Balapuwaduge Ajantha Winslow Mendis known as Ajantha Mendis is a professional Sri Lankan cricketer who plays for ODIs, Tests and T20Is for Sri Lankan national cricket team. He is known as the "mystery spinner" due to the unusual bowling action and regarded as one of the best Twenty20 bowlers in the world arena. Mendis holds the record for the best bowling figure in Twenty20 history, only bowler to take 6 wicket-haul in Twenty20 twice; as a batsman he has proven to be a useful tailender. Mendis made his One Day International debut against the West Indies at Port of Spain in 2008 and took 3 for 39, he played for the Kolkata Knight Riders in the Indian Premier League. His first Test Match was against India at Colombo on 23 July 2008 in which he returned match figures of 8–132, thereby becoming the first Sri Lankan bowler to get an eight-wicket haul on Test debut. Mendis won the Emerging Player of the Year award at the ICC Awards ceremony held in Dubai in September 2008, he is the quickest to reach 50 ODI wickets, with 19 matches.
Until February 2017, he was the only bowler to have taken six wickets in a Twenty20 International, he has achieved the feat twice, claiming the world record figures of 6 wickets for 8 runs for Sri Lanka against Zimbabwe on 18 September 2012. On 26 October 2012 Ajantha Mendis received the Sri Lankan order of Bantu, the highest civilian honour in Sri Lanka. Born on 11 March 1985, Mendis hails from a hamlet in Moratuwa, he is the third child in a family of five with a sister. He was raised Catholic, he has had his basic education at St Anthony's College at Kadalana in his village where there were no facilities at all for sports. He subsequently entered Moratuwa Maha Vidyalaya in the year of 2000. During a cricket coaching class, Mendis' talents were identified by the school coach named Mr Lucky Rogers back in the year 1998 when he was just 13 years of age. In the year 2000 he represented the school under 15 cricket team and he was selected to the first eleven team, he deputised for the school team captain.
This slow medium bowler with a variation of leg spin was adjudged the Best Bowler at the big-matches twice in 2001 and 2002. Sri Lanka Artillery Cricket Committee noticed his talents when he played a cricket match against the Army under 23 Division 11 during 2003/2004 tournaments. Following this he was invited to enlist in the regular force of the Sri Lanka Army, this was due to the low number of cricketers from Colombo schools joining the Army in the recent years, he enlisted due to the reason that his father, the bread-winner for the family had died the week before due to a heart attack. Following basic training he played for the army team and saw active military service as a Gunner in the Sri Lanka Artillery, a regiment of the Sri Lanka Army. Following the Asia Cup final, he has been promoted to the rank of Sergeant on 7 July 2008 and the next day commissioned as a Second Lieutenant. Mendis has represented the Army in 23 limited over matches and 59 two/three-day matches, in which he has 38 wickets and 244 wickets to his credit.
Mendis bowls off spin as his stock delivery and he has few more variations in his armoury- leg spin, top spin and faster bowl. All this was developed during 2006/2007 domestic seasons on his own, he extended his purple patch in the domestic season 2007/2008 under 23 division 1 tournament and was selected to the pool of "Academy Squad" organised by Sri Lanka Cricket. There he was able to polish his cricketing skills further, he had the opportunity of touring neighbouring India on an eight-day tour in June 2007 where he was given the opportunity to play two, two-day matches. In the meantime, Sri Lanka Cricket selectors could not ignore his performance in the Premier Limited Over Tournament 2007/2008 and got him selected to play in the "Provincial Tournament 2008" representing "Wayamba Province" under the National Captain. In that tournament he performed exceptionally well with the ball. Local TV commentators predicted him as the ideal replacement for senior spinner Muttiah Muralitharan in time to come and nicknamed him as "Mysterious Bowler".
