1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Oakdale is a town located along the Emory River in Morgan County, United States. The population was 212 at the 2010 census, a decrease from the 2000 census figure of 244. Oakdale was known as "Honeycutt" after an early settler, Allen Honeycutt. In the 1880s, the Cincinnati Southern Railway, which connected Chattanooga and Cincinnati, was built through the area, intersecting the vast system of the East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad at Emory Gap near Harriman. Allen Honeycutt donated land to the railroad for construction of a switching point. In 1892, the name of the town was changed to "Oakdale" after a nearby mining operation; the stretch of the Cincinnati Southern from Oakdale to Somerset, involves steep grades that were too difficult for normal late-19th and early-20th century steam-powered locomotives, so a railyard was set up at Oakdale where trains were modified to allow them to make the trek north. By the early 1900s, Oakdale had developed into an important railroad town, with a bank, five general stores, a drugstore, a hardware store, three schools, two churches, six secret societies, a newspaper.
The railroad erected a large hotel, the Babahatchie Inn, in 1880, rebuilt it after it burned in 1892. In 1905, this hotel was converted into one of the nation's largest YMCA facilities, with 1,500 beds and its own library and clinic. Oakdale incorporated in 1887, though the state repealed its charter in 1895, it incorporated again in 1911. The advent of diesel locomotives, which could handle the steep grades without modifications, eliminated the need for the Oakdale railyard, the town declined in the mid-20th century. A park and tennis courts were built in the 1970s, a new SR 299 bridge over the Emory was completed in 1999. Oakdale is located at 35°59′6″N 84°33′25″W; the town is situated along the Emory River in a hilly area atop the Cumberland Plateau, is concentrated in two areas on each side of the river. The western side is located along a slope that descends from State Route 299 to a flood plain along the river, includes the town hall, fire department, several houses; the eastern side is located in a hollow just north of SR 299, includes a post office and several more houses.
State routes 328 intersect at the town's southern boundary. SR 328, which lies east of the river, connects the town with Harriman to the south and US 27 to the north. SR 299, which crosses the river, connects the town to I-40 and the Westel area in Cumberland County to the southwest. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.9 square miles, of which, 0.9 square miles of it is land and 0.04 square miles of it is water. The total area is 2.15% water. As of the census of 2000, there were 244 people, 92 households, 64 families residing in the town; the population density was 268.2 people per square mile. There were 103 housing units at an average density of 113.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 100.00% White, 0.00% African American, 0.00% Native American, 0.00% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 0.00% from other races, 0.00% from two or more races. 0.00% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 92 households out of which 31.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.9% were married couples living together, 14.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.4% were non-families.
28.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.25. In the town, the population was spread out with 28.3% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 29.5% from 25 to 44, 23.8% from 45 to 64, 9.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.4 males. The median income for a household in the town was $26,667, the median income for a family was $27,083. Males had a median income of $26,875 versus $21,875 for females; the per capita income for the town was $16,779. 11.6% of the population and 10.1% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 14.8% of those under the age of 18 and 3.7% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Media related to Oakdale, Tennessee at Wikimedia Commons Municipal Technical Advisory Service entry for Oakdale — information on local government and link to charter Oakdale, Tennessee — site maintained by the Oakdale High School Alumni Association
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Cumberland County, Tennessee
Cumberland County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 56,053, its county seat is Crossville. Cumberland County comprises the TN micropolitan statistical area. Cumberland County was formed in 1856 from parts of Bledsoe, Morgan, Rhea, Putnam and White. During the Civil War, the county was nearly evenly split between those supporting the Union and those supporting the Confederacy. In 1787, the North Carolina legislature ordered widening and improvements to Avery's Trace, the trail that ran from North Carolina through Knoxville and what is now Cumberland County to Nashville, Tennessee, they completed a project that built a wagon road. This improved travel, but still required a bone jarring trip; the road was muddy and crossed stone slabs so that it was only passable in some places on foot. Wagons could not get down the steep grade at Spencer's Mountain without locking brakes on all wheels and dragging a tree behind to slow the descent; the mountain top was described as "quite denuded of trees."
Cumberland County was the site of an important saltpeter mine. Saltpeter is the main ingredient of gunpowder and was obtained by leaching the earth from Grassy Cove Saltpeter Cave. Richard Green Waterhouse settled in this area in 1800. In his "Diary and Memoirs" he states that he went with William Kelly into Grassy cove and explored his saltpeter cave on October 7, 1812. According to Barr, Dicky Mathews began the manufacture of gunpowder at the cave in 1859, his son was killed by an explosion at Powder House Spring below the cave. This is an exceptionally large cave and evidence of mining extends far from the entrance; the leaching vats were located in a large room near the entrance, but this room is damp and the wooden vats have deteriorated to the point that they are difficult to recognize. During the 1930s, as part of the New Deal, the federal government's Subsistence Homesteads Division established the Cumberland Homesteads outside of Crossville; the program provided land and houses for 250 impoverished families.
