The Morea was the name of the Peloponnese peninsula in southern Greece during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. The name was used for the Byzantine province known as the Despotate of the Morea, by the Ottoman Empire for the Morea Eyalet, by the Republic of Venice for the short-lived Kingdom of the Morea. There is some uncertainty over the origin of the medieval name "Morea", first recorded only in the 10th century in the Byzantine chronicles. Traditionally scholars thought the name originated from the word morea, meaning morus or mulberry, a tree which, though known in the region from the ancient times, gained value after the 6th century, when mulberry-eating silkworms were smuggled from China to Byzantium; the British Byzantinist Steven Runciman suggested that the name comes "from the likeness of its shape to that of a mulberry leaf." After the conquest of Constantinople by the forces of the Fourth Crusade, two groups of Franks undertook the occupation of the Morea. They created the Principality of Achaea, a Greek-inhabited statelet ruled by a Latin autocrat.
In referring to the Peloponnese, they followed local practice and used the name "Morea". The most important prince in the Morea was Guillaume II de Villehardouin, who fortified Mistra near the site of Sparta in 1249. After losing the Battle of Pelagonia against the Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaeologus, Guillaume was forced to ransom himself by giving up most of the eastern part of Morea and his newly built strongholds. An initial Byzantine drive to reconquer the entire peninsula failed in the battles of Prinitza and Makryplagi, the Byzantines and Franks settled to an uneasy coexistence. In the mid-14th century, the Byzantine Emperor John VI Kantakouzenos reorganized Morea into the Despotate of the Morea. Sons of the emperor with the rank of despotes were sent to rule the province as an appanage. By 1430, the Byzantines recovered the remainder of the Frankish part of the Morea, but in 1460 the peninsula was completely overrun and conquered by the Ottoman Empire. In July 1461 the last holdout, Salmeniko Castle, was taken.
The peninsula was captured for the Republic of Venice by Francesco Morosini during the Morean War of 1684–99. Venetian rule proved unpopular, the Ottomans recaptured the Morea in a lightning campaign in 1714. Under renewed Ottoman rule, centered at Tripolitsa, the region enjoyed relative prosperity; the latter 18th century was marked by renewed dissatisfaction. Armed bands of the klephts emerged, they waged guerrilla war against the Turks, aided both by the decay of Ottoman power and the emergence of Greek national consciousness. The Morea and its inhabitants provided the cradle and backbone of the Greek Revolution; the anonymous 14th century Chronicle of the Morea relates events of the Franks' establishment of feudalism in mainland Greece following the Fourth Crusade. Despite its unreliability about historical events, the Chronicle is famous for its lively portrayal of life in the feudal community; the language in Greek versions is notable as it reflects the rapid transition from Medieval to Modern Greek.
The original language of the Chronicle is disputed, but recent scholarship prefers the Greek version in MS Havniensis 57. Other manuscripts include the Ms Parisinus graecus 2898; the difference of about one century in the texts shows a considerable number of linguistic differences due to the rapid evolution of the Greek language. List of traditional Greek place names Bon, Antoine. La Morée franque. Recherches historiques, topographiques et archéologiques sur la principauté d’Achaïe. Paris: De Boccard. Fine, John Van Antwerp, The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest, University of Michigan Press, ISBN 978-0-472-08260-5 Crusaders as Conquerors: the Chronicle of Morea, translated from the Greek with notes and introduction by Harold E. Lurier, Columbia University, 1964. M. J. Jeffreys, "The Chronicle of Morea: Priority of the Greek Version." Byzantinische Zeitschrift 68, 304-350. Teresa Shawcross, The Chronicle of Morea: Historiography in Crusader Greece.
Westside Park at Bellwood Quarry is a proposed park in the City of Atlanta to be located on the site of the former Bellwood Quarry. The park is between Johnson Road and Donald Lee Hollowell Parkway and between the neighborhoods of Bankhead and West Midtown and to the northeast of the neighborhood of Grove Park, of which a large portion of the park falls within the Grove Park boundaries. Westside Park at Bellwood Quarry will be a major green space project of the Atlanta BeltLine master plan; the park will have trail connectivity to the BeltLine, as well as the completed Proctor Creek Greenway Trail. On August 27, 2019, Westside Park at Bellwood Quarry received a major boost with the announcement that the Arthur M. Blank Family Foundation has awarded a $17.5 million grant for the project. The Blank grant will accelerate the development of parks and trails along the 22-mile circular corridor – on the Westside; the land, owned by Fulton County, was in a long term lease to Vulcan Materials. On December 10, 2005, Atlanta Mayor Shirley Franklin announced a plan to acquire the lease and the land in order to create a 351-acre park with a 45-acre lake which would serve as a drinking water reservoir.
