Group dances are danced by groups of people as opposed to individuals dancing alone or individually, as opposed to couples dancing together but independently of others dancing at the same time, if any. The dances are but not always, coordinated or standardized in such a way that all the individuals in the group are dancing the same steps at the same time. Alternatively, various groups within the larger group may be dancing different, but complementary, parts of the larger dance. An exception to this generalization must be vxpointed out where groups of individuals are dancing independently of each other, but with the purpose of creating a "group" feeling or experience, such as might accompany various forms of ritual dancing. Group dances include the following dance forms or styles: Folk dance Circle dance Contra dance English Country Dance Maypole dance Square dance Traditional square dance Modern Western square dance Line dance Novelty and fad dances Bunny Hop Chicken Dance Para Para Polonaise Round dance Rueda de Casino Universal Peace Dance List of basic dance topics List of dances
Gian Franco Corsi Zeffirelli, best known as Franco Zeffirelli, is an Italian director and producer of operas and television. He is a former senator for the Italian centre-right Forza Italia party; some of his operatic designs and productions have become worldwide classics. He is known for several of the movies he has directed the 1968 version of Romeo and Juliet, for which he received an Academy Award nomination, his 1967 version of The Taming of the Shrew with Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton remains the best-known film adaptation of that play as well. His miniseries Jesus of Nazareth won acclaim and is still shown on Christmas and Easter in many countries. A Grande Ufficiale OMRI of the Italian Republic since 1977, Zeffirelli received an honorary knighthood from the British government in 2004 when he was created a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire, he was awarded the Premio Colosseo in 2009 by the city of Rome. Zeffirelli was born Gian Franco Corsi Zeffirelli in the outskirts of Italy.
He was the result of an affair between Alaide Garosi, a fashion designer and Ottorino Corsi, a wool and silk dealer. Since both were married, Alaide was unable to use Corsi's for her child, she came up with "Zeffiretti" which are the "little breezes" mentioned in Mozart's opera Idomeneo, of which she was quite fond. However, it became Zeffirelli; when he was six years old, his mother died and he subsequently grew up under the auspices of the English expatriate community and was involved with the so-called Scorpioni, who inspired his semi-autobiographical film Tea with Mussolini. Italian researchers have found that Zeffirelli is one of a handful of living people traceably consanguineous with Leonardo da Vinci. Zeffirelli is a descendent of one of da Vinci's siblings. Zeffirelli graduated from the Accademia di Belle Arti Firenze in 1941 and, following his father's advice, entered the University of Florence to study art and architecture. After World War II broke out, he fought as a partisan, before he met up with British soldiers of the 1st Scots Guards and became their interpreter.
After the war, he re-entered the University of Florence to continue his studies, but when he saw Laurence Olivier's Henry V in 1945, he directed his attention toward theatre instead. While working for a scenic painter in Florence, he was introduced to and hired by Luchino Visconti, who made him assistant director for the film La Terra trema, released in 1948. Visconti's methods had a deep impact upon Zeffirelli's work, he worked with directors such as Vittorio De Sica and Roberto Rossellini. In the 1960s, he made his name designing and directing his own plays in London and New York and soon transferred his ideas to cinema. Zeffirelli's first film as director was a version of The Taming of the Shrew intended for Sophia Loren and Marcello Mastroianni but including the Hollywood stars Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton instead. Taylor and Burton helped fund production and took a percentage of the profits rather than their normal salaries. While editing The Taming of the Shrew, Zeffirelli's native Florence was devastated by floods.
A month Zeffirelli released a short documentary, Florence: Days of Destruction, to raise funds for the disaster appeal. Zeffirelli's major breakthrough came the year after when he presented two teenagers as Romeo and Juliet; the movie is still immensely popular and was for many years the standard adaptation of the play shown to students. This movie made Zeffirelli a household name - no other subsequent work by him had the immediate impact of Romeo and Juliet; the film earned $14.5 million in domestic rentals at the North American box office during 1969. It earned $1.7 million in rentals. Film critic Roger Ebert, for the Chicago Sun-Times has written: "I believe Franco Zeffirelli's Romeo and Juliet is the most exciting film of Shakespeare made". After two successful film adaptations of Shakespeare, Zeffirelli went on to religious themes, first with a film about the life of St. Francis of Assisi titled Brother Sun, Sister Moon his extended mini-series Jesus of Nazareth with an all-star cast; the latter was a major success in the ratings and has been shown on television in the years since.
