Library of Congress Classification
The Library of Congress Classification is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress. It is used by most research and academic libraries in the U. S. and several other countries. LCC should not be confused with LCCN, the system of Library of Congress Control Numbers assigned to all books, which defines URLs of their online catalog entries, such as "82006074" and "http://lccn.loc.gov/82006074". The Classification is distinct from Library of Congress Subject Headings, the system of labels such as "Boarding schools" and "Boarding schools—Fiction" that describe contents systematically; the classifications may be distinguished from the call numbers assigned to particular copies of books in the collection, such as "PZ7. J684 Wj 1982 FT MEADE Copy 1" where the classification is "PZ7. J684 Wj 1982"; the classification was invented by Herbert Putnam in 1897, just before he assumed the librarianship of Congress. With advice from Charles Ammi Cutter, it was influenced by his Cutter Expansive Classification, the Dewey Decimal System, the Putnam Classification System.
It was designed for the purposes and collection of the Library of Congress to replace the fixed location system developed by Thomas Jefferson. By the time Putnam departed from his post in 1939, all the classes except K and parts of B were well developed. LCC has been criticized for lacking a sound theoretical basis. Although it divides subjects into broad categories, it is enumerative in nature; that is, it provides a guide to the books in one library's collections, not a classification of the world. In 2007 The Wall Street Journal reported that in the countries it surveyed most public libraries and small academic libraries used the older Dewey Decimal Classification system; the National Library of Medicine classification system uses the initial letters W and QS–QZ, which are not used by LCC. Some libraries use NLM in conjunction with LCC. Others include Medicine R. Subclass AC -- Collections. Series. Collected works Subclass AE – Encyclopedias Subclass AG – Dictionaries and other general reference works Subclass AI – Indexes Subclass AM – Museums.
Collectors and collecting Subclass AN – Newspapers Subclass AP – Periodicals Subclass AS – Academies and learned societies Subclass AY – Yearbooks. Almanacs. Directories Subclass AZ – History of scholarship and learning; the humanities Subclass B – Philosophy Subclass BC – Logic Subclass BD – Speculative philosophy Subclass BF – Psychology Subclass BH – Aesthetics Subclass BJ – Ethics Subclass BL – Religions. Mythology. Rationalism Subclass BM – Judaism Subclass BP – Islam. Bahaism. Theosophy, etc. Subclass BQ – Buddhism Subclass BR – Christianity Subclass BS – The Bible Subclass BT – Doctrinal theology Subclass BV – Practical Theology Subclass BX – Christian Denominations Subclass C – Auxiliary Sciences of History Subclass CB – History of Civilization Subclass CC – Archaeology Subclass CD – Diplomatics. Archives. Seals Subclass CE – Technical Chronology. Calendar Subclass CJ – Numismatics Subclass CN – Inscriptions. Epigraphy Subclass CR – Heraldry Subclass CS – Genealogy Subclass CT – Biography Subclass D – History Subclass DA – Great Britain Subclass DAW – Central Europe Subclass DB – Austria – Liechtenstein – Hungary – Czechoslovakia Subclass DC – France – Andorra – Monaco Subclass DD – Germany Subclass DE – Greco-Roman World Subclass DF – Greece Subclass DG – Italy – Malta Subclass DH – Low Countries – Benelux Countries Subclass DJ – Netherlands Subclass DJK – Eastern Europe Subclass DK – Russia.
Soviet Union. Former Soviet Republics – Poland Subclass DL – Northern Europe. Scandinavia Subclass DP – Spain – Portugal Subclass DQ – Switzerland Subclass DR – Balkan Peninsula Subclass DS – Asia Subclass DT – Africa Subclass DU – Oceania Subclass DX – Romanies Class E does not have any subclasses. Class F does not have any subclasses, however Canadian Universities and the Canadian National Library use FC for Canadian History, a subclass that the LC has not adopted, but which it has agreed not to use for anything else Subclass G – Geography. Atlases. Maps Subclass GA – Mathematical geography. Cartography Subclass GB – Physical geography Subclass GC – Oceanography Subclass GE – Environmental Sciences Subclass GF – Human ecology. Anthropogeography Subclass GN – Anthropology Subclass GR – Folklore Subclass GT – Manners and customs Subclass GV – Recreation. Leisure Subclass H – Social sciences Subclass HA – Statistics Subclass HB – Economic theory. Demography Subclass HC – Economic history and conditions Subclass HD – Industries.