The plan is a portion of the extensive BeltLine project to construct a ring of parks and transit surrounding the core of Atlanta. The proposed Westside Reservoir Park is nearly twice the size of Atlanta's premiere greenspace, Piedmont Park.. On December 29, 2017, outgoing mayor Kasim Reed unveiled plans for phase one of the park's construction; the first phase will take about 24 months to complete. The cost of the first phase, approved and funded by the Atlanta City Council, will be $26.5 million. Phase one includes a gateway to the park, a "grand overlook" of both the quarry and the Atlanta skyline, pedestrian connections to the Proctor Creek Greenway. On September 6, 2018 the official groundbreaking took place for Westside Reservoir Park. Atlanta Mayor Keisha Lance Bottoms and others hailed the park as a new attraction for the city that will become an economic engine for long-forgotten neighborhoods west of Georgia Tech; the promised 280-acre park has been a driver for new development on the city’s Westside, a industrial area surrounded by lower income neighborhoods, that has seen a rush of real estate speculation since the Great Recession.
The rise in development has stoked fears by residents of potential displacement from rising prices in the Grove Park neighborhood. The $26.5 million first phase of the park will include a new gateway entrance to the property along Johnson Road as well as new lighting, pedestrian and bicycle improvements. Phase 1 of the new park is scheduled to open in the spring of 2020; the former granite quarry, which closed in 2007, was a popular hang-out spot for local teens. The site was used as a location for the filming of the AMC's series The Walking Dead in summer 2010, it was used as a filming location in season four episode 14 of The Vampire Diaries, a scene in Mockingjay Part 1, as well as the final scene of The Fundamentals of Caring. Most it serves a significant role and is featured prominently in several episodes of the acclaimed Netflix series Stranger Things. During construction of the reservoir and the park, the area is closed to the public and trespassers will be arrested. Bellwood Quarry/Westside Park - Trust for Public Land Show in Google Maps Vulcan Materials Website with Overhead Photo
Lesopoval is a Russian band formed in 1990 by Mikhail Tanich and Sergey Korzhukov. Their music is in the style of Russian chanson, music from the perspective of the criminal underworld; the hero of many of their songs is a criminal or ex-convict, their songs contain many references to the way such "marginalized" persons live. The songs in many way romanticize the life of criminals, many of them taking place in and concerning labor camps and prison. Mikhail Tanich wrote the lyrics to every song the group performed until his death on April 17, 2008. In writing the lyrics to the songs Lesopoval performed, Mikhail Tanich drew on the six years he spent in a Soviet labor camp, during which time he came to empathize with criminals from all walks of life. In total, the group released at least 19 albums, including one after Mikhail Tanich's death; until his death in 1994, Sergey Korzhukov wrote the musical melodies and performed most of the songs. Musically, most songs feature a guitar, drums and are performed with strong vocals.
Mikhail Tanich, the co-founder and lead songwriter of Lesopoval, was born on September 15, 1923 in Taganrog, Russia. After being accused of "anti-Soviet agitation" due to his praise of the German radio Telefunken while at the Rostov Civil Engineering Institute, he served six years in the Soviet labor camps from 1947 to 1953 in the Siberian city of Solikamsk; this was the same labor camp where his father was executed. When Joseph Stalin died, Tanich was granted amnesty, he would leave to become a Russian poet, he wrote many poems that would, after he met Sergey Korzhukov in 1990, become the music of Lesopoval. The two met. Sergey Korzhukov turned the poems into music by incorporating a melody, musical notes and a guitar accompaniment, he sang the early songs of Lesopoval. The reason they named their musical group "Lesopoval" was that this was the term that people used to refer to the Soviet Siberian labor camps, the musical group was created from Tanich's experience in these Siberian camps. Together, Mikhail Tanich and Sergey Korzhukov wrote the early songs of Lesopoval.