He moved on to contemporary themes with a remake of the boxing picture The Champ and the critically panned Endless Love. In the 1980s, he made a series of successful films adapting opera to the screen, with such stars as Plácido Domingo, Teresa Stratas, Juan Pons and Katia Ricciarelli, he returned to Shakespeare with Hamlet. His 1996 adaptation of the Charlotte Brontë novel Jane Eyre was a critical success. Zeffirelli cast unknown actors in major roles. Leonard Whiting, Graham Faulkner and Martin Hewitt all left the film business; the female leads in those films have attained far greater success in the industry. Zeffirelli has been a major director of opera productions since the 1950s in Italy and elsewhere in Europe as well as the United States, he began his career in the theatre as assistant to Luchino Visconti. He tried his hand at scenography, his first work as a director was buffo operas by Rossini. He became a friend of Maria Callas and they worked together on a La Traviata in Dallas, Texas, in 1958.
Of particular note is his 1964 Royal Opera House production of Tosca wi
A mime or mime artist is a person who uses mime as a theatrical medium or as a performance art. Miming involves acting out a story through body motions, without the use of speech. In earlier times, in English, such a performer would be referred to as a mummer. Miming is distinguished from silent comedy, in which the artist is a character in a film or sketch without sound. Jacques Copeau influenced by Commedia dell'arte and Japanese Noh theatre, used masks in the training of his actors, his pupil Étienne Decroux was influenced by this, started exploring and developing the possibilities of mime, developed corporeal mime into a sculptural form, taking it outside the realms of naturalism. Jacques Lecoq contributed to the development of mime and physical theatre with his training methods; the performance of mime originates at its earliest in Ancient Greece. In Medieval Europe, early forms of mime such as mummer plays and dumbshows evolved. In early nineteenth-century Paris, Jean-Gaspard Deburau solidified the many attributes that have come to be known in modern times—the silent figure in whiteface.
The first recorded mime was Telestēs in the play Seven Against Thebes by Aeschylus. Tragic mime was developed by Puladēs of Kilikia. Mime was an aspect of Roman theatre from its earliest times, paralleling the Atellan farce in its improvisation, it began to replace the Atellanae as interludes or postscripts on the main theatre stages. Under the Empire mime became the predominant Roman drama, if with mixed fortunes under different emperors. Trajan banished mime artists. Nero himself acted as a mime; the mime was distinguished from other dramas by its absence of masks, by the presence of female as well as male performers. Stock characters included the lead, the stooge or stupidus, the gigolo, or cultus adulter. While most of this article has treated mime as a constellation of related and linked Western theatre genres and performance techniques, analogous performances are evident in the theatrical traditions of other civilizations. Classical Indian musical theatre, although erroneously labeled a "dance," is a group of theatrical forms in which the performer presents a narrative via stylized gesture, an array of hand positions, mime illusions to play different characters and landscapes.
Recitation and percussive footwork sometimes accompany the performance. The Natya Shastra, an ancient treatise on theatre by Bharata Muni, mentions silent performance, or mukabhinaya. In Kathakali, stories from Indian epics are told with facial expressions, hand signals and body motions. Performances are accompanied by songs narrating the story while the actors act out the scene, followed by actor detailing without background support of narrative song; the Japanese Noh tradition has influenced many contemporary mime and theatre practitioners including Jacques Copeau and Jacques Lecoq because of its use of mask work and physical performance style. Butoh, though referred to as a dance form, has been adopted by various theatre practitioners as well. Prior to the work of Étienne Decroux there was no major treatise on the art of mime, so any recreation of mime as performed prior to the twentieth century is conjecture, based on interpretation of diverse sources. However, the twentieth century brought a new medium into widespread usage: the motion picture.
The restrictions of early motion picture technology meant that stories had to be told with minimal dialogue, restricted to intertitles. This demanded a stylized form of physical acting derived from the stage. Thus, mime played an important role in films prior to advent of talkies; the mimetic style of film acting was used to great effect in German Expressionist film. Silent film comedians like Charlie Chaplin, Harold Lloyd, Buster Keaton learned the craft of mime in the theatre, but through film, they would have a profound influence on mimes working in live theatre decades after their deaths. Indeed, Chaplin may be the best-documented mime in history; the famous French comedian and director Jacques Tati achieved his initial popularity working as a mime, indeed his films had only minimal dialogue, relying instead on many subtle expertly choreographed visual gags. Tati, like Chaplin before him, would mime out the movements of every single character in his films and ask his actors to repeat them.
