Glenwood Canyon is a rugged scenic 12.5 mi canyon on the Colorado River in western Colorado in the United States. Its walls climb as high as 1,300 feet above the Colorado River, it is the largest such canyon on the Upper Colorado. The canyon, which has provided the routes of railroads and highways through western Colorado furnishes the routes of Interstate 70 and the Central Corridor between Denver and Grand Junction; the canyon stretches from near Dotsero, where the Colorado receives the Eagle River, downstream in a west-southwest direction to just east of Glenwood Springs, on the mouth of the Roaring Fork. Most of the canyon is with the upper portion near Dotsero lying in Eagle County. In 1906, the canyon provided the route of the Taylor State Road, a gravel road, the first route for automobiles through the Colorado Rockies; the canyon provided the route for the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad in the late 19th century. Through acquisitions, the line is part of the Union Pacific system.
As Glenwood Canyon was one of the iconic scenic views along the California Zephyr passenger train, a monument to the dome car design was installed in the canyon. In the 1990s, the monument was relocated to the Colorado Railroad Museum in Golden to make way for the construction on Interstate 70; the canyon is considered one of the most scenic natural features on the Interstate Highway System of the United States. Foot access to the canyon is available at four rest areas along Interstate 70 in the canyon; the Hanging Lake Rest Area provides access to the canyon along a stretch where I-70 is concealed in the Hanging Lake Tunnel. The freeway is prone to rockslides in the canyon, such as the one that closed it in February 2016; the canyon was formed recently in Pleistocene time by the rapid cutting of the Colorado down through layers of sedimentary rock. The upper layers of the canyon are sandstone from Mississippian. Sections of the lower canyon walls are made of Cambrian rock; the Mississippian layer, prominent throughout much of the upper rim sections of the canyon is part of the Leadville Formation.
Gore Canyon Roadside Geology of Colorado by Halka Chronic. Glenwood Canyon I70 motorway project 12 years later
California's Colorado Desert is a part of the larger Sonoran Desert. It encompasses 7 million acres, including the irrigated Coachella and Imperial valleys, it is home to fauna. The Colorado Desert is a subdivision of the larger Sonoran Desert encompassing 7 million acres; the desert encompasses Imperial County and includes parts of San Diego County, Riverside County, a small part of San Bernardino County. Most of the Colorado Desert lies at a low elevation, below 1,000 feet, with the lowest point of the desert floor at 275 feet below sea level, at the Salton Sea. Although the highest peaks of the Peninsular Ranges reach elevations of nearly 10,000 feet, most of the region's mountains do not exceed 3,000 feet. In this region, the geology is dominated by the transition of the tectonic plate boundary from rift to fault; the southernmost strands of the San Andreas Fault connect to the northernmost extensions of the East Pacific Rise. The region is subject to earthquakes, the crust is being stretched, which will result in a sinking of the terrain over time.
The Colorado Desert's climate distinguishes it from other deserts. The region experiences greater summer daytime temperatures than higher-elevation deserts and never experiences frost. In addition, the Colorado Desert experiences two rainy seasons per year toward the southern portion of the region; the west coast Peninsular Ranges, or other west ranges, of Southern California–northern Baja California, block most eastern Pacific coastal air and rains, producing an arid climate. Other short or longer-term weather events can move in from the Gulf of California to the south, are active in the summer monsoons; these include remnants of Pacific hurricanes, storms from the southern tropical jetstream, the northern intertropical convergence zone. The region's terrestrial habitats include creosote bush scrub. Higher elevations are dominated by pinyon pine and California juniper, with areas of manzanita and Coulter pine. In addition to hardy perennials, more than half of the desert's plant species are herbaceous annuals, appropriately timed winter rains produce abundant early spring wildflowers.
In the southern portion of the region, the additional moisture supplied by summer rainfall fosters the germination of summer annual plants and supports smoketree and palo verde trees. Common desert wildlife include mule deer, desert kangaroo rat, cactus mouse, black-tailed jackrabbit, Gambel's quail, red-diamond rattlesnake. Among sensitive species are flat-tailed horned lizard, Coachella Valley fringe-toed lizard, desert tortoise, prairie falcon, Andrews' dune scarab beetle, peninsular bighorn sheep, California leaf-nosed bat; the best place to spot wildlife is at the wetland refuges along the Colorado River, Cibola National Wildlife Refuge and Imperial National Wildlife Refuge. In the Colorado Desert's arid environment and wetland habitats are limited in extent but are critically important to wildlife. Runoff from seasonal rains and groundwater springs forms desert arroyos, desert fan palm oases, freshwater marshes, brine lakes, desert washes and perennial streams, desert riparian vegetation communities dominated by cottonwood and non-native tamarisk.