His performance in the said tournament got the National Selectors to observe him further after he became the most successful bowler by taking 68 wickets in nine matches, a record in any form of domestic cricket. In the 2010 County Championship Mendis was to play for Hampshire as their overseas player for the season as a replacement for Imran Tahir, but he was unable to fulfill his contract and never appeared for the county, he now, has confirmed that he will be playing for South West side Somerset in the upcoming 2011 English domestic season. At the 2013 Indian Premier League Auctions held in Chennai, India on 3 February 2013, Mendis proved to be one of the most expensive players sold, purchased by the Pune Warriors India for $725,000. Mendis played for Lahore Qalandars in Pakistan Super League held at U. A. E in February 2016. On 3 March 2009, the bus that carried the Sri Lankan cricketers to the Gaddafi Stadium in Lahore, for the third day's play of the second Test match between Sri Lanka and Pakistan, was fired at by masked gunmen.
Mendis was among seven Sri Lankan cricketers who were injured in the attack, which killed five policemen who guarded the bus. Mendis made his debut in Test cricket against India in at the Sinhalese Sports Club Ground, Colombo, on 23 July 2008, he claimed his first wicket in his fifth over, bowling Rahul Dravid out with a delivery now christened the carrom ball, that turned from middle and hit off stump. He went on to claim the wickets of Anil Kumble, Zaheer Khan and VVS Laxman to finish with figures of 4 for 72, he followed this up with 4 for 60 in India's second inni
Sri Lanka the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea. The island is geographically separated from the Indian subcontinent by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait; the legislative capital, Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, is a suburb of the commercial capital and largest city, Colombo. Sri Lanka's documented history spans 3,000 years, with evidence of pre-historic human settlements dating back to at least 125,000 years, it has a rich cultural heritage and the first known Buddhist writings of Sri Lanka, the Pāli Canon, date back to the Fourth Buddhist council in 29 BC. Its geographic location and deep harbours made it of great strategic importance from the time of the ancient Silk Road through to the modern Maritime Silk Road. Sri Lanka was known from the beginning of British colonial rule as Ceylon. A nationalist political movement arose in the country in the early 20th century to obtain political independence, granted in 1948.
Sri Lanka's recent history has been marred by a 26-year civil war, which decisively ended when the Sri Lanka Armed Forces defeated the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam in 2009. The current constitution stipulates the political system as a republic and a unitary state governed by a semi-presidential system, it has had a long history of international engagement, as a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the G77, the Non-Aligned Movement. Along with the Maldives, Sri Lanka is one of only two South Asian countries rated "high" on the Human Development Index, with its HDI rating and per capita income the highest among South Asian nations; the Sri Lankan constitution accords Buddhism the "foremost place", although it does not identify it as a state religion. Buddhism is given special privileges in the Sri Lankan constitution; the island is home to many cultures and ethnicities. The majority of the population is from the Sinhalese ethnicity, while a large minority of Tamils have played an influential role in the island's history.
Moors, Malays and the indigenous Vedda are established groups on the island. In antiquity, Sri Lanka was known to travellers by a variety of names. According to the Mahavamsa, the legendary Prince Vijaya named the land Tambapanni, because his followers' hands were reddened by the red soil of the area. In Hindu mythology, such as the Ramayana, the island was referred to as Lankā; the Tamil term Eelam, was used to designate the whole island in Sangam literature. The island was known under Chola rule as Mummudi Cholamandalam. Ancient Greek geographers called it Taprobanē from the word Tambapanni; the Persians and Arabs referred to it as Sarandīb from Cerentivu or Siṃhaladvīpaḥ. Ceilão, the name given to Sri Lanka by the Portuguese Empire when it arrived in 1505, was transliterated into English as Ceylon; as a British crown colony, the island was known as Ceylon. The country is now known in Sinhala in Tamil as Ilaṅkai. In 1972, its formal name was changed to "Free and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka".
