Effective radiated power
Effective radiated power, synonymous with equivalent radiated power, is an IEEE standardized definition of directional radio frequency power transmitted from a theoretical half-wave dipole antenna. It is differentiated from effective isotropic radiated power mainly by use of antenna gain instead of absolute gain in the calculation. The term antenna gain is assumed to be absolute unless specifically stated to be relative, the gain is multiplied by the power actually accepted by the antenna to result in the actual ERP value. Power losses which occur prior to the antenna, e. g. in the line or from inefficiency in the generator itself are therefore not included in the calculation of ERP or EIRP. Antenna gain is closely related to directivity and often used interchangeably. However, gain is less than directivity by a factor called radiation efficiency. Whereas directivity is entirely a function of wavelength and the geometry and type of antenna, accelerating charge causes electromagnetic radiation per Maxwells equations.
Therefore, antennas use a current distribution on radiating elements to generate electromagnetic energy that propagates away from the antenna and this coupling is never 100% efficient, and therefore antenna gain will always be less than directivity by this efficiency factor. The receiver would not be able to determine a difference, maximum directivity of an ideal half-wave dipole is a constant, i. e.0 dBd =2.15 dBi. Therefore, ERP is always 2.15 dB less than EIRP, the ideal dipole antenna could be further replaced by an isotropic radiator, and the receiver cannot know the difference so long as the input power is increased by 2.15 dB. Unfortunately, the distinction between dBd and dBi is often left unstated and the reader is forced to infer which was used. For example, a Yagi-Uda antenna is constructed from several dipoles arranged at intervals to create better energy focusing than a simple dipole. Since it is constructed from dipoles, often its antenna gain is expressed in dBd, obviously this ambiguity is undesirable with respect to engineering specifications.
A Yagi-Uda antennas maximum directivity is 8.77 dBd =10.92 dBi and its gain necessarily must be less than this by the factor η, which must be negative in units of dB. Neither ERP nor EIRP can be calculated without knowledge of the power accepted by the antenna, let us assume a 100 Watt transmitter with losses of 6 dB prior to the antenna. ERP <22. 77dBW and EIRP <24. 92dBW, polarization has not been taken into account so far, but properly it must be. When considering the dipole radiator previously we assumed that it was aligned with the receiver. Now assume, that the antenna is circularly polarized
Ofcom has wide-ranging powers across the television, radio and postal sectors. It has a duty to represent the interests of citizens and consumers by promoting competition. Some of the main areas Ofcom presides over are licensing, research and policies, competition, the regulator was initially established by the Office of Communications Act 2002 and received its full authority from the Communications Act 2003. The creation of Ofcom was announced in the Queens Speech to the UK Parliament, the new body, which would replace several existing authorities, was conceived as a super-regulator to oversee media channels that were rapidly converging through digital transmission. It will no longer play a role in making policy, and the policy-making functions it has today will be transferred back fully to the Department for Culture and Sport. On 1 October 2011, Ofcom took over responsibility for regulating the postal services industry from the Postal Services Commission. In April 2015, Ofcom announced that as of 1 July, the streamlining of these charges must be printed in each customers contract and monthly bills.
The change will affect over 175 million phone numbers making it the biggest overhaul of telephoning in over a decade, on 1 January 2016, the regulation of video on demand was transferred to Ofcom from ATVOD, the Authority for Television On Demand. On 13 July former Prime Minister Gordon Brown urged Ofcom to launch an investigation, on 22 July it was reported that Ofcom had begun an investigation into whether the phone-hacking scandal may have changed BSkyBs status as the fit and proper holder of a UK broadcasting licence. In the letter Richards confirmed that Ofcom considers that News Corporations current shareholding of 39, in April 2012, Ofcoms probe moved from a monitoring phase to a evidence gathering phase. Ofcom licenses all UK commercial television and radio services in the UK, broadcasters must comply by the terms of their licence, or risk having it revoked. Ofcom publishes the Broadcasting Code, a series of rules which all broadcast content on television, the broadcasting of pornography with a BBFC R18 certificate is not permitted.