Land use. Labor Subclass HE – Transportation and communications Subclass HF – Commerce Subclass HG – Finance Subclass HJ – Public finance Subclass HM – Sociology Subclass HN – Social history and conditions. Social problems. Social reform Subclass HQ – The family. Marriage and Sexuality Subclass HS – Societies: secret, etc. Subclass HT – Communities. Classes. Races Subclass HV – Social pathology. Social and public welfare. Criminology Subclass HX – Socialism. Communism. Anarchism Subclass J – General legislative and executive papers Subclass JA – Political science Subclass JC – Political theory Subclass JF – Political institutions and public administration Subclass JJ – Political institutions and public administration Subclass JK – Political institutions and public administration Subclass JL – Political instit
More to Lose
"More To Lose" is a single by British new wave group Seona Dancing, released in 1983. It is an uptempo new wave pop song, sung by a then-unknown Ricky Gervais, the lyricist and vocalist of the band. Macrae was the band's keyboard player; the song remains unknown in their homeland of the UK, after only peaking at No. 117 on the UK Singles Chart, but found tremendous success in the Philippines in 1985, a year after the band broke up. In 1985, DWRT-FM started playing a song, deliberately misnaming it as "Fade" by Medium, to prevent other rival stations finding the song and playing it for themselves. To make it impossible for other DJs to record the song and play it on their own station, DWRT-FM inserted a station ID midway through the track. A year radio station DWXB-102 revealed the true identity of the song. "More to Lose" became an instant hit among Filipino teenagers. The song swept the nation's dance clubs and endless airplay on Manila FM stations throughout the mid-1980s
An Idiot Abroad
An Idiot Abroad is a British travel documentary/road trip comedy television series broadcast on Sky 1, as well as a series of companion books published by Canongate Books, created by Ricky Gervais and Stephen Merchant and starring Karl Pilkington. The ongoing theme of both the television series and the books is that Pilkington has no interest in global travel, so Merchant and Gervais make him travel while they stay in the United Kingdom and monitor his progress. Entitled Karl Pilkington's Seven Wonders of the World, An Idiot Abroad documents Karl Pilkington's journeys to foreign countries under the guise of visiting the New Seven Wonders of the World. Though the New Seven Wonders of the World include the Colosseum in Rome, this is not one of Pilkington's destinations. Most of each episode focuses on Pilkington's reactions to cultural differences and idiosyncrasies in the countries he visits. Gervais and Merchant call Pilkington during each trip, to assign him tasks not related to why he believed he was visiting the country.
These include training as a luchador, travelling the desert on a camel, dancing with a samba school in a Carnival parade. It was confirmed by the show's producers that Pilkington has no prior warning about these situations; the camera man coaxes him along. Gervais commented: "This is a documentary than most others you'll see on television. We don't plan it, he doesn't know what's going to happen."A book entitled The Travel Diaries of Karl Pilkington was published shortly after the series. It was authored by Pilkington and gives a deeper insight into his feelings on what he was experiencing; the second series shows Pilkington performing activities from a general "bucket list". Gervais produced a Christmas special mini-series that aired in the UK in late 2012; the original concept, pitched by Gervais, was to show Pilkington and Warwick Davis travelling around England on a bike together. The final outcome featured the pair travelling to China from Venice via Eastern Europe and India, loosely based on the journey of Marco Polo.
