California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Universal Pictures is an American film studio owned by Comcast through the Universal Filmed Entertainment Group division of its wholly owned subsidiary NBCUniversal. Founded in 1912 by Carl Laemmle, Mark Dintenfass, Charles O. Baumann, Adam Kessel, Pat Powers, William Swanson, David Horsley, Robert H. Cochrane, Jules Brulatour, it is the oldest surviving film studio in the United States, the world's fifth oldest after Gaumont, Pathé, Nordisk Film, the oldest member of Hollywood's "Big Five" studios in terms of the overall film market, its studios are located in Universal City and its corporate offices are located in New York City. Universal Pictures is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America, was one of the "Little Three" majors during Hollywood's golden age. Universal Studios was founded by Carl Laemmle, Mark Dintenfass, Charles O. Baumann, Adam Kessel, Pat Powers, William Swanson, David Horsley, Robert H. Cochrane and Jules Brulatour. One story has Laemmle watching a box office for hours, counting patrons and calculating the day's takings.
Within weeks of his Chicago trip, Laemmle gave up dry goods to buy the first several nickelodeons. For Laemmle and other such entrepreneurs, the creation in 1908 of the Edison-backed Motion Picture Trust meant that exhibitors were expected to pay fees for Trust-produced films they showed. Based on the Latham Loop used in cameras and projectors, along with other patents, the Trust collected fees on all aspects of movie production and exhibition, attempted to enforce a monopoly on distribution. Soon and other disgruntled nickelodeon owners decided to avoid paying Edison by producing their own pictures. In June 1909, Laemmle started the Yankee Film Company with partners Abe Julius Stern; that company evolved into the Independent Moving Pictures Company, with studios in Fort Lee, New Jersey, where many early films in America's first motion picture industry were produced in the early 20th century. Laemmle broke with Edison's custom of refusing to give screen credits to performers. By naming the movie stars, he attracted many of the leading players of the time, contributing to the creation of the star system.
In 1910, he promoted Florence Lawrence known as "The Biograph Girl", actor King Baggot, in what may be the first instance of a studio using stars in its marketing. The Universal Film Manufacturing Company was incorporated in New York on April 30, 1912. Laemmle, who emerged as president in July 1912, was the primary figure in the partnership with Dintenfass, Kessel, Swanson and Brulatour. All would be bought out by Laemmle; the new Universal studio was a vertically integrated company, with movie production and exhibition venues all linked in the same corporate entity, the central element of the Studio system era. Following the westward trend of the industry, by the end of 1912 the company was focusing its production efforts in the Hollywood area. On March 15, 1915, Laemmle opened the world's largest motion picture production facility, Universal City Studios, on a 230-acre converted farm just over the Cahuenga Pass from Hollywood. Studio management became the third facet of Universal's operations, with the studio incorporated as a distinct subsidiary organization.
Unlike other movie moguls, Laemmle opened his studio to tourists. Universal became the largest studio in Hollywood, remained so for a decade. However, it sought an audience in small towns, producing inexpensive melodramas and serials. In its early years Universal released three brands of feature films—Red Feather, low-budget programmers. Directors included Jack Conway, John Ford, Rex Ingram, Robert Z. Leonard, George Marshall and Lois Weber, one of the few women directing films in Hollywood. Despite Laemmle's role as an innovator, he was an cautious studio chief. Unlike rivals Adolph Zukor, William Fox, Marcus Loew, Laemmle chose not to develop a theater chain, he financed all of his own films, refusing to take on debt. This policy nearly bankrupted the studio when actor-director Erich von Stroheim insisted on excessively lavish production values for his films Blind Husbands and Foolish Wives, but Universal shrewdly gained a return on some of the expenditure by launching a sensational ad campaign that attracted moviegoers.