Cumberland Mountain State Park was built as part of this project. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 685 square miles, of which 681 square miles is land and 3.8 square miles is water. It is the fourth-largest county in Tennessee by area; the county is located atop the Cumberland Plateau. The southernmost of the Cumberland Mountains, known locally as the Crab Orchard Mountains, rise in the northeastern part of the county; the county is home to a number of karst formations, most notably at Grassy Cove, a large, closed depression located southeast of Crossville. It is 3 miles wide, 5 miles long, over 1,000 feet deep. All of the water draining into Grassy Cove flows underground through a large cave system and emerges 4 miles southwest at the head of the Sequatchie Valley to form the Sequatchie River; the Tennessee Divide, where the watersheds of the Cumberland River and the Tennessee River meet, passes through the county. The source of the Caney Fork is located west of the divide, while the source of the Obed River is located east of the divide.
Obed Wild and Scenic River As of the census of 2010, there were 56,053 people, 23,791 households, 16,954 families residing in the county. The population density was 82.3 people per square mile. There were 28,151 housing units at an average density of 41.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 96.08% White, 0.3% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.1% from other races, 1% from two or more races. 2.3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. According to the 2014 American Community Survey the largest ancestry groups in Cumberland County were German, American and English. There were 23,791 households out of which 24.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.4% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 28.7% were non-families. 24.4% of all households were one-person, 11.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.72. The population was distributed by age as follows, with 19.1% under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 20% from 25 to 44, 28.4% from 45 to 64, 26% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 48.3 years. For every 100 females there were 95.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.9 males. According to the 2000 census, the median income for a household in the county was $30,901, the median income for a family was $35,928. Males had a median income of $26,559 versus $20,644 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,808. About 11.10% of families and 14.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.80% of those under age 18 and 9.30% of those age 65 or over. The Cumberland County School District oversees two high schools, nine elementary schools, one charter school. Schools include Stone Memorial High School. Crab Orchard Crossville Pleasant Hill Bowman Fairfield Glade Lake Tansi National Register of Historic Places listings in Cumberland County, Tennessee Official site Crossville-Cumberland County Chamber of Commerce Cumberland County Schools Cumberland County, TNGenWeb – genealogy resources Cumberland County at Curlie Uplands Records, 1847-2005, Tennessee State Library and Archives
Big South Fork of the Cumberland River
The Big South Fork of the Cumberland River is a 76-mile-long river in the U. S. states of Kentucky. It is a major drainage feature of the Cumberland Plateau, a major tributary of the Cumberland River system, the major feature of the Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area; the Big South Fork begins at the confluence of the New River and the Clear Fork in Scott County and flows northwest and north until ending at Lake Cumberland in McCreary County, near the town of Burnside. It is the third largest tributary of the Cumberland River, is free flowing for a distance of 37 miles before being affected by the headwaters of the lake; the terrain furthest upstream near the confluence is the most rugged, with reliefs of as much as 1,900 feet. This area is characterized by dendritic draining patterns and narrow gorges, with valleys strewn with large boulders fallen from cliffs above. Major formations include natural arches, chimneys and rock shelters; the terrain becomes less rugged as the river travels northward, with reliefs of between 200 feet and 300 feet.
Soil in the area is divided between two groups. The first is made up of Ramsey, Hartsells and Gilpin soils and is located adjacent to the river gorge; the second consists of Hartsells, Lonewood and Gilpin soils and is found on the nearby plateau. The river draws water from a drainage basin of Carboniferous rock in the Cumberland Plateau. Taken together, the Big South Fork and its tributaries drain between 1,123 square miles and 1,382 square miles, of which about 17% is covered by the associated National Recreation Area; the maximum recorded water flow on the Big South Fork was 93,200 cu ft/s, the minimum recorded was 11 cu ft/s, the river averages a flow of 1,760 cu ft/s. Around half of the Big South Fork's annual streamflow occurs during the months of January through March, the lowest streamflow occurs during September and October. Along the river basin, water drops from an maximum original elevation of 1,250 feet above sea level at Peter's Bridge on the Clear Fork, to 723 feet where the waters meet the Cumberland.