Gervais said, "We started planning the route for An Idiot Abroad 3: this week. It's only a three-part special but we've decided to make it a bit more global as opposed to'around Kent for a few days', Pilkington is starting to regret it already." An Idiot Abroad 3 did not feature Stephen Merchant, busy with other projects. After the conclusion of the show, Ricky Gervais and Karl Pilkington worked together again in the TV series Derek. There is an official podcast to accompany the programme and book; the programme was broadcast in the United Kingdom on Sky1, has since started airing in other countries. The first episode of An Idiot Abroad aired on 23 September 2010 at 9:30pm on Sky1 and achieved an official audience figure of 1,241,000 viewers based on BARB; these audience figures were Sky1's best viewer numbers for a debuting show since Terry Pratchett's Going Postal four months earlier, making An Idiot Abroad the fourth-most popular non-terrestrial programme that day. The program increased its viewing figures throughout its run, with Episode 3 attracting 1,850,000 viewers and Episode 7 attracting 1,918,000 viewers.
The show returned on 23 September 2011 at 9:00pm on Sky1 with 2,659,000 viewers, making it the most watched Sky1 and non-terrestrial programme since 2005. A three-part Christmas special was shown from 30 November 2012 to 14 December 2012 on Sky1. Pilkington is joined by actor Warwick Davis travelling to various locations along the route taken by Marco Polo to China. On 21 December 2012, a fourth episode entitled "A Commentary" was broadcast. Gervais confirmed. In February 2013, which broadcast all three series in North America, began rebroadcasting episodes of An Idiot Abroad under the title An Idiot Abroad: Lost Luggage, marketed as "Karl Pilkington's greatest journeys... now with never-before-seen footage" and "Same idiot, more scenes." Each Lost Luggage episode is made up of the original episode and two brief, new "Lost Luggage" segments filmed at Gervais's home in England that were not part of the original episode. In each "Lost Luggage" segment and Pilkington hold a short discussion; the first series was released in the UK on 15 November 2010 for Blu-ray.
The second series was released on 21 November 2011, as well as a box set featuring series 1 and 2. The third series was released on DVD in the UK on 24 December 2012, as well as a box set featuring series 1, 2 and 3; the first series was released on Blu-ray in the US on 16 November 2010, a Blu-ray box set of the first and second series on 29 November 2011. The first series was released on DVD on 10 January 2012, series two was released on DVD on 8 January 2013; this is a list of countries and events that Pilkington experiences over all three series of An Idiot Abroad. China and the United States are the only countries that he visits more than once, China is the only country that appears in all three series. Series 1 – The Seven Wonders: China – Great Wall of China India – Taj Mahal Israel – Jerusalem, Dead Sea West Bank – Bethlehem Jordan – Petra Mexico – Chichen Itza Egypt – Great Pyramid of Giza Brazil – Christ the Redeemer Peru – Machu Picchu Series 2 – The Bucket List: New Zealand – Bungee jumping Vanuatu – Visit a desert island Russia – Trans-Siberian Railway Mongolia – Mongolian wrestling China – Kingdom of the Little People
Slug, or land slug, is a common name for any shell-less terrestrial gastropod mollusc. The word slug is often used as part of the common name of any gastropod mollusc that has no shell, a reduced shell, or only a small internal shell sea slugs and semislugs. Various taxonomic families of land slugs form part of several quite different evolutionary lineages, which include snails. Thus, the various families of slugs are not related, despite a superficial similarity in the overall body form; the shell-less condition has arisen many times independently during the evolutionary past, thus the category "slug" is a polyphyletic one. Of the six orders of Pulmonata, two – the Onchidiacea and Soleolifera – comprise slugs. A third family, the Sigmurethra, contains various clades of semi-slugs and slugs; the taxonomy of this group is in the process of being revised in light of DNA sequencing. It appears that pulmonates are paraphyletic and basal to the opisthobranchs, which are a terminal branch of the tree.