Character actor Lon Chaney became a drawing card for Universal in the 1920s, appearing in dramas. His two biggest hits for Universal were The Phantom of the Opera. During this period Laemmle entrusted most of the production policy decisions to Irving Thalberg. Thalberg had been Laemmle's personal secretary, Laemmle was impressed by his cogent observations of how efficiently the studio could be operated. Promoted to studio chief, Thalberg was giving Universal's product a touch of class, but MGM's head of production Louis B. Mayer lured Thalberg away from Universal with a promise of better pay. Without his guidance Universal became a second-tier studio, would remain so for several decades. In 1926, Universal opened a production unit in Germany, Deutsche Universal-Film AG, under the direction of Joe Pasternak; this unit produced three to four films per year until 1936, migrating to Hungary and Austria in the face of Hitler's increasing domination of central Europe. With the advent of sound, these productions were made in the German language or Hungarian or Polish.
In the U. S. Universal Pictures did not distribute any of this subsidiary's films, but at least some of them were exhibited through othe
Los Angeles County, California
Los Angeles County the County of Los Angeles, in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of the U. S. state of California, is the most populous county in the United States, with more than 10 million inhabitants as of 2017. As such, it is the largest non–state level government entity in the United States, its population is larger than that of 41 individual U. S. states. It is the third-largest metropolitan economy in the world, with a Nominal GDP of over $700 billion—larger than the GDPs of Belgium and Taiwan, it has 88 incorporated cities and many unincorporated areas and, at 4,083 square miles, it is larger than the combined areas of Delaware and Rhode Island. The county is home to more than one-quarter of California residents and is one of the most ethnically diverse counties in the U. S, its county seat, Los Angeles, is California's most populous city and the nation's second largest city with about 4 million people. Los Angeles County is one of the original counties of California, created at the time of statehood in 1850.
The county included parts of what are now Kern, San Bernardino, Inyo, Tulare and Orange counties. In 1851 and 1852, Los Angeles County stretched from the coast to the border of Nevada; as the population increased, sections were split off to organize San Bernardino County in 1853, Kern County in 1866, Orange County in 1889. Prior to the 1870s, Los Angeles County was divided into townships, many of which were amalgamations of one or more old ranchos, they were: Azusa El Monte Azusa and El Monte Townships were merged for the 1870 census. City of Los Angeles Los Angeles Township Los Nietos San Jose San Gabriel Santa Ana. For the 1870 census, Annaheim district was enumerated separately. San Juan. San Pedro. Tejon When Kern County was formed, the portion of the township remaining in Los Angeles County became Soledad Township According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,751 square miles, of which 4,058 square miles is land and 693 square miles is water. Los Angeles County borders 70 miles of coast on the Pacific Ocean and encompasses mountain ranges, forests, lakes and desert.
The Los Angeles River, Rio Hondo, the San Gabriel River and the Santa Clara River flow in Los Angeles County, while the primary mountain ranges are the Santa Monica Mountains and the San Gabriel Mountains. The western extent of the Mojave Desert begins in the Antelope Valley, in the northeastern part of the county. Most of the population of Los Angeles County is located in the south and southwest, with major population centers in the Los Angeles Basin, San Fernando Valley and San Gabriel Valley. Other population centers are found in the Santa Clarita Valley, Pomona Valley, Crescenta Valley and Antelope Valley; the county is divided west-to-east by the San Gabriel Mountains, which are part of the Transverse Ranges of southern California, are contained within the Angeles National Forest. Most of the county's highest peaks are in the San Gabriel Mountains, including Mount San Antonio 10,068 feet ) at the Los Angeles-San Bernardino county lines, Mount Baden-Powell 9,399 feet, Mount Burnham 8,997 feet and Mount Wilson 5,710 feet.