Two of the region's most significant aquatic systems are the Colorado River. While most desert wildlife depend on aquatic habitats as water sources, a number of species, such as the arroyo toad, desert pupfish, Yuma rail, southwestern willow flycatcher, are restricted to these habitats. In some places, summer rains produce short-lived seasonal pools that host uncommon species like Couch's spadefoot toad. Desert fan palm oases are rare, they occur only where permanent water sources are available, such as at springs or along fault lines, where groundwater is forced to the surface by the movement of hard impermeable rock, can be found in the San Jacinto, Santa Rosa, Little San Bernardino mountains, in the canyons of Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, along the San Andreas Fault in the Coachella Valley. The only palm native to California, Washingtonia filifera, grows at the oases; some sub-regions of the Colorado Desert contain endemic flora. Along the Lower Colorado River Valley, in-flow side canyons, flatlands, or low-to-higher level elevations, at least three such flora occur: Hesperocallis undulata, Nolina bigelovii, Peucephyllum schottii.
Joshua Tree National Park Imperial NWR Sonny Bono Salton Sea NWR Indio Hills Palms Anza-Borrego Desert State Park Ocotillo Wells State Vehicular Recreation Area Picacho State Recreation Area Heber Dunes State Vehicular Recreation Area Salton Sea State Recreation Area The Colorado Desert is one of the least-populous regions in California, but human activities have had substantial impacts on the region's habitats and wildlife. Many unique communities aquatic and dune systems, are limited in distribution and separated by vast expanses of inhospitable, arid desert terrain. Limited human disturbances can have markedly deleterious effects on the endemic and sensitive species supported by these unique regional systems; some of the greatest human-caused effects on the region have resulted from the water diversions and flood control measures along the Colorado River. These measures have altered the region's hydrology by redistributing the region's water supp
Desert riparian is a North American desert vegetation type occurring in the bottoms of canyons and drainages that have water at or near the surface most of the year. It is contrasted with the desert dry wash vegetation type in which water at or near the surface is lacking most of the year; the visual character is of large, lush green trees surrounded by dry desert vegetation and soil coloration. The area may be in a strand following the course of water flow. Over 80% of known desert wildlife species use desert riparian areas. Common dominant species include Fremont cottonwood, Arizona ash, arroyo willow, Goodding's willow, red willow, California fan palm, invasive species such as salt cedar, giant reed, Russian olive. Salt cedar is causing problems for this ecosystem because it is able to extract water more efficiently than cottonwoods and willows. Many noninvasive non-native species may be found because springs and surface water areas in the desert were old homesites where such species were intentionally planted, such as elm, black locust, assorted fruit trees.
Utah is a state in the western United States. It became the 45th state admitted to the U. S. on January 4, 1896. Utah is the 13th-largest by area, 31st-most-populous, 10th-least-densely populated of the 50 United States. Utah has a population of more than 3 million according to the Census estimate for July 1, 2016. Urban development is concentrated in two areas: the Wasatch Front in the north-central part of the state, which contains 2.5 million people. Utah is bordered by Colorado to the east, Wyoming to the northeast, Idaho to the north, Arizona to the south, Nevada to the west, it touches a corner of New Mexico in the southeast. 62% of Utahns are reported to be members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, making Utah the only state with a majority population belonging to a single church. This influences Utahn culture and daily life; the LDS Church's world headquarters is located in Salt Lake City. The state is a center of transportation, information technology and research, government services, a major tourist destination for outdoor recreation.
In 2013, the U. S. Census Bureau estimated. St. George was the fastest-growing metropolitan area in the United States from 2000 to 2005. Utah has the 14th highest median average income and the least income inequality of any U. S. state. A 2012 Gallup national survey found Utah overall to be the "best state to live in" based on 13 forward-looking measurements including various economic and health-related outlook metrics. A common folk etymology is that the name "Utah" is derived from the name of the Ute tribe, purported to mean "people of the mountains" in the Ute language. However, the word for people in Ute is'núuchiu' while the word for mountain is'káav', offering no linguistic connection to the words'Ute' or'Utah'. According to other sources "Utah" is derived from the Apache name "yuttahih" which means "One, Higher up" or "Those that are higher up". In the Spanish language it was said as "Yuta", subsequently the English-speaking people adapted the word "Utah". Thousands of years before the arrival of European explorers, the Ancestral Puebloans and the Fremont people lived in what is now known as Utah, some of which spoke languages of the Uto-Aztecan group.