The family Ellobiidae are polyphyletic. Subinfraorder Orthurethra Superfamily Achatinelloidea Gulick, 1873 Superfamily Cochlicopoidea Pilsbry, 1900 Superfamily Partuloidea Pilsbry, 1900 Superfamily Pupilloidea Turton, 1831 Subinfraorder Sigmurethra Superfamily Acavoidea Pilsbry, 1895 Superfamily Achatinoidea Swainson, 1840 Superfamily Aillyoidea Baker, 1960 Superfamily Arionoidea J. E. Gray in Turnton, 1840 Superfamily Athoracophoroidea Family Athoracophoridae Superfamily Orthalicoidea Subfamily Bulimulinae Superfamily Camaenoidea Pilsbry, 1895 Superfamily Clausilioidea Mörch, 1864 Superfamily Dyakioidea Gude & Woodward, 1921 Superfamily Gastrodontoidea Tryon, 1866 Superfamily Helicoidea Rafinesque, 1815 Superfamily Helixarionoidea Bourguignat, 1877 Superfamily Limacoidea Rafinesque, 1815 Superfamily Oleacinoidea H. & A. Adams, 1855 Superfamily Orthalicoidea Albers-Martens, 1860 Superfamily Plectopylidoidea Moellendorf, 1900 Superfamily Polygyroidea Pilsbry, 1894 Superfamily Punctoidea Morse, 1864 Superfamily Rhytidoidea Pilsbry, 1893 Family Rhytididae Superfamily Sagdidoidera Pilsbry, 1895 Superfamily Staffordioidea Thiele, 1931 Superfamily Streptaxoidea J.
E. Gray, 1806 Superfamily Strophocheiloidea Thiele, 1926 Superfamily Parmacelloidea Superfamily Zonitoidea Mörch, 1864 Superfamily Quijotoidea Jesús Ortea and Juan José Bacallado, 2016 Family Quijotidae The external anatomy of a slug includes the following: Tentacles Like other pulmonate land gastropods, the majority of land slugs have two pairs of'feelers' or tentacles on their head; the upper pair is light sensing and has eyespots at the ends, while the lower pair provides the sense of smell. Both pairs are retractable. Mantle On top of the slug, behind the head, is the saddle-shaped mantle, under this are the genital opening and anus. On one side of the mantle is a respiratory opening, easy to see when open, but difficult to see when closed; this opening is known as the pneumostome. Tail The part of a slug behind the mantle is called the'tail'. Keel Some species of slugs, for example Tandonia budapestensis, have a prominent ridge running over their back along the middle of the tail; this ridge is called a'keel'.
Foot The bottom side of a slug, flat, is called the'foot'. Like all gastropods, a slug moves by rhythmic waves of muscular contraction on the underside of its foot, it secretes a layer of mucus that it travels on, which helps prevent damage to the foot tissues. Around the edge of the foot in some slugs is a structure called the'foot fringe'. Vestigial shell Most slugs retain a remnant of their shell, internalized; this organ serves as storage for calcium salts in conjunction with the digestive glands. An internal shell is present in the Parmacellidae. Adult Philomycidae and Veronicellidae lack shells. Slugs' bodies are made up of water and, without a full-sized shell, their soft tissues are prone to desiccation, they must generate protective mucus to survive. Many species are most active just after rain because of the moist ground. In drier conditions, they hide in damp places such as under tree bark, fallen logs and man-made structures, such as planters, to help retain body moisture. Like all other gastropods, they undergo torsion during development.
Internally, slug anatomy shows the effects of this rotation—but externally, the bodies of slugs appear more or less symmetrical, except for the positioning of the pneumostome, on one side of the animal the right-hand side. Slugs produce two types of mucus: one is thin and watery, the other thick and sticky. Both kinds are hygroscopic; the thin mucus spreads from the foot's centre to its edges, whereas the thick mucus spreads from front to back. Slugs produce thick mucus that coats the whole body of the animal; the mucus secreted by the foot contains fibres that help prevent the slug from slipping down vertical surfaces. The "slime trail" a slug leaves behind has some secondary effects: other slugs coming across a slime trail can recognise the slime trail as produced by one of the same species, useful in finding a mate. Following a slime trail is part of the hunting behaviour of some carnivorous slugs. Body mucus provides some protection against predators, as it can make the slug hard to pick up and hold by a bird's beak, for example, the mucus itself can be
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
Clam is a common name for several kinds of bivalve molluscs. The word is applied only to those that are edible and live as infauna, spending most of their lives buried in the sand of the ocean floor. Clams have two shells of equal size connected by two adductor muscles and have a powerful burrowing foot. Clams in the culinary sense do not live near the bottom. In culinary usage, clams are eaten marine bivalves, as in clam digging and the resulting soup, clam chowder. Many edible clams such as palourde clams are triangular; some clams have life cycles of only one year. All clams have two calcareous shells or valves joined near a hinge with a flexible ligament, all are filter feeders. A clam's shell consists of two valves, which are connected by a hinge joint and a ligament that can be external or internal; the ligament provides tension to bring the valves apart, while one or two adductor muscles can contract to close the valves. Clams have kidneys, a heart, a mouth, a stomach, a nervous system and an anus.