Several lower mountains are in the northern and southwestern parts of the county, including the San Emigdio Mountains, the southernmost part of Tehachapi Mountains and the Sierra Pelona Mountains. Los Angeles County includes San Clemente Island and Santa Catalina Island, which are part of the Channel Islands archipelago off the Pacific Coast. East: Eastside, San Gabriel Valley, portions of the Pomona Valley West: Westside, Beach Cities South: South Bay, South Los Angeles, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Gateway Cities, Los Angeles Harbor Region North: San Fernando Valley, Crescenta Valley, portions of the Conejo Valley, portions of the Antelope Valley and Santa Clarita Valley Central: Downtown Los Angeles, Mid-Wilshire, Northeast Los Angeles Angeles National Forest Los Padres National Forest Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area Los Angeles County had a population of 9,818,605 in the 2010 United States Census; the racial makeup of Los Angeles County was 4,936,599 White, 1,346,865 Asian, 856,874 African American, 72,828 Native A
The Last of the Mohicans (1992 film)
The Last of the Mohicans is a 1992 American epic historical drama film set in 1757 during the French and Indian War. It was written and directed by Michael Mann and was based on James Fenimore Cooper's 1826 novel The Last of the Mohicans: A Narrative of 1757 and George B. Seitz's 1936 film adaptation, owing more to the film than the novel; the film stars Daniel Day-Lewis, Madeleine Stowe, Jodhi May, with Russell Means, Wes Studi, Eric Schweig, Steven Waddington in supporting roles. The soundtrack features music by Trevor Jones and Randy Edelman, the song "I Will Find You" by Clannad; the main theme of the film is taken from the tune "The Gael" by Scottish singer-songwriter Dougie MacLean. Released on September 25, 1992 in the United States, The Last of the Mohicans was met with positive reviews and commercial success during its box-office run; the story takes place in 1757, during the French and Indian War in the Adirondack Mountains, in the British colony of New York. British Army Major Duncan Heyward arrives in Albany.
He has been sent to serve under the commander of Fort William Henry. Heyward is given the task of escorting the colonel's two daughters and Alice, to their father, he in love with Cora. He proposes to her before they leave. Major Heyward, the two women, a troop of British soldiers march through a rugged countryside, guided by Magua, a Huron warrior. Magua leads the party into an ambush. Heyward and the women are rescued by the timely intervention of the Mohican chief Chingachgook, his son Uncas, his white, adopted son "Hawkeye", who kill all of the ambushers except Magua, who escapes; the rescuers agree to take Heyward to the fort. During the fight, Hawkeye noticed that Magua asks Duncan if he knows why. During the trek and Hawkeye are attracted to each other, as are Uncas and Alice; when the party nears the fort, they find it under siege by their Huron allies. The party manages to sneak in and are greeted by Colonel Munro, who asks Major Heyward about the requested needed reinforcements. While there and Hawkeye share a passionate kiss, Heyward becomes jealous.
In response, Cora tells him that she will not marry him. When Munro refuses to allow the militiamen to sneak away to defend their own families and homes, as he had earlier promised, Hawkeye arranges it anyway, he stays, is condemned to be hanged for sedition. Before that can happen, during a parley, French general Louis-Joseph de Montcalm shows Munro an intercepted message which states that no reinforcements have been sent. Montcalm offers keeping their weapons. Munro has little choice. However, Magua, a French ally, is furious at this arrangement, he harbors great hatred for Munro, blaming him for past wrongs done to his family. The following day, Colonel Munro, his soldiers, their women and children leave the fort. Magua and his Huron warriors ambush them. During the battle, Magua kills Munro by cutting out his heart. Hawkeye and Chingachgook fight their way out and lead Cora and Heyward to temporary safety. However, Magua captures the major and the women. Magua addresses its sachem, he is interrupted by Hawkeye.
The sachem rules. To redress the wrongs done to Magua, Alice is given to him, Cora is to be burned alive. Hawkeye, for his great bravery, is allowed to go in peace. Hawkeye tells Heyward, serving as translator, to offer his own life for Cora's. Instead, Heyward takes Cora's place himself. Once Hawkeye and Cora are safely away, Hawkeye mercifully shoots Heyward as he is being burned at the stake. Chingachgook and Hawkeye set out after Magua's party to free Alice. Uncas races ahead and slays several Huron warriors before engaging Magua in personal combat, only to have his throat slit and be thrown off the cliff. Alice chooses to commit suicide by stepping off the cliff to her death rather than go with the beckoning Magua. Hawkeye and Chingachgook slay several more of Magua's men. Hawkeye holds the remaining Hurons at bay with his musket while Chingachgook duels and kills Magua, avenging his son. In the final scene and Cora watch as Chingachgook prays to the Great Spirit to receive Uncas, proclaiming himself "the last of the Mohicans."
