towards a positive stimulus or away from a negative one, as well as the activated "seeking phase" and consummatory "liking phase".
This type of motivation has neurobiological roots in the basal ganglia, mesolimbic, dopaminergic pathways. Activated "seeking" behaviour, such as loco-motor activity, is influenced by dopaminergic drugs, microdialysis experiments reveal that dopamine is released during the anticipation of a reward; the "wanting behaviour" associated with a rewarding stimulus can be increased by microinjections of dopamine and dopaminergic drugs in the dorsorostral nucleus accumbens and posterior ventral palladum. Opioid injections in this area produce pleasure, however outside of these hedonic hotspots they create an increased desire. Furthermore, depletion or inhibition of dopamine in neurons of the nucleus accumbens decreases appetitive but not consummatory behaviour. Dopamine is further implicated in motivation as administration of amphetamine increased the break point in a progressive ratio self-reinforcement schedule; that is, subjects were willing to go to greater lengths to obtain a reward. Motivation can be conceived of as a cycle in which thoughts influence behaviours, drive performance affects thoughts, the cycle begins again.
Each stage of the cycle is composed of many dimensions including attitudes, intentions and withdrawal which can all affect the motivation that an individual experiences. Most psychological theories hold that motivation exists purely within the individual, but socio-cultural theories express motivation as an outcome of participation in actions and activities within the cultural context of social groups; the natural system assumes that people have higher order needs, which contrasts with the rational theory that suggests people dislike work and only respond to rewards and punishment. According to McGregor's Theory Y, human behaviour is based on satisfying a hierarchy of needs: physiological, social and self-fulfillment. Physiological needs are most important level; these fundamental requirements include food, rest and exercise. After physiological needs are satisfied, employees can focus on safety needs, which include “protection against danger, deprivation.” However, if management makes arbitrary or biased employment decisions an employee's safety needs are unfulfilled.
The next set of needs is social, which refers to the desire for acceptance, reciprocal friendships and love. As such, the natural system of management assumes. Accordingly, if an employee's social needs are unmet he will act disobediently. There are two types of the second-highest order of needs; the first type refers to one's self-esteem, which encompasses self-confidence, achievement and knowledge. The second type of needs deals with reputation, status and respect from colleagues. Egoistic needs are much more difficult to satisfy; the highest order of needs is for self-fulfillment, including recognition of one's full potential, areas for self-improvement, the opportunity for creativity. This differs from the rational system, which assumes that people prefer routine and security to creativity. Unlike the rational management system, which assumes that humans don’t care about these higher order needs, the natural system is based on these needs as a means for motivation; the author of the reductionist motivation model is Sigmund Freud.
According to the model, physiological needs raise tension, thereby forcing an individual to seek an outlet by satisfying those needs Ziegler, Daniel. Personality Theories: Basic Assumptions and Applications. To manage and motivate employees, the natural system posits that being part of a group is necessary; because of structural changes in social order, the workplace is more fluid and adaptive according to Mayo. As a result, individual employees have lost their sense of stability and security, which can be provided by a membership in a group. However, if teams continuously change within jobs employees feel anxious and irrational and become harder to work with; the innate desire for lasting human association and management “is not related to single workers, but always to working groups.” In groups, employees will self-manage and form relevant customs and traditions. Humans are motivated by additional factors besides wage incentives. Unlike the rational theory of motivation, people are not driven toward economic interests per the natural system.
For instance, the straight piecework system pays employees based on each unit of their output. Based on studies such as the Bank Wiring Observation R
Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer such military capability as a national defense policy may require. In some countries paramilitary forces are included in a nation's armed forces, though not considered military. Armed forces that are not a part of military or paramilitary organizations, such as insurgent forces mimic military organizations, or use ad hoc structures, while formal military organization tends to use hierarchical forms; the use of formalized ranks in a hierarchical structure came into widespread use with the Roman Army. In modern times, executive control and administration of military organization is undertaken by governments through a government department within the structure of public administration known as a Ministry of Defense, Department of Defense, or Department of War; these in turn manage Armed Services that themselves command formations and units specialising in combat, combat support and combat-service support.