Many have a siphon. In culinary use, within the eastern coast of the United States and large swathes of the Maritimes of Canada, the term "clam" most refers to the hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria, it may refer to a few other common edible species, such as the soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria and the ocean quahog, Arctica islandica. Another species commercially exploited on the Atlantic Coast of the United States is the surf clam Spisula solidissima. Scallops are used for food nationwide, but not cockles: they are more difficult to get than in Europe because of their habit of being farther out in the tide than European species on the West Coast, on the East Coast they are found in salt marshes and mudflats where mosquitoes are abundant. Up and down the coast of the Eastern U. S. the bamboo clam, ensis directus, is prized by Americans for making clam strips although because of its nature of burrowing into the sand close to the beach, it cannot be harvested by mechanical means without damaging the beaches.
The bamboo clam is notorious for having a sharp edge of its shell, when harvested by hand must be handled with great care. On the U. S. West Coast, there are several species that have been consumed for thousands of years, evidenced by middens full of clamshells near the shore and their consumption by nations including the Chumash of California, the Nisqually of Washington State and the Tsawwassen of British Columbia; the butter clam, Saxidomus gigantea, the Pacific razor clam, Siliqua patula, gaper clams Tresus capax, the geoduck clam, Panopea generosa and the Pismo clam, Tivela stultorum are all eaten as delicacies. Clams can be eaten raw, boiled, baked or fried, they can be made into clam chowder, clams casino, Clam cakes, stuffies, or they can be cooked using hot rocks and seaweed in a New England clam bake. On the West Coast, they are an ingredient in making cioppino and local variants of ceviche In Japan, clams are an ingredient of mixed seafood dishes, they can be made into hot pot, miso soup or Tsukudani.
The more used varieties of clams in Japanese cooking are the Shijimi, the Asari and the Hamaguri. In Italy, clams are an ingredient of mixed seafood dishes or are eaten together with pasta; the more used varieties of clams in Italian cooking are the Vongola, the Cozza and the Tellina. Though Dattero di mare was once eaten, overfishing drove it to the verge of extinction and the Italian government has declared it an endangered species since 1998 and its harvest and sale are forbidden. Clams are eaten more in the coastal regions of India in the Konkan, Kerala and coastal regions of Karnataka regions. In Kerala clams are used to make fried with coconut. In Malabar region it is known as "elambakka" and in middle kerala it is known as "kakka". Clam curry made with coconut is a dish from Malabar in the Thalassery region. On the south western coast of India known as the Konkan region of Maharashtra, clams are used in curries and side dishes, like Tisaryachi Ekshipi, clams with one shell on. Beary Muslim households in the Mangalore region prepare a main dish with clams called Kowldo Pinde.
In Udupi and Mangalore regions it is famously called as "marvai" in local tulu language. It is used to prepare many delicious dishes like marvai sukka, marvai gassi, marvai pundi. Local fishermen sell them in rural markets. In Judaism, clams are considered non-kosher; some species of clams Mercenaria mercenaria, were in the past used by the Algonquians of Eastern North America to manufacture wampum, a type of sacred jewelry. Edible: Grooved carpet shell: Ruditapes decussatus Hard clam or Northern Quahog: Mercenaria mercenaria Manila clam: Venerupis philippinarum Soft clam: Mya arenaria Atlantic surf clam: Spisula solidissima Ocean quahog: Arctica islandica Pacific razor clam: Siliqua patula Pismo clam: Tivela stultorum Geoduck: Panopea abrupta or Panope generosa Atlantic jackknife clam: Ensis directus Lyrate Asiat
Humour spelt as humor, is the tendency of experiences to provoke laughter and provide amusement. The term derives from the humoral medicine of the ancient Greeks, which taught that the balance of fluids in the human body, known as humours, controlled human health and emotion. People of all ages and cultures respond to humour. Most people are able to experience humour—be amused, smile or laugh at something funny—and thus are considered to have a sense of humour; the hypothetical person lacking a sense of humour would find the behaviour inducing it to be inexplicable, strange, or irrational. Though decided by personal taste, the extent to which a person finds something humorous depends on a host of variables, including geographical location, maturity, level of education and context. For example, young children may favour slapstick such as Punch and Judy puppet shows or the Tom and Jerry cartoons, whose physical nature makes it accessible to them. By contrast, more sophisticated forms of humour such as satire require an understanding of its social meaning and context, thus tend to appeal to a more mature audience.