Much care was taken with recreating accurate props. American Bladesmith Society master bladesmith Daniel Winkler made the tomahawks used in the film and knifemaker Randall King made the knives. Wayne Watson is the maker of Hawkeye's "Killdeer" rifle used in the film; the gunstock war club made for Chingachgook was created by Jim Yellow Eagle. Magua's tomahawk was made by Fred A. Mitchell of Odin Fabrication. Costumes were designed by multiple Academy Award winner James Acheson, but he left the film and had his name removed because of artistic differences with Mann. Designer Elsa Zamparelli was brought in to finish. Despite the film taking place in upstate New York, according to the film credits, it was filmed in the Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina. Locations used include Chimney Rock Park and The Biltmore Estate; some of the waterfalls that were used in the movie include Hooker Falls, Triple Falls, Bridal Veil Falls, High Falls, all located in the DuPont State Recreational Forest. Another of these falls was Linville Falls, in the mountains of North Carolina.
Scenes of Albany were shot in NC at The Manor on Charlotte Street. The film was released theatrically in September 25, 1992 at a length of 112
Nightbreed is a 1990 American dark fantasy horror film written and directed by Clive Barker, based on his 1988 novella Cabal, starring Craig Sheffer, Anne Bobby, David Cronenberg, Charles Haid, Hugh Quarshie, Doug Bradley. The film features an unstable mental patient, falsely led to believe by his doctor that he is a serial killer. Tracked down by the police, his doctor, his girlfriend Lori, Boone finds refuge in an abandoned cemetery called Midian among a "tribe" of monsters and outcasts known as the "Nightbreed" where they hide from humanity. At the time of its release, the film was a critical failure. In several interviews, Barker protested that the film company tried to sell it as a standard slasher film, that the powers-that-be had no real working knowledge of Nightbreed's story. Since its initial theatrical release, Nightbreed has achieved cult status. Over time, Barker expressed disappointment with the final cut approved by the studio and always longed for the recovery of the reels so the film might be re-edited.
In 2014 a director's cut was released by Scream Factory. Aaron Boone dreams of a city where monsters are accepted. At the request of girlfriend Lori Winston, Boone is seeing psychotherapist Dr. Phillip Decker, who convinces Boone that he committed a series of murders. Decker is a masked serial killer who has murdered several families. Decker drugs Boone with LSD disguised as lithium and orders Boone to turn himself in. Before he can do so, Boone is taken to a hospital. There, Boone overhears the rants of Narcisse, a insane man who seeks to enter Midian. Convinced that Boone is there to test him, Narcisse gives Boone directions to the hidden city before tearing the skin off his face in order to show his "true" face, he is subdued by hospital staff, Boone leaves. Boone makes his way to a city beneath a massive graveyard in the middle of nowhere, he encounters supernatural creatures Peloquin. Kinski says they should bring him below. Boone claims to be a murderer. Boone escapes, only to encounter a squad of police officers led by Decker.
Boone is gunned down after Decker tries to get him to turn himself in and yells that Boone has a gun. Due to Peloquin's bite, Boone returns to life in the morgue; when he returns to Midian, he finds Narcisse there and is inducted into their society by the Nightbreed's leader. In an initiation ceremony, Boon's touched by the blood of Baphomet. Seeking to understand why Boone left her, Lori investigates Midian, she befriends a woman named Sheryl Anne, drives to the cemetery with her. Leaving Sheryl Anne at the car, Lori explores the cemetery, where she finds a dying wolf-like creature. A woman named Rachel pleads from the shadows for Lori to take it out of the sunlight. Once in the shadows, it transforms into a little girl. Lori is rebuffed by Lylesburg and scared off by Peloquin. While leaving the cemetery, Lori discovers her killer, Decker. Decker attempts to use Lori to draw Boone out of hiding. Boone rescues Lori, Decker learns Boone is unable to be killed due to his transformation. Decker escapes and Boone takes Lori into Midian.