Mime has been performed with Marcel Marceau and his character "Bip" being the most famous. Mime is a popular art form in street theatre and busking. Traditionally, these sorts of performances involve the actor/actress wearing tight black and white clothing with white facial makeup. However, contemporary mimes perform without whiteface. While traditional mimes have been silent, contemporary mimes, while refraining from speaking, sometimes employ vocal sounds when they perform. Mime acts are comical, but some can be serious. On the stage, Mime Artist Nithor Mahbub from Bangladesh introduced the first practice of teaching through humor with group Mimo Drama troupe Mime Art. Canadian author Michael Jacot's first novel, The Last Butterfl
L'Orfeo, sometimes called La favola d'Orfeo, is a late Renaissance/early Baroque favola in musica, or opera, by Claudio Monteverdi, with a libretto by Alessandro Striggio. It is based on the Greek legend of Orpheus, tells the story of his descent to Hades and his fruitless attempt to bring his dead bride Eurydice back to the living world, it was written in 1607 for a court performance during the annual Carnival at Mantua. While Jacopo Peri's Dafne is recognised as the first work in the opera genre, the earliest surviving opera is Peri's Euridice, L'Orfeo is the earliest, still performed. By the early 17th century the traditional intermedio—a musical sequence between the acts of a straight play—was evolving into the form of a complete musical drama or "opera". Monteverdi's L'Orfeo moved this process out of its experimental era and provided the first developed example of the new genre. After its initial performance the work was staged again in Mantua, in other Italian centres in the next few years.
Its score was published by Monteverdi in 1609 and again in 1615. After the composer's death in 1643 the opera went unperformed for many years, was forgotten until a revival of interest in the late 19th century led to a spate of modern editions and performances. At first these performances tended to be concert versions within institutes and music societies, but following the first modern dramatised performance in Paris, in 1911, the work began to be seen in theatres. After the Second World War many recordings were issued, the opera was staged in opera houses, although some leading venues resisted it. In 2007, the quatercentenary of the premiere was celebrated by performances throughout the world. In his published score Monteverdi lists around 41 instruments to be deployed, with distinct groups of instruments used to depict particular scenes and characters, thus strings and recorders represent the pastoral fields of Thrace with their nymphs and shepherds, while heavy brass illustrates the underworld and its denizens.
Composed at the point of transition from the Renaissance era to the Baroque, L'Orfeo employs all the resources known within the art of music, with daring use of polyphony. The work is not orchestrated as such. Claudio Monteverdi, born in Cremona in 1567, was a musical prodigy who studied under Marc'Antonio Ingegneri, the maestro di cappella at Cremona Cathedral. After training in singing, strings playing and composition, Monteverdi worked as a musician in Verona and Milan until, in 1590 or 1591, he secured a post as suonatore di vivuola at Duke Vincenzo Gonzaga's court at Mantua. Through ability and hard work Monteverdi rose to become Gonzaga's maestro della musica in 1601. Vincenzo Gonzaga's particular passion for musical theatre and spectacle grew from his family connections with the court of Florence. Towards the end of the 16th century innovative Florentine musicians were developing the intermedio—a long-established form of musical interlude inserted between the acts of spoken dramas—into elaborate forms.
Led by Jacopo Corsi, these successors to the renowned Camerata were responsible for the first work recognised as belonging to the genre of opera: Dafne, composed by Corsi and Jacopo Peri and performed in Florence in 1598. This work combined elements of madrigal singing and monody with dancing and instrumental passages to form a dramatic whole. Only fragments of its music still exist, but several other Florentine works of the same period—Rappresentatione di Anima, et di Corpo by Emilio de' Cavalieri, Peri's Euridice and Giulio Caccini's identically titled Euridice—survive complete; these last two works were the first of many musical representations of the Orpheus myth as recounted in Ovid's Metamorphoses, as such were direct precursors of Monteverdi's L'Orfeo. The Gonzaga court had a long history of promoting dramatic entertainment. A century before Duke Vincenzo's time the court had staged Angelo Poliziano's lyrical drama La favola di Orfeo, at least half of, sung rather than spoken. More in 1598 Monteverdi had helped the court's musical establishment produce Giovanni Battista Guarini's play Il pastor fido, described by theatre historian Mark Ringer as a "watershed theatrical work" which inspired the Italian craze for pastoral drama.