The civilian or civilian executive control over the national military organization is exercised in democracies by an elected political leader as a member of the government's Cabinet known as a Minister of Defense. Subordinated to that position are Secretaries for specific major operational divisions of the armed forces as a whole, such as those that provide general support services to the Armed Services, including their dependants. There are the heads of specific departmental agencies responsible for the provision and management of specific skill- and knowledge-based service such as Strategy advice, Capability Development assessment, or Defense Science provision of research, design and development of technologies. Within each departmental agency will be found administrative branches responsible for further agency business specialization work. In most countries the armed forces are divided into three or four Armed services: army and air force. Many countries have a variation on the standard model of four basic Armed Services.
Some nations organize their marines, special forces or strategic missile forces as independent armed services. A nation's coast guard may be an independent military branch of its military, although in many nations the coast guard is a law enforcement or civil agency. A number of countries have no navy, for geographical reasons; some other variations include: Bangladesh: Army, Air Force, Border Guards, Coast Guard Brazil: Army, Air Force, Firefighters Chile: Army, Air Force, National Police Croatia: Army, Air Force and Air Defence Egypt: Army, Air Force, Air Defense France: Army, Air Force, National Guard Greece: Army, Air Force Germany: Army, Air Force, Joint Support Service, Joint Medical Services Hungary: Army, Air Force India: Army, Air Force, Strategic Forces Command, Coast Guard, Paramilitary Forces Indonesia: Army, Air Force, Marines Iran: Army, Air Force and Air Defense Force, Revolutionary Guard Italy: Army, Air Force, Military Police Japan: Japan Ground Self Defense Force, Japan Maritime Self Defense Force, Japan Air Self Defense Force Latvia: Land Forces, Naval Forces, Air Force, National Guard Netherlands: Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie Norway: Army, Air Force, Home Guard, Cyber Defence Force Pakistan: Army, Air Force, Frontier Corps, Pakistan Coast Guard, Maritime Security Agency, Gilgit Scouts, Pakistan National Guard, Airports Security Force, Frontier Constabulary, National Command Authority Philippines: Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard Poland: Land Forces, Air Force, Special Forces, Territorial Defence Force People's Republic of China: Army, Air Force, Strategic Rocket Force, Strategic Support Force, People's Armed Police Republic of China: Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Reserve Force, Military Police Russian Federation: Ground Forces, Aerospace Forces plus three independent arms of service South Africa: Army, Air Force, Military Health Service Spain: Army, Air Force, Civil Guard, Emergencies Unit, Royal Guard Sri Lanka: Sri Lanka Army, Sri Lanka Navy, Sri Lanka Air Force, Sri Lanka Civil Security Force Turkey: Land Forces, Air Force, Naval Forces, Coast Guard, War Academies United States: Army, Air Force, Coast Guard United Kingdom: Army, Air Force, Marines Venezuela: Army, Air Force, National Guard, National Militia Vietnam: Ground Force, Air Force, Border Guard, Coast GuardIn larger armed forces the culture between the different Armed Services of the armed forces can be quite different.
Most smaller countries have a single organization that encompasses all armed forces employed by the country in question. Third-world armies tend to consist of infantry, while first-world armies tend to have larger units manning expensive equipment and only a fraction of personnel in infantry units, it is worthwhile to make mention of the term joint. In western militaries, a joint force is defined as a unit or formation comprising representation of combat power from two or more branches of the military. Gendarmeries, including equivalents such as Internal Troops, Paramilitary Forces and similar, are an internal security service common in most of the world, but uncommon in Anglo-Saxon countries where civil police are employed to enforce the law, there are tight restrictions on how the armed forces may be used to assist, it is common, at least in the European and Nort
Military science is the study of military processes and behavior, along with the study of warfare, the theory and application of organized coercive force. It is focused on theory and practice of producing military capability in a manner consistent with national defense policy. Military science serves to identify the strategic, economic, social, operational and tactical elements necessary to sustain relative advantage of military force. Military scientists include theorists, experimental scientists, applied scientists, engineers, test technicians, other military personnel. Military personnel obtain weapons and training to achieve specific strategic goals. Military science is used to establish enemy capability as part of technical intelligence. In military history, military science had been used during the period of Industrial Revolution as a general term to refer to all matters of military theory and technology application as a single academic discipline, including that of the deployment and employment of troops in peacetime or in battle.