In 2010 Ofcom revoked the licences of four television channels for promoting adult chat services during daytime hours. The companies involved were fined £157,250, Ofcoms jurisdiction does not cover television and radio channels which are broadcast in the UK but licensed abroad. In 2012 Ofcom lodged a complaint with the Dutch media regulator regarding the content of adult television channels which are broadcast in the UK. As the regulatory body for media broadcasts, part of Ofcoms duties are to examine specific complaints by viewers or listeners about programmes broadcast on channels that it has licensed and it does not oversee unlicensed channels broadcast to UK viewers. When Ofcom receives a complaint, it asks the broadcaster for a copy of the programme, Ofcom requests response from the broadcaster to the complaint. On the basis of response, Ofcom will mark the complaint as either upheld or not upheld
The Local Radio Company
The Local Radio Company is a British media company, based in Redruth, that owns ten independent local radio stations in the UK. After takeover talks with UTV Media, UKRD Group and Hallwood Financial, TLRC was formed in 1996 as a joint venture between its majority shareholder Radio Investments Limited and GWR Group plc, with founding Chief Executive Chris Carnegy holding a small stake. The group expanded rapidly by acquisitions and new licence wins, changes in structure saw a merger between TLRC, RIL and RIL subsidiary Radio Services. At its peak the merged private company owned or invested in 28 stations, from 2000 Guardian Media Group held a management contract, with its radio chief John Myers taking charge. The group was sold in 2004 and began a new life as an AIM-quoted public company under the leadership of former Jazz FM CEO Richard Wheatly. For a while, all owned by the quoted group, except Fire Radio, broadcast under a contemporary music format known as Music, fun. However this was not deemed a success so, after the departure of Group Programme Director Gordon Davidson in June 2006 to Emap.
The playlist offers a mix of new and classic pop music, for 6 months in 2008 there were 2 new networked shows on the group including the Saturday Afternoon show with Tim West and the Network Weekend Breakfast Show with Danny Mathews. Until recently, Sunday afternoons across the network have been dedicated to a premium rate phone-in show hosted by Andy Muir, titled Money on your Mobile. Network shows were mostly broadcast from Mix 107 in High Wycombe, in 2005, TLRC made a large number of acquisitions including full control of east Lancashire station 2BR and Bath FM. New licences, Durham FM and Brunel FM, went on air in 2005 and 2006 respectively, in June 2007, TLRC launched Minster Northallerton which was moved into Alpha 103. 2s studio outside of the stations border in Darlington. Before selling them, the company had already moved Bath studios to neighbouring Brunel FM in Swindon, in 2007, TLRC station Isle of Wight Radio won the Sony Radio Academy Award for Radio Station of the Year. In 2008, Silk FM won the award, having been shortlisted the previous year.
On 30 June 2008 TLRC announced plans to six of its stations, 3TR, Brunel, Ivel and Vale. This was followed by Central FM in September 2008, the station has been live since 6 October 2008, sharing studios with Mix 107 in High Wycombe. On 7 January 2009, TLRC placed Jazz FM up for sale following a review of the company. The station was sold to chairman of TLRC, Richard Wheatly. Star Radio North East 2BR Minster FM Mix 96 Spire FM Spirit FM97.2 Stray FM Sun FM Wessex FM Yorkshire Coast Radio 107.3 Abbey FM - ceased broadcasting, Central 103.1 FM - sold to John Quinn
Battle, East Sussex
Battle is a small town and civil parish in the local government district of Rother in East Sussex, England. It lies 55 miles south-south-east of London,32 miles east of Brighton and 24 miles east of Lewes, nearby are Hastings to the south-east and Bexhill-on-Sea to the south. It was the site of the Battle of Hastings, where William, Duke of Normandy and it is situated in the heart in the designated High Weald Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. The parish population was 6,048 according to the 2001 census and it has two senior schools, Claverham Community College and Battle Abbey. Battle Abbey was founded to commemorate the battle, and dedicated in 1095, the high altar of the Abbey church was reputedly on the spot where Harold died. The Abbey gateway is still the dominant feature of the end of the main street. The remaining cloisters, part of the west range, were leased to Battle Abbey School shortly after World War I, the abbey at Battle has been known for centuries as Battle Abbey. It and the church were initially dedicated to St Martin.