In 1978 it was changed to the "Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka". As the name Ceylon still appears in the names of a number of organisations, the Sri Lankan government announced in 2011 a plan to rename all those over which it has authority; the pre-history of Sri Lanka goes back 125,000 years and even as far back as 500,000 years. The era spans the Palaeolithic and early Iron Ages. Among the Paleolithic human settlements discovered in Sri Lanka, which dates back to 37,000 BP, Batadombalena and Belilena are the most important. In these caves, archaeologists have found the remains of anatomically modern humans which they have named Balangoda Man, other evidence suggesting that they may have engaged in agriculture and kept domestic dogs for driving game. One of the first written references to the island is found in the Indian epic Ramayana, which provides details of a kingdom named Lanka, created by the divine sculptor Vishwakarma for Kubera, the Lord of Wealth, it is said that Kubera was overthrown by his demon stepbrother Ravana, the powerful emperor who built a mythical flying machine named Dandu Monara.
The modern city of Wariyapola is described as Ravana's airport. Early inhabitants of Sri Lanka were ancestors of the Vedda people, an indigenous people numbering 2,500 living in modern-day Sri Lanka; the 19th-century Irish historian James Emerson Tennent theorized that Galle, a city in southern Sri Lanka, was the ancient seaport of Tarshish from which King Solomon is said to have drawn ivory and other valuables. According to the Mahāvamsa, a chronicle written in Pāḷi, the original inhabitants of Sri Lanka are the Yakshas and Nagas. Ancient cemeteries that were used before 600 BC and other signs of advanced civilisation have been discovered in Sri Lanka. Sinhalese history traditionally starts in 543 BC with the arrival of Prince Vijaya, a semi-legendary prince who sailed with 700 followers to Sri Lanka, after being expelled from Vanga Kingdom (present-day Ben
Kalu Ganga is a river in Sri Lanka. Measuring 129 km in length, the river reach the sea at Kalutara; the Black River pass the city Ratnapura. The mountainous forests in the Central Province and the Sinharaja Forest Reserve are the main sources of water for the river. List of rivers in Sri Lanka
Sri Lankan Tamils
Sri Lankan Tamils or Ceylon Tamils known as Eelam Tamils in Tamil, are members of the Tamil ethnic group native to the South Asian island state of Sri Lanka. According to anthropological and archaeological evidence, Sri Lankan Tamils have a long history in Sri Lanka and have lived on the island since at least around the 2nd century BCE. Most modern Sri Lankan Tamils claim descent from residents of Jaffna Kingdom, a former kingdom in the north of the island and Vannimai chieftaincies from the east, they constitute a majority in the Northern Province, live in significant numbers in the Eastern Province and are in the minority throughout the rest of the country. 70 % of Sri Lankan Tamils in Sri Lanka live in the Eastern provinces. Although Sri Lankan Tamils are culturally and linguistically distinct, genetic studies indicate that they are related to Sinhalese ethnic group in the island; the Sri Lankan Tamils are Hindus with a significant Christian population. Sri Lankan Tamil literature on topics including religion and the sciences flourished during the medieval period in the court of the Jaffna Kingdom.
Since the beginning of the Sri Lankan Civil War in the 1980s, it is distinguished by an emphasis on themes relating to the conflict. Sri Lankan Tamil dialects are noted for their archaism and retention of words not in everyday use in the Tamil Nadu state in India. Since Sri Lanka gained independence from Britain in 1948, relations between the majority Sinhalese and minority Tamil communities have been strained. Rising ethnic and political tensions, along with ethnic riots in 1956, 1958, 1977, 1981 and 1983, led to the formation and strengthening of militant groups advocating independence for Tamils; the ensuing civil war resulted in the deaths of more than 100,000 people and the forced disappearance of thousands of others. The civil war ended in 2009 but there are continuing allegations of atrocities being committed by the Sri Lankan Military and the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam during its final months. A United Nations panel found that as many as 40,000 civilians may have been killed in the final months of the civil war.
The end of the civil war has not improved conditions in Sri Lanka, with press freedom not being restored and the judiciary coming under political control. One-third of Sri Lankan Tamils now live outside Sri Lanka. While there was significant migration during the British colonial period, the civil war led to more than 800,000 Tamils leaving Sri Lanka, many have left the country for destinations such as Canada and Europe as refugees. There is little scholarly consensus over the presence of the Sri Lankan Tamil people in Sri Lanka known as Eelam in Sangam literature. One theory states that there was not an organised Sri Lankan Tamil people presence in Sri Lanka until the creation of a Tamil Kingdom in the 7th century CE, followed by much earlier invasions from Tamilakam. Another theory states that the Sri Lankan Tamils are descendant of the Nagas, who started to assimilate to Tamil culture and language around 3rd BCE. Other theories contends; the Indigenous Veddhas are ethnically related to people in South India and early populations of Southeast Asia.