On 6 October 1600, while visiting Florence for the wedding of Maria de' Medici to King Henry IV of France, Duke Vincenzo attended a production of Peri's Euridice. It is that his principal musicians, including Monteverdi, were present at this performance; the Duke recognised the novelty of this new form of dramatic entertainment, its potential for bringing prestige to those prepared to sponsor it. Among those present at the Euridice performance in October 1600 was a young lawyer and career diplomat from Gonzaga's court, Alessandro Striggio, son of a well-known composer of the same name; the younger Striggio was himself a talented musician. Together with Duke Vincent's two young sons and Fernandino, he was a member of Mantua's exclusive intellectual society, the Accademia degli Invaghiti, which provided the chief outlet for the city's theatrical works, it is not clear at what point Striggio began his libretto for L'Orfeo, but work was evidently under way in January 1607. In a letter written on 5 January, Francesco Gonzago asks his brother attached to the Florentine court, to obtain the
The weapon dance employs weapons—or stylized versions of weapons—traditionally used in combat in order to simulate, recall, or reenact combat or the moves of combat in the form of dance for some ceremonial purpose. Such dancing is quite common to folk ritual in many parts of the world. Weapon dancing is ancient. There are no parts of the world left where the weapon dance is directly connected with imminent or recent combat; this is true of European states, which have long since moved away from the tribalism that gives rise to such folk dances. It is, however true of parts of the world where tribal traditions have succumbed to colonialism and the forces of globalism; the dances that one sees today are part of general movements to preserve and rejuvenate tribal or local traditions. Some of these movements are quite strong now, such as those among native North American tribes and the aboriginal peoples of Australia. Related to weapon dances and war dances is the dance of the hunt. A early reference to a weapon dance of the hunt comes in the form of a rock engraving at Çatal Höyük, the large neolithic settlement in south-central Anatolia.
It depicts a hunting ritual involving dancers holding their bows. In the modern world, dance has come to be regarded as something one does for recreation, thus distancing dance from the important place it has held in many human cultures throughout history—that is, a method of expression and transmission of the culture and history of a people. Many of the activities that humans have engaged in for millennia have traditionally found expression in various kinds of dance. Another activity—combat—has been central to the life of most human cultures. Indeed, there is a wide range of such weapon dances in the world. Early examples of sword and spear dances can be found amongst the Germanic tribes of Northern Europe, such as those mentioned by Tacictus, the Norse peoples and the Anglo-Saxon tribes; the Sutton Hoo is thought to show figures dancing with spears. Other references to such traditions include that in "Constantine VII Porphrogenitus’ Book of Ceremonies" which describes the Varangian Guard dancing in two circles, with some wearing skins or masks, along with chants of “Toúl!” and clashing staves on shields.
Sword dancing exists in some parts of Europe. The weapon may be used to act out mock combat during the dance, or may be incorporated as an element of the dance itself, intertwining with other swords. In some places, sticks are used instead of swords. Iberian stick. A common sword dance in Europe is the moresca in Spain, in which the dance recalls the strife between Christians and Muslims in that country from the 12th to 15th centuries; the gun parade of Moros y Cristianos celebrates these battles, as does the British morris dance. In Macedonia and Northern Italy, weapon dances may be used to exorcise evil spirits before a wedding. Sabre dancing exists in the Balkans. Northern-Portuguese jogo do. Other weapons, such as axes may be used in some places. In parts of Europe, there are lance dances, dagger dances, rifle dances. In the Scottish Highlands, there are dances that used the Lochaber axe, the broadsword, targe & dirk, the flail; the Highland Dirk Dance, resembles a combative dance similar to those of Indonesian pencak silat, which has the performer executing knife techniques combined with wrestling style kicks and sweeps.
Hilt-and-point sword dances exist in many places in Europe. In this kind of dance the swords interlock to form a “rose,” or “lock,”, placed around the neck of a participant to simulate decapitation; as well, crossed-sword dances are common in Europe. Dancers execute complicated patterns of steps over and between the swords. In some variations, clay pipes may replace the swords. Many European sword dances were appropriated with tools replacing the swords. In Turkey and Greece there exists, it is now a social dance, but goes back to a battle mime in the Middle Ages performed with swords and performed by members of by the butchers' guild. In Turkey are the so-called “guerrilla dances”, performed by dances arranged in a circle who make swishing and whiffling sounds with their swords, followed by mock combat. Chain-sword dance is a group dance in which the dancers first use a sword or other implement to link themselves in a chain. In the Hungarian tradition, the Erdőbénye cooper dance represents this form of dance.