Rachel explains to Lori that the monsters of folklore were peaceful beings who were hunted to near-extinction by humans. Boone and Lori are banished from Midian by Lylesburg. Decker learns how to kill the Nightbreed, murders the residents of the hotel where Boone and Lori are staying; when Boone discovers the crime scene, he is unable to control his thirst for blood and begins drinking. The police take him into custody. At Decker's urging, the police form a militia led by Police Captain Eigerman. A drunken priest named. Lori and Narcisse rescue Boone, the four return to Midian where Boone convinces the Nightbreed to stand and fight. During the battle, Ashberry learns there are children amongst the Nightbreed; when he tries halting the attack, he is beaten by Eigerman. Ashberry swears allegiance to it; when he is splashed by its blood, he is transformed. Boone learns from Lylesburg. Boone argues to release the Berserkers, a monstrous feral breed that were imprisoned due to their insanity; when Lylesburg is killed before he can open the cages, Boone releases them and the Beserkers turn the tide of battle.
Decker is killed. When Boone faces Baphomet, Baphomet says that Boone has caused the end of Midian, foretold. Baphomet renames him Cabal. Boone leaves Midian with Lori and meets with the remaining Nightbreed in a barn where he says his goodbyes to Narcisse and promises to find a place where they will be safe. In the ruins of Midian, Ashberry stands in front of Decker's corpse and states that he wants vengeance on Baphomet and the Breed; when he presses Baphomet's blood to Decker's wound, Decker springs back to life with a scream as Ashberry hollers "Hallelujah". In the alternative ending used in The Cabal Cut and Director's Cut of the film, the Nightbreed await Boone in a barn whilst Boone says his goodbyes to Lori, as he must find a new home for the Nightbreed. Boone promises to return to her, but fearing she will become old whilst Boone will retain his youth and immortality, Lori stabs herself. Boone resurrects Lori as a Nightbreed. Narcisse is ki
William Blake Crump, better known by his stage name Blake Edwards, was an American filmmaker. Edwards began his career in the 1940s as an actor, but he soon began writing screenplays and radio scripts before turning to producing and directing in television and films, his best-known films include Breakfast at Tiffany's, Days of Wine and Roses, 10, Victor/Victoria, the hugely successful Pink Panther film series with British actor Peter Sellers. Thought of as a director of comedies, he directed several drama and detective films. Late in his career, he transitioned to writing and directing for theater. In 2004, he received an Honorary Academy Award in recognition of his writing and producing an extraordinary body of work for the screen. Born William Blake Crump July 26, 1922, in Tulsa, Oklahoma, he was the son of Donald and Lillian Crump, his father left the family before he was born. His mother married again, to Jack McEdwards. McEdwards was the son of J. Gordon Edwards, a director of silent movies, in 1925, he moved the family to Los Angeles and became a film production manager.
In an interview with The Village Voice in 1971, Blake Edwards said that he had "always felt alienated, estranged from my own father, Jack McEdwards". After attending grammar and high school in Los Angeles, Blake began taking jobs as an actor during World War II. Edwards describes this period: I worked with the best directors – Ford, Preminger – and learned a lot from them, but I wasn't a cooperative actor. I was a smart-assed kid. Maybe then I was indicating that I wanted to give, not take, direction. Edwards served in the United States Coast Guard during World War II, where he suffered a severe back injury, which left him in pain for years afterwards. Edwards' debut as a director came in 1952 on the television program Four Star Playhouse. In the 1954–1955 television season, Edwards joined with Richard Quine to create Mickey Rooney's first television series, The Mickey Rooney Show: Hey, Mulligan, a sitcom about a young studio page trying to become a serious actor. Edwards's hard-boiled private detective scripts for Richard Diamond, Private Detective became NBC's answer to Sam Spade and Philip Marlowe, reflecting Edwards's unique humor.