Ancestral Pueblo peoples built their homes through excavations in mountains, the Fremont people built houses of straw before disappearing from the region around the 15th century. Another group of Native Americans, the Navajo, settled in the region around the 18th century. In the mid-18th century, other Uto-Aztecan tribes, including the Goshute, the Paiute, the Shoshone, the Ute people settled in the region; these five groups were present. The southern Utah region was explored by the Spanish in 1540, led by Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, while looking for the legendary Cíbola. A group led by two Catholic priests—sometimes called the Dominguez-Escalante Expedition—left Santa Fe in 1776, hoping to find a route to the coast of California; the expedition encountered the native residents. The Spanish made further explorations in the region, but were not interested in colonizing the area because of its desert nature. In 1821, the year Mexico achieved its independence from Spain, the region became known as part of its territory of Alta California.
European trappers and fur traders explored some areas of Utah in the early 19th century from Canada and the United States. The city of Provo, Utah was named for one, Étienne Provost, who visited the area in 1825; the city of Ogden, Utah was named after Peter Skene Ogden, a Canadian explorer who traded furs in the Weber Valley. In late 1824, Jim Bridger became the first known English-speaking person to sight the Great Salt Lake. Due to the high salinity of its waters, He thought. After the discovery of the lake, hundreds of American and Canadian traders and trappers established trading posts in the region. In the 1830s, thousands of migrants traveling from the Eastern United States to the American West began to make stops in the region of the Great Salt Lake known as Lake Youta. Following the death of Joseph Smith in 1844, Brigham Young, as president of the Quorum of the Twelve, became the effective leader of the LDS Church in Nauvoo, Illinois. To address the growing conflicts between his people and their neighbors, Young agreed with Illinois Governor Thomas Ford in October 1845 that the Mormons would leave by the following year.
Young and the first band of Mormon pioneers reached the Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847. Over the next 22 years, more than 70,000 pioneers settled in Utah. For the first few years, Brigham Young and the thousands of early settlers of Salt Lake City struggled to survive; the arid desert land was deemed by the Mormons as desirable as a place where they could practice their religion without harassment. The Mormon settlements provided pioneers for other settlements in the West. Salt Lake City became the hub of a "far-flung commonwealth" of Mormon settlements. With new church converts coming from the East and around the world, Church leaders assigned groups of church members as missionaries to establish other settlements throughout the West, they developed irrigation to support large pioneer populations along Utah's Wasatch front. Throughout the remainder of the 19th century, Mormon pioneers established hundreds of other settlements in Utah, Id
Los Algodones, Baja California, is a small Mexican town located on the extreme northeastern tip of the municipality of Mexicali 16 km west of Yuma, Arizona, USA. Its official name is Vicente Guerrero called Molar City, it reported a population of 5,474 as of the 2010 Mexican census. It serves as a borough seat of its surrounding area. Los Algodones is the northernmost town in Mexico, at its northeastern tip is the northernmost point in Mexico, in Latin America. Another interesting geographical distinction is that if someone were to travel in any of the four cardinal directions from anywhere in Algodones, they would cross a U. S. border. Situated near the borders of both southeastern California and southwestern Arizona, Los Algodones has become a popular tourist attraction in recent years due in part to inexpensive shopping and restaurants as well as inexpensive medical care and prescription medicines; the warm, dry climate of the area attracts a number of older tourists from across the United States and Canada who settle during the winter in the nearby towns of Yuma and Winterhaven, California.
Organized day trips from the Coachella Valley are popular among seniors as well. From the U. S. side, Los Algodones is most reached via Interstate 8 and south a short distance along State Route 186/Andrade Road to the international border at Andrade, California. From Andrade, visitors can elect to park their vehicles for a small fee and walk across the border, or they can drive across; the popularity of both inexpensive prescriptions and medical care catering to Canadian and U. S. senior citizens has prompted a virtual explosion of pharmacies and dental offices since the 1980s. They have displaced many of the open-air shops and restaurants across the border, have shifted the town's focus from tourism to medicine. A number of shops and restaurants remain, Los Algodones capitalizes on the tourist trade with frequent fiestas throughout the year, most notably around the Christmas season; the exact geographical location is 32°42′55″N 114°43′44″W at an elevation of 110 feet/33.5 m above mean sea level.