The town of Battle was gradually built around the Abbey, in the mid-18th century, the town supported five watchmakers in the High Street. Today, Battle is known as a tourist destination, the local Battel Bonfire Boyes is claimed to be the oldest of the Sussex Bonfire Societies. The importance of Bonfire Night in Battle is that it is located in the wooded Weald of Sussex, most of the area was heavily wooded, which provided oak and other timbers for Navy shipyards, power for making cannons and gunpowder. Battle was the birthplace in 1799 of Eliza Acton, author of the pioneering Modern Cookery for Private Families This continued to sell well for the rest of the century. Its lists of ingredients, cooking times and other provided an model for the cookery section of the best-selling Mrs Beetons Book of Household Management. Battle was a refuge in World War I, and tunnels still exist, leading from various fields, they are deemed unsafe and are now closed. The first gunpowder mill in Battle was built in 1676 when John Hammond was granted permission to build a mill on land owned by the Abbey, a gunpowder works was located in Powdermill Lane – the remains of which have been converted into a hotel.
In 1722 Daniel Defoe described the town as being remarkable for little now, but for making the finest gun-powder, Battle is governed at the lowest level by Battle Town Council, consisting of 17 elected councillors who meet on the third Tuesday of each month. The council is responsible for lighting and recreational areas. It provides a voice to the district and county councils
Sussex, from the Old English Sūþsēaxe, is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. Brighton and Hove was created as an authority in 1997. Until then, Chichester was Sussexs only city, Sussex has three main geographic sub-regions, each oriented approximately east to west. In the south-west is the fertile and densely populated coastal plain, North of this are the rolling chalk hills of the South Downs, beyond which is the well-wooded Sussex Weald. The name derives from the Kingdom of Sussex, which was founded, according to legend, in 825, it was absorbed into the kingdom of Wessex and subsequently into the kingdom of England. It was the home of some of Europes earliest hominids, whose remains have been found at Boxgrove, in 1974, the Lord-Lieutenant of Sussex was replaced with one each for East and West Sussex, which became separate ceremonial counties. Sussex continues to be recognised as a territory and cultural region. It has had a police force since 1968 and its name is in common use in the media.
In 2007, Sussex Day was created to celebrate the rich culture. Based on the emblem of Sussex, a blue shield with six gold martlets. In 2013, Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government Eric Pickles formally recognised and acknowledged the existence of Englands 39 historic counties. The name Sussex is derived from the Middle English Suth-sæxe, which is in turn derived from the Old English Suth-Seaxe which means of the South Saxons, the South Saxons were a Germanic tribe that settled in the region from the North German Plain during the 5th and 6th centuries. The earliest known usage of the term South Saxons is in a charter of 689 which names them and their king, Noðhelm. The monastic chronicler who wrote up the entry classifying the invasion seems to have got his dates wrong, the New Latin word Suthsexia was used for Sussex by Dutch cartographer Joan Blaeu in his 1645 map. Three United States counties, and a former division of Western Australia, are named after Sussex. The flag of Sussex consists of six gold martlets, or heraldic swallows, on a background, blazoned as Azure.