In 1994, Sergey Korzhukov died at the age of 35 after falling from the balcony of his house, but he was still listed as a co-author of all the songs through the 1996 album "New Lineup" After the death of Sergey Korzhukov, many other writers and singers helped write the music for the songs, including Aleksandr Fedorkov. In 2008, Tanich died in the hospital from kidney disease; until his death, Mikhail Tanich continued to write the lyrics for all the Lesopoval songs, including the latest album - "Our life,", produced and released after his death. In his honor, the group performed in the Kremlin to memorialize his death; the music of Lesopoval places great importance on lyrical content, which tends to focus on freedom, labor camps, criminal life, other topics such as peace and love. Mikhail Tanich has stated that his six years in the Russian labor camps gave him an inside perspective of all kinds of criminal life, that his goal was to find the good in all sorts of criminals. Mikhail Tanich was a political prisoner, but he came to sympathize with many of the other prisoners who were serving in the camps, some who were falsely accused and some who were there for petty crimes.
He has stated that Chanson music "blossomed wildly in Soviet times when the entire country was in camps, when these zones, barbed wire, guard towers with guards and machine guns, were everywhere," and he has said that he feels that everyone in Russia is in some way connected to the camps and to criminal life. In his songs, Mikhail Tanich touches on universal themes of Soviet life, focusing on criminal elements Some of his songs deal with the political themes of the Soviet era with a humorous take. For example, the song "Tax" focuses on the tax on childlessness imposed during the Soviet Union, a 6% tax on every adult who did not have a child; the hero of the song laments that he is forced to pay this tax while doing time in jail, yet the prison guards refuse to provide him any woman with which to reproduce. The songs include criminal slang and vulgarities, which the group says is necessary in order to represent criminal life in Russia. However, official Governmental sources have denounced bands that sing in the style of Russian Chanson, with Vladimir Ustinov, the former prosecutor general, calling it "propaganda of the criminal subculture."Musically, the group builds upon the style of Russian bard music, which features strong vocals with a guitar accompaniment.
The music mixes these more traditional instruments with an accordion and drums. Due to the propensity of Russian piracy, it is difficult to measure how many Lesopoval records have been sold. Furthermore, the genre is relegated to late-night broadcasts due to governmental pressure, is not played on the radio, where Russian pop is more popular. However, Lesopoval performs concerts, is one of the most popular current Chanson bands in Russia. Critically, the band has received positive reviews from critics; the Russian website Pravda positively reviewed their recent concerts, but stated that the group's first hit -- "I will buy you a house" -- remains their most popular and well-sung song. Ya kuplyu tebe dom / I will b
The Ferrari 550 Maranello is a front-engine V12 2-seat grand tourer built by Ferrari from 1996 to 2001. The 550 Maranello marked Ferrari's return to a front-engine, rear-wheel drive layout for its 2-seater 12-cylinder model, 23 years after the 365 GTB/4 Daytona had been replaced by the mid-engined Berlinetta Boxer. In 2000, Ferrari introduced the 550 Barchetta Pininfarina, a limited production roadster version of the 550, limited to just 448 examples; the 550 was replaced by the upgraded 575M Maranello in 2002. Since 1973, when the traditional front-engined 365 GTB/4 Daytona had been replaced by the mid-engined Berlinetta Boxer, Ferrari's top-of-the-line 12-cylinder 2-seater model had used a mid-mounted 180° 12-cylinder flat engine; the Berlinetta Boxer had been developed into the Testarossa, the final evolution of, the 1994 F512 M. Under the presidency of Luca Cordero di Montezemolo, who took office in 1991, the F512 M replacement was developed as a traditional front-engined V12 grand tourer.
After 30 months of development, the Ferrari 550 Maranello was unveiled in July 1996 at the Nürburgring racing circuit in Germany. The model's name referred to the 5.5-litres total engine displacement in decilitres and to the town of Maranello, home to the Ferrari headquarters and factory. Pininfarina executed both interior design; the exterior design is credited to Elvio D'Aprile under the supervision of Lorenzo Ramaciotti, created between 1993 and 1996. Maurizio Corbi, a Pininfarina sketch artist and designer was involved in the design process; the interior design was penned by Goran Popović. Frame and main engine components were shared with the 2+2 Ferrari 456, although at 2,500 mm, the 550's wheelbase was 100 mm shorter. In 2002 the 550 was replaced by the 575M Maranello, an all-around improved version of the car, rather than an all-new construction; the 575M was fitted with a larger 5.75-litre version of the F133 engine. In total 3,083 units of the 550 Maranello were produced; the 550 used a front-engine, rear-wheel drive transaxle layout, with the 6-speed gearbox located at the rear axle together with the limited slip differential.