Edwards created and directed the 1959 TV series Peter Gunn, which starred Craig Stevens, with music by Henry Mancini. In the same year, Edwards produced, with Mancini's musical theme, Mr. Lucky, an adventure series on CBS starring John Vivyan and Ross Martin. Mancini's association with Edwards continued in his film work contributing to their success. Edwards's most popular films were comedies, the melodrama Days of Wine and Roses being a notable exception, his most dynamic and successful collaboration was with Peter Sellers in six of the movies in the Pink Panther series. Edwards directed the comedy film 10 with Dudley Moore and Bo Derek. Operation Petticoat was Edwards' first big-budget movie as a director; the film, which starred Tony Curtis and Cary Grant and was produced by Grant's own production company, Granart Company, became the "greatest box-office success of the decade for Universal " and made Edwards a recognized director. Breakfast at Tiffany's, based on the novel by Truman Capote, is credited with establishing him as a "cult figure" with many critics.
Andrew Sarris called it the "directorial surprise of 1961", it became a "romantic touchstone" for college students in the early 1960s. Days of Wine And Roses, a dark psychological film about the effects of alcoholism on a happy marriage, starred Jack Lemmon and Lee Remick, it has been described as "perhaps the most unsparing tract against drink that Hollywood has yet produced, more pessimistic than Billy Wilder's The Lost Weekend". The film gave another major boost to Edwards's reputation as an important director. Darling Lili star Julie Andrews married Edwards in 1969. While a few critics such as George Morris thought the film a major picture, the film failed badly with most critics and at the box office. At a cost of $17 million to make, few people went to see it, the few who did were unimpressed, it brought Paramount Pictures to "the verge of financial collapse", became an example of "self-indulgent extravagance" in filmmaking "that was ruining Hollywood". Edwards is best known for directing most of the comedy film series The Pink Panther, the majority of installments starring Peter Sellers as the inept Inspector Clouseau.
The relationship between the director and the lead actor was considered a fruitful, yet complicated one, with many disagreements during production. At various times in their film relationship, "he more than once swore off Sellers" as too hard to direct. However, in his years, he admitted that working with Sellers was irresistible: We clicked on comedy and we were lucky we found each other because we both had so much respect for it. We had an ability to come up with funny things and great situations that had to be explored, but in that exploration there would times be disagreement. But I couldn't resist those moments, and if you ask me who contributed most to those things, it couldn't have happened unless both of us were involved though it wasn't always happy. Five of those films involved Sellers in original material.
Irwin Lawrence "Paul" Mazursky was an American film director and actor. Known for his dramatic comedies that dealt with modern social issues, he was nominated for five Academy Awards: three times for Best Original Screenplay, once for Best Adapted Screenplay, once for Best Picture for An Unmarried Woman, his other films include Bob & Carol & Ted & Alice, Blume in Love and Tonto, Moscow on the Hudson, Down and Out in Beverly Hills. He was born in to a Jewish family in Brooklyn, New York, the son of Jean, a piano player for dance classes, David Mazursky, a laborer. Mazursky's grandfather was an immigrant from Ukraine. Mazursky graduated from Brooklyn College in 1951, he was an atheist. Mazursky was married to Betsy Mazursky from 1953 until his death. Mazursky began his film career as an actor in Stanley Kubrick's first feature and Desire. Kubrick asked for verification of his name for the credits and at that point he decided on a first-name change to Paul. Two years he appeared in a featured position as one of a classroom of teenagers with issues towards authority in The Blackboard Jungle.
His acting career continued for several decades, starting with parts in episodes of television series such as The Twilight Zone and The Rifleman. Mazursky appeared in supporting cameos in most of his own films. In Moon over Parador, with the Rio Opera House available for only three days of shooting, Mazursky cast himself as a dictator's mother when Judith Malina was unavailable, playing the character in drag. Mazursky played supporting roles in The Other Side of the Wind, A Star Is Born, History of the World Part I, Into the Night, Man Trouble, Carlito's Way, Love Affair, 2 Days in the Valley, Miami Rhapsody, Crazy in Alabama, I Want Someone to Eat Cheese With, he performed the voice of the Psychologist in Antz. In years, