Autonomous communities of Spain
In Spain, an autonomous community is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain. Spain is not a federation, but a decentralized unitary state. While sovereignty is vested in the nation as a whole, represented in the central institutions of government, the nation has, in variable degrees, devolved power to the communities, which, in turn, exercise their right to self-government within the limits set forth in the constitution and their autonomous statutes; each community has its own set of devolved powers. Some scholars have referred to the resulting system as a federal system in all but name, or a "federation without federalism". There are 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies"; the two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet exercised it.
This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies". The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, which contain all the competences that they assume. Since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. Spain is a diverse country made up of several different regions with varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical and cultural traditions. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown in 1479 this was not a process of national homogenization or amalgamation; the constituent territories—be it crowns, principalities or dominions—retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories exhibited a variety of local customs, laws and currencies until the mid nineteenth century.
From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime. Leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries; this culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces, which served as transmission belts for policies developed in Madrid. However, unlike in other European countries such as France, where regional languages were spoken in rural areas or less developed regions, two important regional languages of Spain were spoken in some of the most industrialized areas, moreover, enjoyed higher levels of prosperity, in addition to having their own cultures and historical consciousness; these were Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism; therefore and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain. As such, Spanish history since the late 19th century has been shaped by a dialectical struggle between Spanish nationalism and peripheral nationalisms in Catalonia and the Basque Country, to a lesser degree in Galicia.
In a response to Catalan demands, limited autonomy was granted to Catalonia in 1914, only to be abolished in 1923. It was granted again in 1932 during the Second Spanish Republic, when the Generalitat, Catalonia's mediaeval institution of government, was restored; the constitution of 1931 envisaged a territorial division for all Spain in "autonomous regions", never attained—only Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia had approved "Statutes of Autonomy"—the process being thwarted by the Spanish Civil War that broke out in 1936, the victory of the rebel Nationalist forces under Francisco Franco. During General Franco's dictatorial regime, centralism was most forcefully enforced as a way of preserving the "unity of the Spanish nation". Peripheral nationalism, along with communism and atheism were regarded by his regime as the main threats, his attempts to fight separatism with heavy-handed but sporadic repression, his severe suppression of language and regional identities backfired: the demands for democracy became intertwined with demands for the recognition of a pluralistic vision of the Spanish nationhood.
When Franco died in 1975, Spain entered into a phase of transition towards democracy. The most difficult task of the newly democratically elected Cortes Generales in 1977 acting as a Constituent Assembly was to transition from a unitary centralized state into a decentralized state in a way that would satisfy the demands of the peripheral nationalists; the Prime Minister of Spain, Adolfo Suárez, met with Josep Tarradellas, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile. An agreement was made so that the Generalitat would be restored and limited competencies would be transferred while the constitution was still being written. Shortly after, the government allowed the creation of "assemblies of members of parliament" integrated by deputies and senators of the different territories of Spain, so that they could constitute "pre-autonomic regimes" for their regions as well; the Fathers of the Constitution had to strike a balance between the opposing views of Spain—on the one hand, the centralist view inherited from Franco's regime, on the other hand federalism and a pluralistic view of Spain as a "nation of nations".
Valle de Trápaga-Trapagaran
Valle de Trápaga-Trapagaran is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, northern Spain. It is located near Barakaldo and Ortuella. Iron ore has been mined here since Roman times and the two parts of the municipality, which are at different altitudes, are linked by a funicular railway. Valle de Trápaga-Trapagaran is located 12 km from Bilbao in the Triano mountain range in the province of Biscay; the municipality is divided into two zones. Ninety percent of the population live in the lower zone in the neighbourhoods of Durañona, El Juncal, Galindo-Salcedillo, Valle de Trápaga, the administrative centre, Trápaga-Caused and Ugarte; the upper zone is in the mountains of Triano, the neighbourhoods here are La Arboleda, Matamoros-Burzaco, Parcocha-Barrionuevo and La Reineta. The European route E70 running along the north coast of Spain passes the town; the upper zone is connected by a funicular railway. The town of Valle de Trápaga-Trapagaran expanded with the mining activities and most of the buildings date from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
The church of San José Obrero is built in Romanesque style while the churcht of San Juan Bautista is neoclassical, as is the city hall, built in the first decade of the twentieth century. Iron ore has been mined here since Roman times and there was a great increase in mining activity and residential development in the upper zone after the building of the railway in the late nineteenth century; the iron ore deposits became exhausted in the mid-twentieth century and now the area is residential and recreational, although traces of its industrial past remain. Many of the former mines have been flooded and turned into recreational areas with sports facilities and lakes stocked with fish. Valle de Trápaga-Trapagaran in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa – Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Comarcas of Spain
In Spain traditionally and some autonomous communities are divided into comarcas. Some comarcas have a defined status, are regulated by law and their comarcal councils have some power. In some other cases their legal status is not formal for they correspond to natural areas, like valleys, river basins and mountainous areas, or to historical regions overlapping different provinces and ancient kingdoms. In such comarcas or natural regions municipalities have resorted to organizing themselves in mancomunidad, like the Taula del Sénia, the only legal formula that has allowed those comarcas to manage their public municipal resources meaningfully. There is a comarca, the Cerdanya, divided between two states, the southwestern half being counted as a comarca of Spain, while the northeastern half is part of France. In English, a comarca is equivalent to a district, area or zone. Alto Almanzora Poniente Almeriense Níjar Los Vélez Levante Almería Bahía de Cádiz Bajo Guadalquivir called Costa Noroeste Campo de Gibraltar La Janda Campiña de Jerez called Marco de Jerez Sierra de Cádiz Alto Guadalquivir Campiña de Baena Campiña Este - Guadajoz Campiña Sur Los Pedroches Subbetica Valle del Guadiato Valle Medio del Guadalquivir Granadin Alpujarra Comarca de Alhama Comarca de Baza Comarca de Guadix Comarca de Huéscar Comarca de Loja Granadin Coast Los Montes Lecrin Valley Vega de Granada Andévalo Condado de Huelva Cuenca Minera de Huelva Costa Occidental de Huelva Huelva Sierra de Huelva Alto Guadalquivir - Cazorla La Campiña El Condado Área Metropolitana de Jaén La Loma Las Villas Norte Sierra Mágina Sierra de Segura Sierra Sur de Jaén Antequera Axarquía Costa del Sol Occidental Málaga Serranía de Ronda Valle del Guadalhorce Aljarafe Bajo Guadalquivir Campiña Estepa Marisma Sierra Norte Sierra Sur La Vega Alto Gállego Bajo Cinca called Baix Cinca Cinca Medio Hoya de Huesca called Plana de Uesca Jacetania La Litera called La Llitera Monegros Ribagorza Sobrarbe Somontano de Barbastro Bajo Martín Jiloca Cuencas Mineras Andorra-Sierra de Arcos Bajo Aragón Comunidad de Teruel Maestrazgo Sierra de Albarracín Comarca, named after the Sierra de Albarracín mountain range Gúdar-Javalambre Matarraña called Matarranya Aranda Bajo Aragón-Caspe called Baix Aragó-Casp Campo de Belchite Campo de Borja Campo de Cariñena Campo de Daroca Cinco Villas Comunidad de Calatayud Ribera Alta del Ebro Ribera Baja del Ebro Tarazona y el Moncayo Valdejalón Zaragoza Avilés Caudal Eo-Navia Gijón / Xixón Nalón Narcea Oriente Oviedo / Uviéu Serra de Tramuntana Es Raiguer Es Pla Migjorn Llevant Menorca Eivissa Formentera Añana Aiara / Ayala Agurain / Salvatierra Vitoria-Gasteiz Zuia Arabako Mendialdea / Montaña Alavesa Arabako Errioxa / Rioja Alavesa Arratia-Nerbioi Busturialdea Durangaldea Enkarterri Greater Bilbao Lea-Artibai Uribe Bidasoa-Txingudi Debabarrena Debagoiena Goierri Donostialdea Tolosaldea Urola Kosta Fuerteventura Lanzarote Las Palmas El Hierro La Gomera La Palma Tenerife Valle de Güímar Valle de la Orotava Icod Daute Isla Baja Isora-Teno Tenerife Sur Tenerife Sur Acentejo Metropolitana-Anaga Comarca de Santander Besaya Saja-Nansa Costa occidental Costa oriental Trasmiera Pas-Miera Asón-Agüera Liébana Campoo-Los Valles Alt Penedès Anoia Bages Baix Llobregat Barcelonès Berguedà Garraf Maresme Moianès Osona Vallès Occidental Vallès Oriental Alt Empordà Baix Empordà Baixa Cerdanya Garrotxa Gironès Osona Pla de l'Estany Ripollès Selva Alt Urgell Alta Ribagorça Baixa Cerdanya Garrigues Noguera Pallars Jussà Pallars Sobirà Pla d'Urgell Segarra Segrià Solsonès Urgell Val d'Aran Alt Camp Baix Camp Baix Ebre Baix Penedès Conca de Barberà Montsià Priorat Ribera d'Ebre Tarragonès Terra Alta Llanos de Albacete Campos de Hellín La Mancha del Júcar-Centro La Manchuela Monte Ibérico–Corredor de Almansa Sierra de Alcaraz y Campo de Montiel Sierra del Segura Campo de Montiel.
Alcarria conquense. La Mancha de Cuenca. Manchuela conquense. Serranía Alta. Serranía Baja. Serranía Media-Campichuelo. Campiña de Guadalajara Campiña del Henares La Alcarria La Serranía Señorío de Molina-Alto Tajo Campo de San Juan La Jara La Campana de Oropesa Mancha Alta de Toledo Mesa de Ocaña Montes de Toledo La Sagra Sierra de San Vicente Tierras de Talavera Torrijos La Moraña Comarca de Ávila Comarca de El Barco de Ávila - Piedrahíta Comarca de Burgohondo - El Tiemblo - Cebreros Comarca de Arenas de San Pedro Merindades Páramos La Bureba Ebro Odra-Pisuerga Alfoz de Burgos Montes de Oca Arlanza Sierra de la Demanda Ribera del Duero La Montaña de Luna La Montaña de Riaño La Cabrera Astorga El Bierzo Tierras de León La Bañeza El Páramo Esla-Campos Sahagún Cerrato Palentino Montaña Palentina Páramos Valles Tierra de Campos Comarca de Vitigudino Comarca de Ciudad Rodrigo La Armuña Las Villas Tierra de Peñaranda Tierra de Cantalapiedra Tierra de Ledesma Comarca de Guijuelo Tierra de Alba Sierra de Béjar Sierra de Francia Campo de Salamanca An official classification establishes three comarcas: Segovia.
Cuéllar. Sepúlveda.or sometimes four: Tierra de Pinares. Segovia. Sepúlveda. Tierra de Ayllón. However, historic approaches establish six comarcas: Tierra de Pinares. Tierra de Ayllón. Tierras de Cantalejo y
The council of Güeñes is a municipality in the county of Encartaciones. It is furrowed by the waters of the river Cadagua and forms with its neighbor, the municipality of Zalla, Salcedo Valley. In the North it borders Galdames and k, its more important centres of population are Güeñes, The Quadra, Zaramillo and San Pedro de Goicouría. The towns of Sodupe, La Quadra and the administrative centre, Güeñes, all lie within the region. Central Güeñes - 2213 La Quadra - 420 Sodupe - 5117 Zaramillo - 510 Total 8.258 -. In ancient times, it was included in the Valley of Salcedo, formed by two councils: Güeñes and Zalla; the valley of Salcedo was founded in the late 12th century by Count D. Rubio Diaz de Asturias, who ordered the building of the Tower of Salcedo of Aranguti, on transformed into a palace, he was succeeded by his daughter Maria de Salcedo, married to Mr. of Ayala. Ayala and Salcedo would remain together for the rest of the 12th century and the first half of the 13th century, under the successive domination of Sancho Garcia "the headstrong" and Hurtado Sanz.
They were not, the only eminent "owners" of the valley: other characters wielded power in the area, such as Martin Sancho de Santa Marina. In the early 13th century, Hurtado Sanz de Salcedo, had a daughter who had two bastard children with Martin Sanchez of Santa Marina: Lope Sanchez, who received Gordexola as inheritance and Sancho Ortiz Marroquin,who kept Zalla and Güeñes. A generation Marroquin divided among three of his four children all their possessions in Salcedo, thus giving rise to three lineages. In the valley of Salcedo direct clashes began at a late date, during the mid 14th century. Relationships between different lineages were difficult. Many of their differences seem to have started from Sancho Ortiz Marroquin’s territorial divisions. Despite the opposition from Salcedo, Montermoso still had effective control of the region after the death of Juan Sanchez, the Marroquines' territorial demands began to increase. All sides were well defended, they all fought tirelessly for the control of the region: zamudianos of Salcedo, Salazares and Muñatones on one hand and marroquines and gordojanos on the other.
By 1400, the Salazar Salcedo allied with the marroquines. The atmosphere of generalized violence endured all over the territory, forcing the lords of Vizcaya and kings of Castile to take action on the matter, it was difficult to impose rules, when the lieutenants of the nobles used them for their own profit. Therefore, it became necessary to resort to outsiders. Violence began to subside during the last years of the 15th century. There was a change in economic conditions, both production and population increased: the causes that had led to struggle began to disappear. During the first half of the 16th century, disputes concerning neighbouring municipal borders were resolved: In January 1507, the councils of Güeñes and Gordejuela gathered to mark their respective terms and limits, in order not to contravene the jurisdiction of its justices. On February 27 in the same year, the representatives of these councils proceeded to the demarcation. During this period of time, iron production and the expansion of cultivated areas acquired a important role.
Güeñes featured another engine that underpinned its demographic expansion: the works of the church of Santa Maria, which provided work for a good number of workers. On April 17, 1624, the General Meeting of the Lordship of Biscay, contemplating the possibility of an attack by Dutch ships, decided to fortify the ports and coasts and appoint captains in all the villas and parish churches of Vizcaya. In September 1642, Mr. Jacinto Hurtado de Tavisón, permanent mayor of the council of Güeñes, asked for the full incorporation of Güeñes into his manor. In 1704 there were 202 fires in Güeñes, emerging from a "fogueramiento" continuing throughout this year; this fire was started by the General Meeting of the manor on 28 June, in order to mark the divisions of the estate. From the outbreak of 1766, Güeñes suffered a long series of bad harvests, strong fiscal demands and diseases; this growth forced the regiment to suppress direct taxes between 1772 and 1775 and spread land among neighbours, so that they could increase their resources.
The Board of Merindades of 13 August 1799 had determined the full incorporation of the Encartaciones to the Lordship and had approved the conditions of such a union. On 25 May 1800, authorities of the council of Güeñes met in the City Hall. On February 2 a committee was appointed to be responsible for conferring with the authorities of the manor. On 14 July 1800, the General Meetings of Guernica ended up incorporating the Lordship of Güeñes. In the War of 1808 a Gallic detachment settled its headquarters in Sodupe, causing a major upheaval: the war absorbed a high percentage of local agricultural production as "rations" for troops; the Basque Nationalist Party has been governing Güeñes for the last 37 years. These are the elected mayors to date: 1979-1983 Pedro María Saracho Cortajarena 1983-1987 Manuel Jarrín Totorica 1987-1991 Jose María Larrucea Ulibarri 1991-2003 Guillermo Ibarra Vitorica 2003-2015 Koldo Artaraz Martín 2015-now Imanol Zuluaga Zamalloa Jacinto de Romarate,distinguished marine who defended Montevideo from the patriot siege in the American War of Independence.
Daniel Ruiz Bazán, football player of Athletic Club during the 1970s and 1980s. Born in Sodupe. Rosa Díez, pol
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Abadiño is a town located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, in the north of Spain, about 35 km from the provincial capital of Bilbao. The area of the municipality is about 36 km2 and according to the 2014 census, the population is 7504; the original name of the town was Abadiano Celayeta. Abadiño is located on the N-636 road a few kilometres to the southeast of Durango in the province of Biscay in northern Spain; the town is in a broad valley formed by the Urkiola Rivers. Livestock farming is practised here on the flat valley floor, to the south the land rises to form the Urkiola mountain range; the lower slopes are clad in natural woodland of oak and pine, the higher parts consist of limestone peaks with gullies and caves and are included in the Urkiola Natural Park. The town of Abadiño has a number of historic buildings; the Muntsaratz Tower is a good example of ninth century Renaissance architecture. The Sanctuary of San Antonio is a church inside the Urkiola Natural Park.
The Astola Manor House was one of the political and administrative centres of the Merindad de Durango region. It was purchased by the Merindad in 1576 and was subsequently used as a courthouse, as the residency of the local lieutenant, as the local gaol and as the district archive; the Gederiaga Complex includes the Chapel of San Salvador. This was an ancient "oath chapel" in which general assemblies of the authorities of Merindad de Durango valley were held. There are mountain bike riding and horse riding facilities near the town. There are the main one being that of the patron saint, Santa Domingo; this takes place on May 12th and the succeeding days and there is much music and dancing in the town. The Festival of San Blas takes place on February 3rd, at this event there is a livestock fair. Another festival, that of San Antonio, is celebrated on June 13th near his sanctuary in Urkiola. Athletic Bilbao players Ustaritz Aldekoaotalora and Ander Iturraspe were born in Abadiño. ABADIÑO in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Abadiño Official Website In Basque and Spanish
Amorebieta-Etxano known as Zornotza, is a town and municipality located in Biscay in the Basque Country, an Autonomous Community in northern Spain. At the time of the 2014 census, the population of the municipality was 18,579, with 16,907 inhabitants living in Amorebieta; the mayor is Andoni Agirrebeitia. Amorebieta-Etxano is an inland town in the comarca of Duranguesado in the province of Biscay in northern Spain, it is about 25 km east of Bilbao and close to the European route E70 which runs along the north coast of Spain. It is located in the valley of the River Ibaizabal. Amorebieta-Etxano has a rich historical heritage; the municipality of Amorebieta-Etxano came into being on 26 January 1951 as the result of a merger between Amorebieta and Etxano, two communities in the historic administrative district of Merindad de Zornotza. The other parts of the district were merged into the neighbouring municipality of Muxika; the new coat of arms shows the union between Etxano. In the 2014 census, Amorebieta had a population of 16,907 while that of Etxano was 221.
The town is divided into several districts. The church of Santa María de la Asunción is in the centre of Amorebieta on the banks of the Ibaizaba, it is a large Renaissance building started in 1555 and opened for worship in 1608 and is noted for its altarpiece. Another Renaissance church is the Parroquia de San Juan Bautista de Larrea; this dates back to 1647, in 1704 it was given to the Carmelite Order to found a convent. In San Antonio is the hermitage of San Miguel de Dudea, nearby is the Neoclassical López Palace. A branch of the international company Tecnalia Research & Innovation is located here in the Parque Empresarial Boroa where the firm employs 1500 people. Xabier Etxeita Jon Aurtenetxe Beñat Intxausti, a professional cyclist. Amorebieta Etxano, Official web page Amorebieta-Etxano in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa – Auñamendi Encyclopedia