The chassis was a tubular steel space frame. The Pininfarina-designed body had a drag coefficient of 0.33. Suspension was of the double wishbone type with coaxial coil spring and damper units on all four corners, anti-roll bars front and rear; the steering was pinion with variable power assist. The vented disc brakes were 310 mm at the rear. Magnesium alloy was used for the 18-inch wheels. Electronic driver aid systems included anti-slip regulation, which could be adjusted on two levels or switched off and four-way anti-lock braking system; the F133 A engine is a aspirated 65° V12 with four valves per cylinder, dual overhead cams and a variable length intake manifold. It produces 485 PS at 7,000 rpm and 568.1 N ⋅ m at 5,000 rpm. Bore and stroke measure 88 mm and 75 mm; the Barchetta's engine is similar and has the same output but carries the F133 C engine code. According to the manufacturer the 550 Maranello had a top speed of 320 km/h, could accelerate from a standstill to 100 km/h in 4.4 seconds.
Testing the 550 Maranello in 2000, American car magazine Motor Trend recorded a 0 to 60 mph acceleration time of 4.2 seconds, a 0 to 100 mph time of 9.6 seconds, a ¼ mile performance of 12.5 seconds at 116.9 mph. Ferrari introduced a roadster version of the 550 at the Paris Motor Show in 2000 to commemorate the 70th anniversary of Pininfarina; the 550 Barchetta Pininfarina was a true barchetta with no real convertible top provided. The factory did provide a cloth soft top, but it was intended only for temporary use to protect the interior from rain as using the top above 70 mph was not deemed safe. Aesthetically, the barchetta featured a more raked windshield than the coupé for improved aero dynamics, roll-over hoops behind the seats for the driver's safety and a longer rear section than the coupé to complete the smooth overall design resulting in more cargo space than the coupé when it was less practical. Other changes included new 19-inch alloy wheels specially made for the barchetta. A total of 448 cars were produced, four more than planned 444 cars due to concerns of superstition in the Japanese market about the number 4.
The 448 cars were preceded by 12 prototypes numbered P01–P12 on their interior plaques. To an observer the prototypes and production cars are indistinguishable; the mechanical underpinnings of the car remained the same as its coupé counterpart but the engine was given the F133C code for differentiation. Performance figures differed as compared to the 550 Maranello due to the loss of a roof, with 0–62 mph acceleration time increasing to 4.4 seconds and top speed reduced to 186 mph. All the 448 cars had a numbered plaque on the dashboard with Sergio Pininfarina's signature; the 550-based Ferrari Rossa was a concept car introduced at the 2000 Turin Motor Show to celebrate the 70th anniversary of Pininfarina. The 2-door speedster shares the mechanical components from the 550 Maranello but its top speed is reduced to 185 mph due to increased weight; the futuristic design cues found their way to future Ferrari production cars such as the Enzo Ferrari and the F430. It was designed by Ken Okuyama at Pininfarina.
Narayana Purushothama Mallaya is an Indian author, known for his activism for Konkani language and literature. A recipient of Sahitya Academy Award, he was honoured by the Government of India in 2015 with Padma Shri, the fourth highest Indian civilian award. Narayana Purushothama Mallaya was born on 7 May 1929 in Mattancherry, a coastal town in Kochi, in the South Indian state of Kerala to N. M. Saraswathi Bhai the first woman teacher in the state, he did his early education at T. D. School and the Government Commercial Institute, Ernakulam, he started his career as a teacher by founding Ramakrishna Technical Institute in 1958, a commerce institute recognized by the state government. Mallaya is reported to have initiated the movement against the 1951 census report classifying Konkani as a dialect of Marathi and was successful in getting a language status for Konkani by the time the next census report was published in 1961. In 1966, he initiated a movement for getting national language status for Konkani by appealing to Indira Gandhi Prime Minister of India and the efforts were successful in 1992 when the language was included in the 8th Schedule.
His contributions are reported in the establishment of Konkani Prachar Sabha and a chair for Konkani language studies at Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam. Mallaya has authored 21 books including Vedanta Bhushan Guruji Pandit Narayana Anantha Sarma Sastri Satakam, a Konkani poem of 100 verses with English translation and a translation of Tamil epic, Tirukkural into Konkani language, composed of 1330 couplets in 133 chapters, he has translated Jnanappana and several other notable works of Vallathol and Rabindra Nath Tagore besides authoring biographies of N. M. Saraswati Bhai, Suniti Kumar Chatterji and Dr. T. M. A. Pai in verses. Govinda Pai Satakam and Calcutta Nagari Varnana are two of his other notable works. Mallaya has received the Sahitya Academy Award for Konkani literature and is a recipient of the title, Konkani Pitamaha from the Konkani Bhasha Prachar Sabha in 2005, The Government of India included him in the Republic Day honours list, in 2015, for the civilian award of Padma Shri.