Officially recognised by the Flag Institute on 20 May 2011, its design is based on the shield of Sussex. The first known recording of this emblem being used to represent the county was in 1611 when cartographer John Speed deployed it to represent the Kingdom of the South Saxons
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time. It is referred to as frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency. The period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, for example, if a newborn babys heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second. Frequency is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the rate of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena, such as vibrations, audio signals, radio waves. For cyclical processes, such as rotation, oscillations, or waves, in physics and engineering disciplines, such as optics and radio, frequency is usually denoted by a Latin letter f or by the Greek letter ν or ν. For a simple motion, the relation between the frequency and the period T is given by f =1 T. The SI unit of frequency is the hertz, named after the German physicist Heinrich Hertz, a previous name for this unit was cycles per second. The SI unit for period is the second, a traditional unit of measure used with rotating mechanical devices is revolutions per minute, abbreviated r/min or rpm.
As a matter of convenience and slower waves, such as ocean surface waves and fast waves, like audio and radio, are usually described by their frequency instead of period. Spatial frequency is analogous to temporal frequency, but the axis is replaced by one or more spatial displacement axes. Y = sin = sin d θ d x = k Wavenumber, in the case of more than one spatial dimension, wavenumber is a vector quantity. For periodic waves in nondispersive media, frequency has a relationship to the wavelength. Even in dispersive media, the frequency f of a wave is equal to the phase velocity v of the wave divided by the wavelength λ of the wave. In the special case of electromagnetic waves moving through a vacuum, v = c, where c is the speed of light in a vacuum, and this expression becomes, f = c λ. When waves from a monochrome source travel from one medium to another, their remains the same—only their wavelength. For example, if 71 events occur within 15 seconds the frequency is, the latter method introduces a random error into the count of between zero and one count, so on average half a count.
This is called gating error and causes an error in the calculated frequency of Δf = 1/, or a fractional error of Δf / f = 1/ where Tm is the timing interval. This error decreases with frequency, so it is a problem at low frequencies where the number of counts N is small, an older method of measuring the frequency of rotating or vibrating objects is to use a stroboscope
Worthing is a large seaside town in England, with borough status in West Sussex. It is situated at the foot of the South Downs,10 miles west of Brighton, the area around Worthing has been populated for at least 6,000 years and contains Britains greatest concentration of Stone Age flint mines, which are some of the earliest mines in Europe. Lying within the borough, the Iron Age hill fort of Cissbury Ring is one of Britains largest, Worthing means Worth/Worōs people, from the Old English personal name Worth/Worō, and -ingas people of. In the 19th and 20th centuries the area was one of Britains chief market gardening centres, modern Worthing has a large service industry, particularly in financial services. It has three theatres and one of Britains oldest cinemas, writers Oscar Wilde and Harold Pinter lived and worked in the town. From around 4000BC, the South Downs above Worthing was Britains earliest and largest flint-mining area, with four of the UKs 14 known flint mines lying within 7 miles of the centre of Worthing.
An excavation at Little High Street dates the earliest remains from Worthing town centre to the Bronze Age, there is an important Bronze Age hill fort on the western fringes of the modern borough at Highdown Hill. During the Iron Age, one of Britains largest hill forts was built at Cissbury Ring, the area was part of the civitas of the Regni during the Romano-British period. Several of the roads date from this era and lie in a grid layout known as centuriation. A Romano-British farmstead once stood in the centre of the town, in the 5th and 6th centuries, the area became part of the kingdom of Sussex. The place names of the area, including the name Worthing itself, Worthing remained an agricultural and fishing hamlet for centuries until the arrival of wealthy visitors in the 1750s. Princess Amelia stayed in the town in 1798 and the fashionable and wealthy continued to stay in Worthing, the town expanded and elegant developments such as Park Crescent and Liverpool Terrace were begun. The area was a stronghold of smugglers in the 19th century and was the site of rioting by the Skeleton Army in the 1880s, Oscar Wilde holidayed in the town in 1893 and 1894, writing the Importance of Being Earnest during his second visit.
The town was home to literary figures in the 20th century. During the Second World War, Worthing was home to several allied military divisions in preparation for the D-Day landings, Worthing became the worlds 229th Transition Town in October 2009. Transition Town Worthing, the exploring the towns transition to life after oil, was established by local residents as a way of planning the towns Energy Descent Action Plan. Worthing means Worth/Weorð/Worōs people, from the Old English personal name Worth, Weorð or Worō, worthen was used as late as 1720. The modern name was first documented in 1297, another village with a similar name near Emmen in Drenthe in the Northeastern part of the Netherlands is Weerdinge
The Oxford Dictionary of English defines a slogan as a short and striking or memorable phrase used in advertising. A slogan usually has the attributes of being memorable, very concise and these attributes are necessary in a slogan, as it is only a short phrase. Therefore, it is necessary for slogans to be memorable, as well as concise in what the organisation or brand is trying to say, the word slogan is derived from slogorn which was an Anglicisation of the Scottish Gaelic and Irish sluagh-ghairm. Slogans vary from the written and the visual to the chanted and their simple rhetorical nature usually leaves little room for detail and a chanted slogan may serve more as social expression of unified purpose than as communication to an intended audience. George E. Shankels research states that, English-speaking people began using the term by 1704, the term at that time meant the distinctive note, phrase or cry of any person or body of persons. Slogans were common throughout the European continent during the Middle Ages, crimmins research suggests that brands are an extremely valuable corporate asset, and can make up a lot of a businesss total value.
With this in mind, if we take into consideration Kellers research and these include, name and slogan. Brands names and logos both can be changed by the way the receiver interprets them, the slogan has a large job in portraying the brand. Therefore, the slogan should create a sense of likability in order for the name to be likable. Dass, Kohli, & Thomas research suggests there are certain factors that make up the likability of a slogan. The clarity of the message the brand is trying to encode within the slogan, the slogan emphasizes the benefit of the product or service it is portraying. The creativity of a slogan is another factor that had an effect on the likability of a slogan. Lastly, leaving the name out of the slogan will have a positive effect on the likability of the brand itself. The original usage refers to the usage as a clan motto among Highland clans, marketing slogans are often called taglines in the United States or straplines in the United Kingdom. Europeans use the terms baselines, claims or pay-offs, sloganeering is a mostly derogatory term for activity which degrades discourse to the level of slogans.
Slogans are used to convey a message about the product, service or cause that it is representing and it can have a musical tone to it or written as a song. Slogans are often used to capture the attention of the audience it is trying to reach, if the slogan is used for commercial purposes, often it is written to be memorable/catchy in order for a consumer to associate the slogan with the product it is representing. A slogan is part of the aspect that helps create an image for the product
Bexhill-on-Sea is a seaside town situated in the county of East Sussex in South East England. The first reference to Bexhill, or Bexelei as it was called, was in a charter granted by King Offa of Mercia in 772 AD. It is recorded that King Offa had defeated the men of Hastings in 771 AD, at this time, the term Hastings would have referred to this whole area rather than the town itself as it does today. In the charter, King Offa established a church and religious community in Bexhill, norman Conquest of 1066 it appears that Bexhill was largely destroyed. The Domesday survey of 1086 records that the manor was worth £20 before the conquest, was waste in 1066 and was worth £18 10s in 1086. King William I used the lands he had conquered to reward his knights and gave Bexhill manor to Robert, Count of Eu, with most of the Hastings area. Roberts grandson, Count of Eu, gave back the manor to the bishops of Chichester in 1148 and it is probable that the first manor house was built by the bishops at this time.
The manor house, the ruins of which can still be seen at the Manor Gardens in Bexhill Old Town, was built about 1250, probably on the instructions of St. Richard, Bishop of Chichester. The Manor House was the easternmost residence owned by the bishops, there were often disputes between the Bishops of Chichester and the Abbots of Battle Abbey, usually about land ownership in this area. In 1276 a large portion of Bexhill was made into a park for hunting, in 1561 Queen Elizabeth I took possession of Bexhill Manor and three years she gave it to Sir Thomas Sackville, Earl of Dorset. The Earls, Dukes, of Dorset owned Bexhill until the mid 19th century and their main residences were Buckhurst Place in Sussex and Knole House in Kent. In 1804 soldiers of the Kings German Legion were stationed in barracks at Bexhill and these troops were Hanoverians who had escaped when their country was overrun by Napoleons French Army. As King George III was the Elector of Hanover, he welcomed them, at about this time, defensive Martello Towers were built along the south east coast, some near Bexhill, in order to repel any French invasion.
In 1814 the soldiers of the Kings German Legion left Bexhill, the German troops had been here to protect Bexhill from the French. However, many of the people were actively trading with the enemy by way of smuggling. The best known of the smugglers were in the Little Common Gang. In 1813 Elizabeth Sackville had married the 5th Earl De La Warr, and it was the 7th Earl De La Warr who decided to transform the small rural village of Bexhill into an exclusive seaside resort. He contracted the builder, John Webb, to construct the first sea wall, Webb, in part payment for his work, was given all the land extending from Sea Road to the Polegrove, south of the railway line
Independent Local Radio
Independent Local Radio is the collective name given to commercial radio stations in the United Kingdom. The same name is used for Independent Local Radio in Ireland, until the early 1970s, the BBC had a legal monopoly on radio broadcasting in the UK. Upon the election of Edward Heaths government in 1970, this policy changed and it is possible that Heaths victory was partly due to younger voters upset by the UK government closing down the popular pirate radio stations. The new Minister of Post and Telecommunications, Christopher Chataway, announced a Bill to allow for the introduction of radio in the United Kingdom. This service would be planned and regulated in a manner to the existing ITV service. The Sound Broadcasting Act received Royal Assent on 12 July 1972, the IBA immediately began to plan the new service, placing advertisements encouraging interested groups to apply for medium-term contracts to provide programmes in given areas. The first major areas to be advertised were London and Glasgow, the London news contract was awarded to London Broadcasting Company and they began broadcasting on 8 October 1973.
The London general contract went to Capital Radio, who began broadcasting on 16 October 1973, in total,19 contracts were awarded between 1973 and 1976. Due to government limits on expenditure and turbulence in the broadcasting field, no further contracts were awarded until 1980. All stations were awarded an AM and an FM frequency, on which they broadcast the same service, in the late 1980s, the expansion of ILR continued at a similar rate. Under the Broadcasting Acts, the IBA had a duty to ensure that any area it licensed for radio could support a station with the advertising revenue. Therefore, many areas were not included in the IBAs ILR plans as it was felt that they were not viable. Nevertheless, the served by ILR continued to increase and 1986 the IBA sanctioned in principle the idea that different services could be broadcast on each stations FM. The first experimental part-time split service was provided by Radio Forth, by 1988, the government had decided that the practice of splitting was beneficial and a quick way to increase choice for listeners.
The IBA began a programme of encouraging ILR stations to split their services, the usual format was to have a gold service on AM and pop music on FM, although Radio City tried City Talk on AM before abandoning the format. The 1990 Broadcasting Act provided for the abolition of the IBA, the IBA continued to regulate radio under the new name of the Radio Authority, but with a different remit. As a light-touch regulator, the Radio Authority was to issue licences to the highest bidder and this led to the awarding of three national contracts to Classic FM, Virgin 1215 and Talk Radio. At this point in time the wave band had become unpopular with radio groups
Adult contemporary music
Adult contemporary is rather a continuation of the easy listening and soft rock style that became popular in the 1960s and 1970s with some adjustments that reflect the evolution of pop/rock music. Adult contemporary tends to have lush and highly polished qualities where emphasis on melody and it is usually melodic enough to get a listeners attention, and is inoffensive and pleasurable enough to work well as background music. Like most of pop music, its songs tend to be written in a basic format employing a verse–chorus structure, the format is heavy on romantic sentimental ballads which mostly use acoustic instruments such as acoustic guitars, pianos and sometimes an orchestral set. The electric guitars are normally faint and high-pitched, recent adult contemporary music may usually feature synthesizers. An AC radio station may play mainstream music, but it excludes hip hop, dance tracks, hard rock, and some forms of teen pop, as these are popular among adults. AC radio often targets the 25–44 age group, the demographic that has received the most attention from advertisers since the 1960s, a common practice in recent years of adult contemporary stations is to play less newer music and more hits of the past.
This de-emphasis on new songs slows the progression of the AC chart, over the years, AC has spawned subgenres including hot AC, soft AC, urban AC, rhythmic AC, and Christian AC. Some stations play only hot AC, soft AC, or only one of the variety of subgenres, therefore, it is not usually considered a specific genre of music, it is merely an assemblage of selected tracks from musicians of many different genres. Adult contemporary traces its roots to the 1960s easy listening format, a few offered 90% instrumentals, and a handful were entirely instrumental. Billboard first published the Easy Listening chart July 17,1961, with 20 songs, the chart described itself as not too far out in either direction. Initially, the vocalists consisted of such as Frank Sinatra, Doris Day, Johnny Mathis, Connie Francis, Nat King Cole, Perry Como. The custom recordings were usually instrumental versions of current or recent rock and roll or pop hit songs, some stations would occasionally play earlier big band-era recordings from the 1940s and early 1950s.
After 1965, differences between the Hot 100 chart and the Easy Listening chart became more pronounced, better reflecting what middle of the road stations were actually playing, the composition of the chart changed dramatically. As rock music continued to harden, there was much less crossover between the Hot 100 and Easy Listening chart than there had been in the half of the 1960s. Roger Miller, Barbra Streisand and Bobby Vinton were among the charts most popular performers and these middle of the road stations frequently included older, pre-rock-era adult standards and big band titles to further appeal to adult listeners who had grown up with those songs. Another big impetus for the evolution of the AC radio format was the popularity of easy listening or beautiful music stations, stations with music specifically designed to be purely ambient, hard rock had been established as a mainstream genre by 1965. From the end of the 1960s, it common to divide mainstream rock music into soft and hard rock.
Soft rock was often derived from rock, using acoustic instruments and putting more emphasis on melody
South East England
South East England is the most populous of the nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It consists of Berkshire, East Sussex, Hampshire, as with the other regions of England, apart from Greater London, the south east has no elected government. It is the third largest region of England, with an area of 19,096 km², and is the most populous with a population of over eight. Its proximity to London and connections to several national motorways have led to south east England becoming an economic hub and it is the location of Gatwick Airport, the UKs second-busiest airport, and its coastline along the English Channel provides numerous ferry crossings to mainland Europe. The region is known for its countryside, which includes the North Downs, the River Thames flows through the region and its basin is known as the Thames Valley. The region has many universities, the University of Oxford is ranked among the best in the world. South east England is host to sporting events, including the annual Henley Royal Regatta, Royal Ascot and the Epsom Derby.
Some of the events of the 2012 Summer Olympics were held in the south east, including the rowing at Eton Dorney, the largest city in the region is Brighton & Hove. The dominant influence on the economy is neighbouring London. The highest point is Walbury Hill in Berkshire at 297 metres, until 1999, there was a south east Standard Statistical Region, which included the counties of Bedfordshire, Greater London and Hertfordshire. The former south east Civil Defence Region covered the area as the current government office region. The South East is used as a synonym for the home counties. The population of the region at the 2011 census was 8,634,750 making it the most populous English region, the major conurbations of the region include Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton, Portsmouth and Reading. Settlements closer to London are part of the known as the Greater London Urban Area. The South East has the highest percentage of people born outside of Britain other than London. Estimates in 2007 state 87. 2% of people as White British,4.
8% Other White,3. 5% South Asians,1. 5% Mixed Race,1. 6% Black British,0. 7% Chinese,0. 7% Other. The area has some seats where there is support for other parties, for example and Oxford for Labour. Buckingham, the seat of Speaker John Bercow, is in this region, out of 83 parliamentary seats, the Conservatives hold 78