In military education, military science is the name of the department in the education institution that administers officer candidate education. However, this education focuses on the officer leadership training and basic information about employment of military theories, concepts and systems, graduates are not military scientists on completion of studies, but rather junior military officers; until the Second World War, military science was written in English starting with capital letters, was thought of as an academic discipline alongside Physics and the Medical Science. In part this was due to the general mystique that accompanied education in a World where as late as the 1880s 75% of the European population was illiterate; the ability by the officers to make complex calculations required for the complex "evolutions" of the troop movements in linear warfare that dominated the Renaissance and history, the introduction of the gunpowder weapons into the equation of warfare only added to the veritable arcana of building fortifications as it seemed to the average individual.
Until the early 19th century, one observer, a British veteran of the Napoleonic Wars, Major John Mitchell thought that it seemed nothing much had changed from the application of force on a battlefield since the days of the Greeks. He suggested that this was so because as Clausewitz suggested, "unlike in any other science or art, in war the object reacts"; until this time, after the Franco-Prussian War, military science continued to be divided between the formal thinking of officers brought up in the "shadow" of Napoleonic Wars and younger officers like Ardant du Picq who tended to view fighting performance as rooted in the individual's and group psychology and suggested detailed analysis of this. This set in motion the eventual fascination of the military organisations with application of quantitative and qualitative research to their theories of combat. Military implements, the supply of an army, its organization and discipline, have constituted the elements of military science in all ages.
The breakthrough of sorts made by Clausewitz in suggesting eight principles on which such methods can be based, in Europe, for the first time presented an opportunity to remove the element of chance and error from command decision making process. At this time emphasis was made on the Topography, Military art, Military history, Organisation of the Army in the field and Science of Projectiles, Field fortifications and Permanent fortifications, Military legislation, Military administration and Manoeuvres; the military science on which the model of German combat operations was built for the First World War remained unaltered from the Napoleonic model, but took into the consideration the vast improvements in the firepower and the ability to conduct "great battles of annihilation" through rapid concentration of force, strategic mobility, the maintenance of the strategic offensive better known as the Cult of the offensive. The key to this, other modes of thinking about war remained analysis of military history and attempts to derive tangible lessons that could be replicated again with equal success on another battlefield as a sort of bloody laboratory of military science.
Few were bloodier than the fields of the Western Front between 1914 and 1918. Fascinatingly the man who understood Clausewitz better than most, Marshal Foch would participate in events that nearly destroyed the French Army, it is not however true to say that military theorists and commanders were suffering from some collective case of stupidity. Their analysis of military history convinced them that decisive and aggressive strategic offensive was the only doctrine of victory, feared that overemphasis of firepower, the resultant dependence on entrenchment would make this all but impossible, leading to the battlefield stagnant in advantages of the defensive position, destroying troop morale and willingness to fight; because only the offensive could bring victory, lack of it, not the firepower, was blamed for the defeat of the Imperial Russian Army in the Russo-Japanese War. Foch thought that "In strategy as well as in tactics one attacks". In many ways military science was born as a result of the experiences
Throughout China, many organizations have their workers gather outdoors before their shift for a pre-work assembly. They stand at attention in formation, wearing their work uniforms, grouped by position in the company, they face two managers, who give guidance, critique, or encouragement. Other assemblies engage in Guangchangwu. A less common kind of assembly practices marching. In public, urban settings, these assemblies are common outside restaurants and hotels several minutes before the meal service begins; the purpose of these assemblies is to build morale and cohesion among workers, while the physical exercise invigorates them. Although the assembly is considered a serious affair, the workers enjoy these gatherings. Square dancing Dance squad Exhibition drill Lockstep Morale Radio calisthenics School assembly
Psychological warfare, or the basic aspects of modern psychological operations, have been known by many other names or terms, including MISO, Psy Ops, political warfare, "Hearts and Minds", propaganda. The term is used "to denote any action, practiced by psychological methods with the aim of evoking a planned psychological reaction in other people". Various techniques are used, are aimed at influencing a target audience's value system, belief system, motives, reasoning, or behavior, it is used to induce confessions or reinforce attitudes and behaviors favorable to the originator's objectives, are sometimes combined with black operations or false flag tactics. It is used to destroy the morale of enemies through tactics that aim to depress troops' psychological states. Target audiences can be governments, organizations and individuals, is not just limited to soldiers. Civilians of foreign territories can be targeted by technology and media so as to cause an effect in the government of their country.
In Propaganda: The Formation of Men's Attitudes, Jacques Ellul discusses psychological warfare as a common peace policy practice between nations as a form of indirect aggression. This type of propaganda drains the public opinion of an opposing regime by stripping away its power on public opinion; this form of aggression is hard to defend against because no international court of justice is capable of protecting against psychological aggression since it cannot be adjudicated. "Here the propagandists is dealing with a foreign adversary whose morale he seeks to destroy by psychological means so that the opponent begins to doubt the validity of his beliefs and actions." Since prehistoric times and chiefs have recognised the importance of weakening morale of opponents. In the Battle of Pelusium between the Persian Empire and ancient Egypt, the Persian forces used cats and other animals as a psychological tactic against the Egyptians, who avoided harming cats due to religious belief and spells. Currying favour with supporters was the other side of psychological warfare, an early practitioner of such this was Alexander the Great, who conquered large parts of Europe and the Middle East and held on to his territorial gains by co-opting local elites into the Greek administration and culture.
Alexander left some of his men behind in each conquered city to introduce Greek culture and oppress dissident views. His soldiers were paid dowries to marry locals in an effort to encourage assimilation. Genghis Khan, leader of the Mongolian Empire in the 13th century AD employed less subtle techniques. Defeating the will of the enemy before having to attack and reaching a consented settlement was preferable to facing his wrath; the Mongol generals demanded submission to the Khan, threatened the captured villages with complete destruction if they refused to surrender. If they had to fight to take the settlement, the Mongol generals fulfilled their threats and massacred the survivors. Tales of the encroaching horde spread to the next villages and created an aura of insecurity that undermined the possibility of future resistance; the Khan employed tactics that made his numbers seem greater than they were. During night operations he ordered each soldier to light three torches at dusk to give the illusion of an overwhelming army and deceive and intimidate enemy scouts.
He sometimes had objects tied to the tails of his horses, so that riding on open and dry fields raised a cloud of dust that gave the enemy the impression of great numbers. His soldiers used arrows specially notched to whistle as they flew through the air, creating a terrifying noise. Another tactic favoured by the Mongols was catapulting severed human heads over city walls to frighten the inhabitants and spread disease in the besieged city's closed confines; this was used by the Turko-Mongol chieftain. The Muslim caliph Omar, in his battles against the Byzantine Empire, sent small reinforcements in the form of a continuous stream, giving the impression that a large force would accumulate if not swiftly dealt with. During the early Qin dynasty and late Eastern Zhou dynasty in 1st Century AD China, the Empty Fort Strategy was used to trick the enemy into believing that an empty location is an ambush, in order to prevent them from attacking it using reverse psychology; this tactic relied on luck should the enemy believe that the location is a threat to them.
In the 6th century BCE Greek Bias of Priene resisted the Lydian king Alyattes by fattening up a pair of mules and driving them out of the besieged city. When Alyattes' envoy was sent to Priene, Bias had piles of sand covered with corn to give the impression of plentiful resources; this ruse appears to have been well known in medieval Europe: defenders in castles or towns under siege would throw food from the walls to show besiegers that provisions were plentiful. A famous example occurs in the 8th-century legend of Lady Carcas, who persuaded the Franks to abandon a five-year siege by this means and gave her name to Carcassonne as a result; the start of modern psychological operations in war is dated to the World War I. By that point, Western societies were educated and urbanized, mass media was available in the form of large circulation newspapers and posters, it was possible to transmit propaganda to the enemy via the use of airborne leaflets or through explosive delivery systems like modified artillery or mortar rounds.