The Spanish-language name Los Algodones translates into English as "the cotton plants". The origin of the name is unknown. Transportes Miguel Siga, a private bus company, provides service between Los Algodones. Yuma County Area Transit provides service from Andrade to Yuma
The Sonoran Desert is a North American desert which covers large parts of the Southwestern United States in Arizona and California and of Northwestern Mexico in Sonora, Baja California, Baja California Sur. It is the hottest desert in Mexico, it has an area of 260,000 square kilometers. The western portion of the United States–Mexico border passes through the Sonoran Desert. In phytogeography, the Sonoran Desert is within the Sonoran Floristic Province of the Madrean Region in southwestern North America, part of the Holarctic Kingdom of the northern Western Hemisphere; the desert contains a variety of unique and endemic plants and animals, such as the saguaro and organ pipe cactus. The Sonoran desert wraps around the northern end of the Gulf of California, from Baja California Sur, north through much of Baja California, excluding the central northwest mountains and Pacific west coast, through southeastern California and southwestern and southern Arizona to western and central parts of Sonora.
It is bounded on the west by the Peninsular Ranges, which separate it from the California chaparral and woodlands and Baja California Desert ecoregions of the Pacific slope. To the north in California and northwest Arizona, the Sonoran Desert transitions to the colder-winter, higher-elevation Mojave, Great Basin, Colorado Plateau deserts. To the east and southeast, the deserts transition to the coniferous Arizona Mountains forests and Sierra Madre and Sierra Madre Occidental pine–oak forests at higher elevations. To the south the Sonoran–Sinaloan transition subtropical dry forest is the transition zone from the Sonoran Desert to the tropical dry forests of the Mexican state of Sinaloa; the desert's sub-regions include the Colorado Desert of southeastern California. In the 1957 publication Vegetation of the Sonoran Desert, Forrest Shreve divided the Sonoran Desert into seven regions according to characteristic vegetation: Lower Colorado Valley, Arizona Upland, Plains of Sonora, Foothills of Sonora, Central Gulf Coast, Vizcaíno Region, Magdalena Region.
Many ecologists now consider Shreve's Vizcaíno and Magdalena regions, which lie on the western side of the Baja California Peninsula, to be a separate ecoregion, the Baja California Desert. Within the southern Sonoran Desert in Mexico is found the Gran Desierto de Altar, with the Reserva de la Biosfera el Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar, extending 2,000 square kilometers of desert and mountainous regions; the Pinacate National Park includes the only active erg dune region in North America. The nearest city to the Reserva de la Biosfera el Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar is Puerto Peñasco in the state of Sonora, Mexico. Sub-regionsSonoran Desert sub-regions include: Colorado Desert Gran Desierto de Altar Lechuguilla Desert Tonopah Desert Yuha Desert Yuma Desert The Sonoran Desert includes 60 mammal species, 350 bird species, 20 amphibian species, over 100 reptile species, 30 native fish species, over 1000 native bee species, more than 2,000 native plant species; the Sonoran Desert area southeast of Tucson and near the Mexican border is vital habitat for the only population of jaguars living within the United States.
The Colorado River Delta was once an ecological hotspot within the Sonoran desert, fueled by the flow of fresh water through the Colorado river in this otherwise dry area, but the delta has been reduced in extent due to the damming and use of the river upstream. Many plants not only thrive in the harsh conditions of the Sonoran Desert. Many have evolved to have specialized adaptations to the desert climate; the Sonoran Desert's biseasonal rainfall pattern results in more plant species than any other desert in the world. The Sonoran Desert includes plant genera and species from the agave family, palm family, cactus family, legume family, numerous others; the Sonoran is the only place in the world. Cholla, hedgehog, prickly pear, nightblooming cereus, organ pipe are other taxa of cacti found here. Cactus provides food and homes to many desert mammals and birds, with showy flowers in reds, pinks and whites, blooming most from late March through June, depending on the species and seasonal temperatures.