Moreška, a sword dance on the Croatian island of Korčula in the Adriatic, recalls combat between Christians and Moros, though in the 19th century the dance changed from Christians vs. Moors to Turks vs. Moors; the Hungarian heyduck dance was a soldiers' dance that involved virtuoso whirling of weapons and free-form compositions with battle practice motifs. Such danc
Partner dances are dances whose basic choreography involves coordinated dancing of two partners, as opposed to individuals dancing alone or individually in a non-coordinated manner, as opposed to groups of people dancing in a coordinated manner. In 1023, the German poet Ruodlieb referred to a couple dance with a basic motif of a boy wooing a girl, the girl repulsing his advances. Men and women dancing as couples, both holding one hand of their partner, "embracing" each other, can be seen in illustrations from 15th-century Germany. At the end of the 13th century and during the 14th century and wealthy patricians danced as couples in procession in a slow dignified manner in a circle. Farmers and lower classes of society danced turning in a springing fashion; the new burgher middle class combined the dances with the processional as a "fore dance", the turning as an "after dance". Danse de Paysans' by Théodore de Bry shows a couple with a man lifting his partner off the ground, the man pulling the woman towards him while holding her with both arms.
His Danse de Seigneurs et Dames features one Lord with his arms around the waist of his Lady. Syncopated and "dotted" rhythms gained widespread popularity for dancing in the last two centuries, although less complex and more regular than previous music. An old couple dance which can be found all over Northern Europe is known as "Manchester" or "Lott is Dead". In Bavaria words to the music include "One, two and one is four, Dianderl lifts up her skirt And shows me her knees", in Bavaria one verse invites the girl to leave her bedroom window open to allow a visit from her partner. Dance partners stay together for the duration of the dance and, most dance independently of other couples dancing at the same time, if any. Although this kind of dancing can be seen, for instance, in ballet, this term is applied to various forms of social dance, ballroom dance, folk dance, similar forms. Partner dance may be a basis of a formation dance, a round dance, a square dance or a sequence dance; these are kinds of group dance where the dancers form couples and dance either the same choreographed or called routines or routines within a common choreography—routines that control both how each couple dances together and how each couple moves in accord with other couples.
In square dance one will change partners during the course of a dance, in which case one distinguishes between the "original partner" and a "situational partner". In most partner dances, one a man, is the leader; as a rule, they maintain connection with each other. In some dances the connection called dance handhold. In other dances the connection involves body contact. In the latter case the connection imposes significant restrictions on relative body positions during the dance and hence it is called dance frame, it is said that each partner has his own dance frame. Although the handhold connection poses no restriction on body positions, it is quite helpful that the partners are aware of their dance frames, since this is instrumental in leading and following. In promenade-style partner dancing there is no leader or follower, the couple dance side-by-side maintaining a connection with each other through a promenade handhold; the man dances traditionally to the left of the woman. Some peoples have folk partner dances, where partners do not have any body contact at all, but there is still a kind of "call-response" interaction.
A popular form of partner dancing is slow dance. Partner dance has taken place between a man and a woman. Before the 1950s, however, if there was not a sufficient number of partners of the opposite sex available, couples formed into pairs of the same sex. Sometimes this is done as part of a dance tradition. In traditional partner dances done within certain conservative cultures, such as in traditional Uyghur partner dance, dancing is done with the same sex as a matter of respect for the conservative culture. At Modern Jive and West Coast Swing events, females will partner each other. Men dancing with each other is common, though less frequent. In ballroom competitions today, same-sex partnerships are allowed up to the silver level. However, these are comparatively rare, it is thought that some partner dances developed with more relaxed gender roles. Prior to adoption by the mainstream, these dances did not normalize the man-lead/woman-follow paradigm; this kind of dance involves dancing of three persons together: one man with two women or one woman with two men.
In social dancing, double partnering is best known during times when a significant demographic disproportion happens between the two sexes. For example, this happens during wars: in the army there is a lack of women, while among civilians able dancers are women. Since the 1980s, double partner dance is performed in Ceroc, Hustle and Swing dance communities, experienced leaders leading two followers. There are a number of folk dances. Among these are the Russian Troika and the Polish Trojak folk dances, where a man dances with two or more women. A Cajun dance with the name Troika is known. Outline of dance List of dances Pas de deux International DanceSport Federation World Dance Council International Professional DanceSport Council