At the start of the war, the belligerents the British and Germans, began distributing propaganda, both domestically and on the Western front. The British had several advantages that allowed them to succeed in the battle for wor
Obedience (human behavior)
Obedience, in human behavior, is a form of "social influence in which a person yields to explicit instructions or orders from an authority figure". Obedience is distinguished from compliance, behavior influenced by peers, from conformity, behavior intended to match that of the majority. Depending on context, obedience can be seen as immoral, or amoral. Humans have been shown to be obedient in the presence of perceived legitimate authority figures, as shown by the Milgram experiment in the 1960s, carried out by Stanley Milgram to find out how the Nazis managed to get ordinary people to take part in the mass murders of the Holocaust; the experiment showed. Regarding obedience, Milgram said that "Obedience is as basic an element in the structure of social life as one can point to; some system of authority is a requirement of all communal living, it is only the man dwelling in isolation, not forced to respond, through defiance or submission, to the commands of others." A similar conclusion was reached in the Stanford prison experiment.
Although other fields have studied obedience, social psychology has been responsible for the advancement of research on obedience. It has been studied experimentally in several different ways. In one classical study, Stanley Milgram created a controversial yet replicated study. Like many other experiments in psychology, Milgram's setup involved deception of the participants. In the experiment, subjects were told they were going to take part in a study of the effects of punishment on learning. In reality, the experiment focuses on people's willingness to obey malevolent authority; each subject served as a teacher of associations between arbitrary pairs of words. After meeting the "teacher" at the beginning of the experiment, the "learner" sat in another room and could be heard, but not seen. Teachers were told to give the "learner" electric shocks of increasing severity for each wrong answer. If subjects questioned the procedure, the "researcher" would encourage them to continue. Subjects were told to ignore the agonized screams of the learner, his desire to be untied and stop the experiment, his pleas that his life was at risk and that he suffered from a heart condition.
The experiment, the "researcher" insisted, had to go on. The dependent variable in this experiment was the voltage amount of shocks administered; the other classical study on obedience was conducted at Stanford University during the 1970s. Phillip Zimbardo was the main psychologist responsible for the experiment. In the Stanford Prison Experiment, college age students were put into a pseudo prison environment in order to study the impacts of "social forces" on participants behavior. Unlike the Milgram study in which each participant underwent the same experimental conditions, here using random assignment half the participants were prison guards and the other half were prisoners; the experimental setting was made to physically resemble a prison while inducing "a psychological state of imprisonment". The Milgram study found that most participants would obey orders when obedience posed severe harm to others. With encouragement from a perceived authority figure, about two-thirds of the participants were willing to administer the highest level of shock to the learner.
This result was surprising to Milgram because he thought that "subjects have learned from childhood that it is a fundamental breach of moral conduct to hurt another person against his will". Milgram attempted to explain how ordinary people were capable of performing lethal acts against other human beings by suggesting that participants may have entered into an agentic state, where they allowed the authority figure to take responsibility for their own actions. Zimbardo obtained similar results as the guards in the study turned aggressive. Prisoners were hostile to and resented their guards; the cruelty of the "guards" and the consequent stress of the "prisoners," forced Zimbardo to terminate the experiment prematurely, after 6 days. The previous two studies influenced how modern psychologists think about obedience. Milgram's study in particular generated a large response from the psychology community. In a modern study, Jerry Burger replicated Milgram's method with a few alterations. Burger's method was identical to Milgram's except when the shocks reached 150 volts, participants decided whether or not they wanted to continue and the experiment ended.
To ensure the safety of the participants, Burger added a two-step screening process. In the modeled refusal condition, two confederates were used, where one confederate acted as the learner and the other was the teacher; the teacher stopped after going up to 90 volts, the participant was asked to continue where the confederate left off. This methodology was considered more ethical because many of the adverse psychological effects seen in previous studies' participants occurred after moving past 150 volts. Additionally, since Milgram's study only used men, Burger tried to determine if there were differences between genders in his study and randomly assigned equal numbers of men and women to the experimental conditions. Using data from his previous study, Burger probed participant's thoughts about obedience. Participants' comments from the previous study were coded for the number of times they mentioned "personal responsibility and the learner's well being"; the number of prods the participants used in the first experiment were measured.
Another study that use