Many theories exist what social function it serves. The prevailing types of theories attempting to account for the existence of humour include psychological theories, the vast majority of which consider humour-induced behaviour to be healthy; the benign-violation theory, endorsed by Peter McGraw, attempts to explain humour's existence. The theory says'humour only occurs when something seems wrong, unsettling, or threatening, but seems okay, acceptable or safe'. Humour can be used as a method to engage in social interaction by taking away that awkward, uncomfortable, or uneasy feeling of social interactions. Others believe that'the appropriate use of humour can facilitate social interactions'; some claim. Author E. B. White once said, "Humor can be dissected as a frog can, but the thing dies in the process and the innards are discouraging to any but the pure scientific mind." Counter to this argument, protests against "offensive" cartoons invite the dissection of humour or its lack by aggrieved individuals and communities.
This process of dissecting humour does not banish a sense of humour but begs attention towards its politics and assumed universality. Arthur Schopenhauer lamented the misuse of humour to mean any type of comedy. However, both humour and comic are used when theorising about the subject; the connotations of humour as opposed to comic are said to be that of response versus stimulus. Additionally, humour was thought to include a combination of ridiculousness and wit in an individual; the French were slow to adopt the term humour. Non-satirical humour can be termed droll humour or recreational drollery; as with any art form, the acceptance of a particular style or incidence of humour depends on sociological factors and varies from person to person. Throughout history, comedy has been used as a form of entertainment all over the world, whether in the courts of the Western kings or the villages of the Far East. Both a social etiquette and a certain intelligence can be displayed through forms of wit and sarcasm.
Eighteenth-century German author Georg Lichtenberg said that "the more you know humour, the more you become demanding in fineness." Western humour theory begins with Plato, who attributed to Socrates in the Philebus the view that the essence of the ridiculous is an ignorance in the weak, who are thus unable to retaliate when ridiculed. In Greek philosophy, Aristotle, in the Poetics, suggested that an ugliness that does not disgust is fundamental to humour. In ancient Sanskrit drama, Bharata Muni's Natya Shastra defined humour as one of the nine nava rasas, or principle rasas, which can be inspired in the audience by bhavas, the imitations of emotions that the actors perform; each rasa was associated with a specific bhavas portrayed on stage. The terms comedy and satire became synonymous after Aristotle's Poetics was translated into Arabic in the medieval Islamic world, where it was elaborated upon by Arabic writers and Islamic philosophers such as Abu Bischr, his pupil Al-Farabi, Persian Avicenna, Averroes.
Due to cultural differences, they disassociated comedy from Greek dramatic representation, instead identified it with Arabic poetic themes and forms, such as hija. They viewed comedy as the "art of reprehension" and made no reference to light and cheerful events or troublesome beginnings and happy endings associated with classical Greek comedy. After the Latin translations of the 12th century, the term comedy thus gained a new semantic meaning in Medieval literature. Mento star Lord Flea, stated in a 1957 interview that he thought that: "West Indians have the best sense of humour in the world. In the most solemn song, like Las Kean Fine, which tells of a boiler explosion on a sugar plantation that killed several of the workers, their natural wit and humour shine though." Confucianist Neo-Confucian orthodoxy, with its emphasis on ritual and propriety, has traditionally looked down upon hu