Creosote bush and bur sage dominate valley floors. Indigo bush and Mormon tea are other shrubs. Wildflowers of the Sonoran Desert include desert sand verbena, desert sunflower, evening primroses. Ascending from the valley up bajadas, various subtrees such as velvet mesquite, palo verde, desert ironwood, desert willow, crucifixion thorn are common, as well as multi-stemmed ocotillo. Shrubs found at higher elevations include whitethorn acacia, fairy duster, jojoba. In the desert subdivisions found on Baja California, cardon cactus, elephant tree, boojum tree occur; the California fan palm is found in the Colorado Desert section of the Sonoran Desert, the only native palm in California, among many other introduced Arecac
Yuma County, Arizona
Yuma County is a county in the southwestern corner of the U. S. state of Arizona. As of the 2010 census, its population was 195,751; the county seat is Yuma. Yuma County includes Arizona Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county borders three states: Sonora, Mexico, to the south, two other states to the west, across the Colorado River: California of the United States and the Mexican state of Baja California. Long settled by Native Americans of indigenous cultures for thousands of years, this area was controlled by the Spanish Empire in the colonial era. In the 19th century, it was part of independent Mexico before the Mexican–American War and Gadsden Purchase. Yuma County was one of four original Arizona counties created by the 1st Arizona Territorial Legislature; the county territory was defined as being west of longitude 113° 20' and south of the Bill Williams River. Its original boundaries remained the same until 1982, when La Paz County was created from its northern half; the original county seat was the city of La Paz.
Because of Yuma County's location along the U. S.-Mexico border, large numbers of immigrants entering the United States illegally pass through Yuma County. From October 2004 to July 2005, some 124,400 illegal foreign nationals were apprehended in the area, a 46% increase over the previous year. In 2015, only 6,000 people were apprehended, as the border was fortified and augmented; the number of illegal immigrants declined with slumps in the US economy. Agriculture is a $3 billion business annually, employing tens of thousands of workers but at minimum wages. During the agricultural season from November to March, some 40,000 Mexican workers cross the border daily to work in United States fields. Leaders in the county are aware their economy is tied to that of Mexican states on the other side of the border. "There are automotive plants in Ciudad Juárez, across from El Paso. On the American side, there is a mix of retail stores and trucking companies..." The Board of Supervisors is the governing body of a number of special districts.
The board has members from five districts. The Board adopts ordinances, establishes programs, levies taxes, appropriates funds, appoints certain officials, zones property and regulates development in the unincorporated area. In addition, members of the Board represent the County on numerous intergovernmental agencies. In 2016 county voters elected more Democrats to the Board than Republicans, for the first time since 2004. In Arizona's first 52 years as a state, Yuma County was a Democratic county, only voting for Republicans three times in presidential elections prior to 1968. From 1968 on, it has voted for Republican presidential candidates. However, their margins of victory have been reduced in recent years as the county has grown in population & become majority-Hispanic. Donald Trump only won the county by 560 votes over Hillary Clinton in the most recent presidential election of 2016. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 5,519 square miles, of which 5,514 square miles is land and 5.1 square miles is water.
The lowest point in the state of Arizona is on the Colorado River in San Luis in Yuma County, where it flows out of Arizona and into Sonora in Mexico. Yuma County is in the west, northwestern regions of the north-south Sonoran Desert that extends through Sonora state Mexico to the border of northern Sinaloa state. West of the county across the Colorado River in southeast California is the Colorado Desert. North of the county, with La Paz County the regions merge into the southeastern Mojave Desert. Southwest of Yuma County, is the entirety of Northwest Mexico, at the north shoreline of the Gulf of California, the outlet of the Colorado River into the Colorado River Delta region, now altered with lack of freshwater inputs. Notable mountains in Yuma County include the Tule Mountains. Interstate 8 U. S. Route 95 Arizona State Route 195 State Route 280 Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge Imperial National Wildlife Refuge Kofa National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2000 census, there were 160,026 people, 53,848 households, 41,678 families residing in the county.
The population density was 29 people per square mile. There were 74,140 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile; the county's racial makeup was 68.3% White, 2.2% Black or African American, 1.6% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 23.6% from other races, 3.2% from two or more races. 50.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 43.7% reported speaking Spanish at home. There were 53,848 households, out of which 36.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.3% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.6% were non-families. 18.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.86 and the average family size was 3.27. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.9% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 18.9% from 45 to 64, 16.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 102.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,182, the median income for a family was $34,659. Males had a median income of $27,390 ve