It is not possible to ascertain what languages that they spoke as Vedda language is considered diverged from its original source. According to K. Indrapala, cultural diffusion, rather than migration of people, spread the Prakrit and Tamil languages from peninsular India into an existing mesolithic population, centuries before the common era. Tamil Brahmi and Tamil-Prakrit scripts were used to write the Tamil language during this period on the island. Settlements of culturally similar early populations of ancient Sri Lanka and ancient Tamil Nadu in India were excavated at megalithic burial sites at Pomparippu on the west coast and in Kathiraveli on the east coast of the island. Bearing a remarkable resemblance to burials in the Early Pandyan Kingdom, these sites were established between the 5th century BCE and 2nd century CE. Excavated ceramic sequences similar to that of Arikamedu were found in Kandarodai on the north coast, dated to 1300 BCE. Cultural similarities in burial practices in South India and Sri Lanka were dated by archaeologists to 10th century BCE.
However, Indian history and archaeology have pushed the date back to 15th century BCE. In Sri Lanka, there is radiometric evidence from Anuradhapura that the non-Brahmi symbol-bearing black and red ware occur in the 10th century BCE; the skeletal remains of an Early Iron Age chief were excavated in Jaffna District. The name Ko Veta is engraved in Brahmi script on a seal buried with the skeleton and is assigned by the excavators to the 3rd century BCE. Ko, meaning "King" in Tamil, is comparable to such names as Ko Atan, Ko Putivira and Ko Ra-pumaan occurring in contemporary Tamil Brahmi inscriptions of ancient South India and Egypt. Potsherds with early Tamil writing from the 2nd century BCE have been found from the north in Poonagari, Kilinochchi District to the south in Tissamaharama, they bore several inscriptions, including a clan name—vela, a name related to velir from ancient Tamil country. Epigraphic evidence shows people identifying themselves as Damelas or Damedas in Anuradhapura, the capital city of Rajarata the middle kingdom, other areas of Sri Lanka as early as the 2nd century BCE.
Excavations in the area of Tissamaharama in southern Sri Lanka have unearthed locally issued coins, produced between the 2nd century BCE and the 2nd century CE, some of which carry local Tamil personal names written in early Tamil characters, which suggest that local Tamil merchants were present
A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city. In most English-speaking countries, suburban areas are defined in contrast to central or inner-city areas, but in Australian English and South African English, suburb has become synonymous with what is called a "neighborhood" in other countries and the term extends to inner-city areas. In some areas, such as Australia, China, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, a few U. S. states, new suburbs are annexed by adjacent cities. In others, such as Saudi Arabia, Canada and much of the United States, many suburbs remain separate municipalities or are governed as part of a larger local government area such as a county. Suburbs first emerged on a large scale in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of improved rail and road transport, which led to an increase in commuting. In general, they have lower population densities than inner city neighborhoods within a metropolitan area, most residents commute to central cities or other business districts.
Suburbs tend to proliferate around cities that have an abundance of adjacent flat land. The English word is derived from the Old French subburbe, in turn derived from the Latin suburbium, formed from sub and urbs; the first recorded usage of the term in English, was made by John Wycliffe in 1380, where the form subarbis was used, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. In Australia and New Zealand, suburbs have become formalised as geographic subdivisions of a city and are used by postal services in addressing. In rural areas in both countries, their equivalents are called localities; the terms inner suburb and outer suburb are used to differentiate between the higher-density areas in proximity to the city center, the lower-density suburbs on the outskirts of the urban area. The term'middle suburbs' is used. Inner suburbs, such as Te Aro in Wellington, Eden Terrace in Auckland, Prahran in Melbourne and Ultimo in Sydney, are characterised by higher density apartment housing and greater integration between commercial and residential areas.
In New Zealand, most suburbs are not defined which can lead to confusion as to where they may begin and end. Although there is a geospatial file defining suburbs for use by emergency services developed and maintained by Fire and Emergency New Zealand, in collaboration with other government agencies, to date this file has not been released publicly. New Zealand company Koordinates Limited requested access to the geospatial file under the Official Information Act 1982 but this request was rejected by the New Zealand Fire Service on the basis that it would prejudice the health & safety of, or cause material loss, to the public. In September 2014 a decision was made by the Ombudsman of New Zealand ruling that the New Zealand Fire Service refusal to release the geospatial file without agreeing to terms which included, among other restrictions, a prohibition on redistribution of the geospatial file, was reasonable. In the United Kingdom and in Ireland, suburb refers to a residential area outside the city centre, regardless of administrative boundaries.
Suburbs, in this sense, can range from areas that seem more like residential areas of a city proper to areas separated by open countryside from the city centre. In large cities such as London and Leeds, suburbs include separate towns and villages that have been absorbed during a city's growth and expansion, such as Ealing and Guiseley. In the United States and Canada, suburb can refer either to an outlying residential area of a city or town or to a separate municipality or unincorporated area outside a town or city; the earliest appearance of suburbs coincided with the spread of the first urban settlements. Large walled towns tended to be the focus around which smaller villages grew up in a symbiotic relationship with the market town; the word'suburbani' was first used by the Roman statesman Cicero in reference to the large villas and estates built by the wealthy patricians of Rome on the city's outskirts. Towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the capital, was occupied by the emperor and important officials.
As populations grew during the Early Modern Period in Europe, urban towns swelled with a steady influx of people from the countryside. In some places, nearby settlements were swallowed up as the main city expanded; the peripheral areas on the outskirts of the city were inhabited by the poorest. Due to the rapid migration of the rural poor to the industrialising cities of England in the late 18th century, a trend in the opposite direction began to develop; this trend accelerated through the 19th century in cities like London and Manchester that were growing and the first suburban districts sprung up around the city centres to accommodate those who wanted to escape the squalid conditions of the industrial towns. Toward the end of the century, with the development of public transit systems such as the underground railways and buses, it became possible for the majority of the city's population to reside outside the city and to commute into the
Charles Henry de Soysa
Sir Charles Henry de Soysa was a Ceylonese entrepreneur and philanthropist. He was a pioneering planter and was the wealthiest Ceylonese of the 19th century, he was instrumental in the establishment of the first Ceylonese bank, the Moratuwa carpenters guild, the Ceylon Agricultural and National Associations. He is regarded as the greatest philanthropist of the island for contributions which includes the De Soysa Maternity Hospital, the Prince and Princess of Wales Colleges, St. Matthias Church, the Model Farm Experimental Station and many other institutions and acts of charity, establishing infant-maternal healthcare and secular education for girls in the country, he was the country's first Knight Bachelor. Charles de Soysa was born at the humble abode of his maternal grandfather in Moratuwa on 3 March 1836, he was the only son of Francesca de Soysa Lamaethani. Jeronis de Soysa, an Ayurveda doctor, was one of the most successful merchants in Ceylon and established the largest native commercial enterprise of the era.
His grandfather Warusahennadige Joseph Soysa, an Ayurveda practitioner, great grandfather Bastian Soysa and earlier ancestors. Their ancestor was the lay custodian of the Devinuwara Temple Matara at the time of its destruction in 1587. Having his primary education at the Palliyagodella Buddhist Temple in Moratuwa, de Soysa went on to gain his secondary education at the Colombo Academy and became one of the first students of S. Thomas' College, Mutwal before completing his education at home with a tutor, he became an apprentice under his father and uncle Susew de Soysa in managing the large estates and trading network of the family, starting at Hanguranketa. From a young age De Soysa had displayed a benevolent nature. De Soysa, a devout Anglican, sought the hand of Catherine, the daughter of Chevalier Jusey de Silva Deva Aditya and Weerahennadige Weerabala Jayasuriya Patabendi Anna Fernando who were staunch Catholics. De Silva hailed from the traditional nindagam land holders of Moratuwa during the Kotte Kingdom and was a successful wholesaler and exporter of arrack.
A compromise was made to solemnise the marriage according to the rites of the Roman Catholic Church and the wedding was held on 4 February 1863 at the Chevalier walauwa, Moratuwa De Soysa was a pioneering tea planter, the preserve of Europeans. When the coffee crash occurred in 1869 many European planters went back home. However, De Soysas' investments were not only in coffee, which enabled him to survive the coffee crisis and expand his plantations further. De Soysa planted tea in the former coffee estates and it fetched record prices at the Colombo and London auctions. Guru Oya, Marigold and others, established in 1870, were among the earliest tea plantations of the country. De Soysa cultivated citronella, cinnamon, rubber and cotton in seven of the nine provinces of the Island, his other investments included transportation, graphite mining, coffee and oil mills, tea factories and the import-export trade. Built in 1870, the Wolfendhal and Diyatalawa mills were some of the earliest steam mills of Ceylon and his fibre mill was the largest in the world.
C. H. de Soysa Exports was the first company registered by a Ceylon national. He constructed commercial buildings at Galle Face, Colpetty and Pettah and the De Soysa building in Slave Island, Colombo; the residential property he owned became the most sought after residential areas in latter times. De Soysa was the first Ceylonese banker and he was instrumental in establishing the Bank of Kandy at Dalada veediya and Pettah, Colombo in 1860, he was the first Ceylonese member of the Ceylon Chamber of Commerce. De Soysa undertook measures to improve and diversify agricultural productivity in the country by experimenting with farming methods and promoting agricultural innovations, he adopted measures to compete directly in the international market and encouraged other local entrepreneurs to do so. He introduced emerging technologies and setup incentives for his employees including pensions at a time when such a system was yet to be formally adopted by governments and institutions. De Soysa had the unique privilege of according a reception on behalf of the people of Ceylon to Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, the first member of British Royalty to visit the Island.
This he did in royal style at his palatial mansion in Colombo Bagatelle walauwa, specially reconstructed for the occasion in a sprawling park of 120 acres. De Soysa entertained the Prince where the crockery and cutlery of the banquet was made of gold and studded with gems and pearls. De Soysa extended the invitation to the elites as well as the commoners from all communities. Consequent to this event H. R. H; the Duke of Edinburgh hosted a reception to the De Soysas and conferred the title of Gate Mudaliyar on Susew de Soysa and of Justice of the Peace for the Island on Charles Henry de Soysa. De Soysa initiated measures to reduce the infant mortality rate by creating a supply of trained Sinhalese midwives, he became the first person in Asia to gift a maternity hospital. The original buildings of the Ceylon Medical College gifted by him and his uncle Mudliyar Susew de Soysa were declared open on the same day by the Governor Sir James Robert Longden on 9 December 1879. Th
Kingdom of Kotte
The Kingdom of Kotte, centered on Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, was a kingdom that flourished in Sri Lanka during the 15th century. The term Kotte is said to have derived from the Tamil word "Kōttei"; the word Kotte was introduced by Nissankamalla Alagakkonara, the founder of the fortress. They were believed to be from the city of Vanchi, identified with Kanchipuram of Tamil Nadu; the Alagakkonara family have been identified to be of Tamil ancestry. The Kotte kings were descendants of a Malayali merchant family. Founded as a fortress by Minister Alakesvara of the Alagakkonara clan of the Kingdom of Gampola during the reign of Vikramabahu III of Gampola to checkmate invasions from South India on the western coast, Parakramabahu VI made Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte his capital city in 1412, it was well protected by the large swamp. Parakramabahu VI first became the king of Raigama in 1412 in 1415 he made Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte his capital; the King built a new royal palace. Parakramabahu VI waited until ties between the Vijayanagara Jaffna Kingdom were severed.
First he made its leaders loyal to him. Sapumal Kumaraya was the commander of the Kotte army at the time. Tamil served as one of the court languages of the Kotte kingdom at this time. In 1450, Parakramabahu VI had, with his conquest of the Jaffna kingdom in northern Sri Lanka, unified all of Sri Lanka. At its height, the Kingdom oversaw one of greatest eras of the Sinhalese literature. Notable poets at the time were Buddhist monks such as Thotagamuwe Sri Rahula Thera, Weedagama Maihree thero, Karagala Wanarathana thero. By 1477, however, 10 years after the death of Parakramabahu VI, regional kingdoms became more powerful. Most notably a new Kingdom was founded in central hill-country of the island by Senasammatha Wickremabahu who led a rebellion against the Kotte Kingdom in 1469. Parakramabahu IX of Kotte moved the capital to Kelaniya in 1509 and it stayed there until 1528; the Portuguese arrived in Sri Lanka in 1505. Once they learnt that they had arrived in Sri Lanka, they sailed to Colombo, they were taken by a tortuous route to the capital, quite close by.
This was done in order to create the impression that the kingdom was too far inland to make invasion from the harbour feasible. This plan was, spoilt by the fact that the Portuguese who remained with the ship fired the ship's cannon which sound was heard by the Portuguese party being taken to Kotte; this incident gave rise to the local saying "Parangiya Kotte Giya Vage", which refers doing something or going somewhere in a roundabout route instead of a direct route. However, during this meeting Portuguese managed to secure a trade agreement with the Kotte king. Kotte Kingdom's downfall began with an event in 1521 which became known as the "Wijayaba Kollaya"; the Kotte king Vijayabahu VII's three sons mutinied and killed their father dividing the kingdom among themselves. This gave rise to three minor kingdoms, Kotte and Principality of Raigama; the divided Kingdom of Sitawaka became more powerful with local popular support and Kotte Kingdom had to rely on Portuguese for help. The king of Kotte after Wijayabe Kollaya, Buvenekabahu VII, got assistance from the Portuguese in order to defeat his brother, Mayadunne.
He allowed his daughter's son, Prince Dharmapala, to be baptized as a Catholic by the Portuguese. After Buvenekabahu had named Dharmapala as his heir, he was shot - by accident - by a Portuguese soldier. In 1565, capital of Kotte was abandoned by Dharmapala of Kotte due to frequent attacks from the Kingdom of Sitawaka led by Mayadunne and his son Rajasinghe I. Most of the areas of Kotte Kingdom were annexed to the Kingdom of Sitawaka however after the downfall of Sitawaka in 1594, these areas were re-annexed to the Kotte kingdom. In 1597 Dharmapala gifted the Kotte Kingdom to the Portuguese throne and Kotte era was ended; the military of the Kotte kingdom was associated with both its rise and demise. Poems written in this era give vivid accounts of the contemporary military. Before the arrival of the Portuguese, there are no signs of the use of fire arms in the kingdom; the military consisted of four main departments, namely Ath - elephant regiments Ashwa - horse regiments Riya - chariot regiments Pabala- infantry regiments.
In the final periods of the kingdom, the Portuguese were in charge of the military. Alagakkonara Parakramabahu VI of Kotte Manikka Taleivar Bhuvanekabahu VI, known as Sapumal Kumaraya or Chempaka Perumal. Veediya Bandara Prince of Ambulugala Samarakone Rala Capture of Jaffna in 1450 Capture of Vanni, making its chieftains tribute-paying subordinates Successfully subsidising a rebellion in central hills started by Jothiya Situ. Invading a port of the Vijayanagar Empire as a retaliation to looting a ship belong to Kotte, making that port a tributary paying port of the kingdom; the kingdom was situated near Colombo, a important port at the time. Moorish merchants from India and Arabia dominated the trade of the kingdom until the arrival of the Portuguese; the spice trade, e.g. in cinnamon, black pepper, dominated the exports while gemstones was a big export. After the conquest of Jaffna, Kotte possessed the pearl trading which gave an enormous wealth to the kingdom. Portuguese who arrived in there as traders were able to secure a trading deal with the kingdom on their first visit.
One of the greatest of fields that flourished under his rule was literature and art, since the k