Between the confluence of the New River and Clear Fork, Leatherwood Ford the river has an average gradient across 6.2 miles of 20 feet per mile, a maximum gradient of 40 fpm. Major tributaries of the Big South Fork include: Water quality is good, but may be negatively affected by mine drainage, poor road quality, ground disturbances; the river contains about two times as much suspended and dissolved solids at a comparable river basin which does not have a history of mining. Both Tennessee and Kentucky have designated their respective portions of the Big South Fork as Outstanding National Resource Waters, cleanup and reclamation efforts by a number of organizations have been made, it is that the area surrounding the Big South Fork was frequented by Paleo-Indians, which continued up until early colonial times, although it is not clear that the area was permanently inhabited by prehistoric peoples. No intensive surveys of archaeological sites had been conducted as of 1977, when the Army Corps of Engineers published their comprehensive study of the area, although one study from the University of Tennessee along with one inter-agency governmental report had identified 21 total sites.
A 2005 report by the National Park Service however estimated a total of 10,000 archaeological sites, evenly split between pre and post European contact. The first permanent European settlement was in 1769 in modern day Wayne County, Kentucky. By 1798, the Treaty of Tellico had expelled the native Cherokee peoples from the river basin, although the land, not well suited to agriculture, was passed over by settlers until the founding of the failed colony of Rugby, Tennessee, by Thomas Hughes in the 1880s; the mining community of modern day Blue Heron, was established in 1937 along the banks of the Big South Fork, operated until 1962 when it was abandoned by the Stearns Coal and Lumber Company. The site was recreated in the 1980s and reopened as an outdoor museum; the Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area was established by the United States Congress as part of the Water Resources Development Act of 1974. According to the text of the act, the purpose of the establishment was for: conserving and interpreting an area containing unique cultural, geologic and wildlife, archeologic and recreational values, preserving as a natural, free-flowing stream the Big South Fork of the Cumberland River, major portions of its Clear Fork and New River stems, portions of their various tributaries for the benefit and enjoyment of present and future generations, the preservation of the natural integrity of the scenic gorges and valleys, the development of the area’s potential for healthful outdoor recreation.
The legislation granted authority for land acquisition to the Army Corps of Engineers, for managing the area to the United States Secretary of the Interior once established. Congress authorized final transfer of the land to the National Park Service in 1990, the official dedication of the park occurred on August 25, 1991; the Big South Fork and its watershed is home to a large variety of plant and animal species, has been continuously vegetated since before the last glacial period, ending 10,000 to 12,000 years ago. Habitats range from floodplains, to coves, as well as ravines, moist slopes, sandstone caprock; the area is home to between 68 and 81 species of fish, 23 species of mussels, up to 215 individual taxa of macro in
Scott County, Tennessee
Scott County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 22,228, its county seat is Huntsville. Scott County is known for having seceded from Tennessee in protest of the state's decision to join the Confederacy during the Civil War, subsequently forming The Free and Independent State of Scott. Scott County was formed in 1849 from portions of Anderson, Campbell and Morgan counties, it is named for U. S. Army General Winfield Scott, a hero of the Mexican War. During the Civil War, the county was a Southern Unionist bastion, voting against secession from the Union in Tennessee's June 1861 referendum by a higher percentage than in any other Tennessee county; this sentiment was encouraged by a June 4, 1861, speech in Huntsville by U. S. Senator Andrew Johnson. In 1861, the county assembly enacted a resolution seceding from the state of Tennessee, thus the Confederacy, forming the "Free and Independent State of Scott," known as the "State of Scott." The county remained a pro-Union enclave throughout the war.
The proclamation was repealed, over a hundred years by Scott County in 1986. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 533 square miles, of which 532 square miles is land and 0.9 square miles is water. The county is located in a hilly area atop the Cumberland Plateau. In the southwestern part of the county, the Clear Fork and New River converge to form the Big South Fork of the Cumberland River, a major tributary of the Cumberland River, the focus of a national river and recreation area. U. S. Route 27 is the county's primary north-south road. State Highway 63 connects Scott County with Campbell County to the east. State Highway 52 connects Scott County with the Fentress County area to the west. A portion of State Highway 297 connects Oneida with the Big South Fork Recreation Area. McCreary County, Kentucky Campbell County Anderson County Morgan County Fentress County Pickett County Wayne County, Kentucky Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area North Cumberland Wildlife Management Area Scott State Forest Twin Arches State Natural Area At the 2000 census, there were 21,127 people, 8,203 households and 6,012 families residing in the county.
The population density was 40 per square mile. There were 8,909 housing units at an average density of 17 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.53% White, 0.09% Black or African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.10% from other races, 0.91% from two or more races. 0.57% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 8,203 households of which 35.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.20% were married couples living together, 11.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.70% were non-families. 24.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.02. 26.10% of the population were under the age of 18, 10.30% from 18 to 24, 28.70% from 25 to 44, 23.60% from 45 to 64, 11.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 97.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.00 males.
The median household income was $24,093 and the median family income was $28,595. Males had a median income of $24,721 compared with $19,451 for females; the per capita income for the county was $12,927. About 17.60% of families and 20.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.10% of those under age 18 and 17.10% of those age 65 or over. Scott County, a part of the Cumberland Plateau, includes the majority of the Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area. Scott County School District Burchfield Elementary School; the Independent Herald The Scott County News Hive 105, WBNT-FM Huntsville Oneida Winfield Elgin Helenwood Robbins National Register of Historic Places listings in Scott County, Tennessee Official website Scott County Chamber of Commerce Scott County at Curlie Scott Co, TN Genealogy Scott county Landforms
A tornado is a rotating column of air, in contact with both the surface of the Earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. The windstorm is referred to as a twister, whirlwind or cyclone, although the word cyclone is used in meteorology to name a weather system with a low-pressure area in the center around which winds blow counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern. Tornadoes come in many shapes and sizes, they are visible in the form of a condensation funnel originating from the base of a cumulonimbus cloud, with a cloud of rotating debris and dust beneath it. Most tornadoes have wind speeds less than 110 miles per hour, are about 250 feet across, travel a few miles before dissipating; the most extreme tornadoes can attain wind speeds of more than 300 miles per hour, are more than two miles in diameter, stay on the ground for dozens of miles. Various types of tornadoes include the multiple vortex tornado and waterspout. Waterspouts are characterized by a spiraling funnel-shaped wind current, connecting to a large cumulus or cumulonimbus cloud.
They are classified as non-supercellular tornadoes that develop over bodies of water, but there is disagreement over whether to classify them as true tornadoes. These spiraling columns of air develop in tropical areas close to the equator and are less common at high latitudes. Other tornado-like phenomena that exist in nature include the gustnado, dust devil, fire whirl, steam devil. Tornadoes occur most in North America in central and southeastern regions of the United States colloquially known as tornado alley, as well as in Southern Africa and southeast Europe and southeastern Australia, New Zealand and adjacent eastern India, southeastern South America. Tornadoes can be detected before or as they occur through the use of Pulse-Doppler radar by recognizing patterns in velocity and reflectivity data, such as hook echoes or debris balls, as well as through the efforts of storm spotters. There are several scales for rating the strength of tornadoes; the Fujita scale rates tornadoes by damage caused and has been replaced in some countries by the updated Enhanced Fujita Scale.
An F0 or EF0 tornado, the weakest category, damages trees, but not substantial structures. An F5 or EF5 tornado, the strongest category, rips buildings off their foundations and can deform large skyscrapers; the similar TORRO scale ranges from a T0 for weak tornadoes to T11 for the most powerful known tornadoes. Doppler radar data and ground swirl patterns may be analyzed to determine intensity and assign a rating; the word tornado comes from the Spanish word tornado. Tornadoes opposite phenomena are the derechoes. A tornado is commonly referred to as a "twister", is sometimes referred to by the old-fashioned colloquial term cyclone; the term "cyclone" is used as a synonym for "tornado" in the often-aired 1939 film The Wizard of Oz. The term "twister" is used in that film, along with being the title of the 1996 tornado-related film Twister. A tornado is "a violently rotating column of air, in contact with the ground, either pendant from a cumuliform cloud or underneath a cumuliform cloud, visible as a funnel cloud".
For a vortex to be classified as a tornado, it must be in contact with both the ground and the cloud base. Scientists have not yet created a complete definition of the word. Tornado refers to the vortex of wind, not the condensation cloud. A tornado is not visible; this results in the formation of a visible funnel condensation funnel. There is some disagreement over the definition of a condensation funnel. According to the Glossary of Meteorology, a funnel cloud is any rotating cloud pendant from a cumulus or cumulonimbus, thus most tornadoes are included under this definition. Among many meteorologists, the'funnel cloud' term is defined as a rotating cloud, not associated with strong winds at the surface, condensation funnel is a broad term for any rotating cloud below a cumuliform cloud. Tornadoes begin as funnel clouds with no associated strong winds at the surface, not all funnel clouds evolve into tornadoes. Most tornadoes produce strong winds at the surface while the visible funnel is still above the ground, so it is difficult to discern the difference between a funnel cloud and a tornado from a distance.
A single storm will produce more than one tornado, either or in succession. Multiple tornadoes produced by the same storm cell are referred to as a "tornado family". Several tornadoes are sometimes spawned from the same large-scale storm system. If there is no break in activity, this is considered a tornado outbreak. A period of several successive days with tornado outbreaks in the same general area is a tornado outbreak sequence called an extended tornado outbreak. Most tornadoes take on the appearance of a narrow funnel, a few hundred yards across, with a small cloud of debris near the ground. Tornadoes may