Narayana Purushothama Mallaya. Vedanta Bhushan Guruji Pandit Narayana Anantha Sarma Sastri Satakam. Price Dekho. "Times Content Image Gallery". Times Group. 27 January 2015. Retrieved 24 February 2015
Mahler Symphony No. 4 is a 73-minute studio album on which Mahler's Fourth and his song cycle Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen are performed by Frederica von Stade and the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra under the direction of Yoel Levi. The recording was released in 1999; the album was recorded shortly after von Stade and the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra had performed its programme with Levi in concert.. The album was recorded digitally on 11-12 July 1998 in Symphony Hall at the Woodruff Arts Center, Georgia; the cover of the album was designed by Jim Burt of Burt & Burt Studio under the art direction of Anilda Carrasquillo. It features photography by Pat Leeson. David S. Gutman reviewed the album in Gramophone in July 1999, comparing it with recordings of Mahler's Symphony No. 4 conducted by Lorin Maazel, Colin Davis and Claudio Abbado - the latter featuring von Stade as soloist - and with a recording of Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen that von Stade had made with Andrew Davis. Von Stade's contribution to the symphony's fourth movement - separated from the third by a puzzling, extended pause - was, he thought, "slightly disappointing".
The passing years had robbed her of a little of the "boyish freshness" that she had brought to the movement's Wunderhorn song when taping the symphony with Abbado in 1977. Abbado's album bettered Levi's in its orchestral playing, as did Gutman's other reference recordings of the symphony. Levi's Atlanta Symphony Orchestra was "fine", but it lacked the sumptuous string tone that the Vienna Philharmonic had produced for Abbado and Maazel or the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra for Colin Davis. Conducting, Levi displayed both weaknesses; as he had shown on his recordings of Mahler's Symphony No. 5 and Symphony No. 6, his approach to the composer was "fresh-toned and understated", he was well suited temperamentally to a work with a "relatively sunny disposition and low neurosis quotient". His interpretation rejoiced in "incidental beauties" and "a mass of detail and colour", but he had allowed himself many deviations from Mahler's stipulated tempos and accent markings, his reading as a whole was "just a shade undercooked".
In the Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen, as in the symphony, it was evident that von Stade was no longer quite the singer that she had been in the 1970s. The "bubbly Arcadia" of "Ging heut Morgen über's Feld" no longer had the same conviction as the "heart-rending" final bars of "Ich hab' ein glühend Messer". Von Stade's admirers would find much in her new album to please them, but there was no escaping the fact that it was not the best in her discography. On the other hand, there was not a note in her performance that sounded exaggerated, "even when the pitch is so suspect or the tone no longer quite so lustrous, she remains wistful and ardent". Von Stade enthusiasts who bought Levi's disc could be assured, that they would get to hear their idol in "exceptional" recorded sound; the album was reviewed in Classic CD. Gustav Mahler Symphony No. 4, text from Des Knaben Wunderhorn 1 Bedächtig, Nicht eilen 2 In gemächlicher Bewegung, Ohne Hast 3 Ruhevoll 4 Sehr behaglichLieder eines fahrenden Gesellen, text by Gustav Mahler 5 "Wenn mein Schatz Hochzeit macht" 6 "Ging heut' Morgen über's Feld" 7 "Ich hab' ein glühend Messer" 8 "Die zwei blauen Augen von meinem Schatz" Frederica von Stade, mezzo-soprano Atlanta Symphony Orchestra Yoel Levi, conductor Robert Woods, executive producer Elaine Martone, recording producer Michael Bishop, recording engineer Thomas C.
Moore and recording assistant James Yates, technical assistant Telarc released the album on CD in 1999 with a 16-page insert booklet including texts in German and English, detailed notes by Nick Jones, a biography and photograph of von Stade and a list of the members of the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra who took part in the recording. Mahler: Symphony No. 4, with Frederica von Stade Mahler: Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen, Rückert-lieder and two songs from Des Knaben Wunderhorn, with Frederica von Stade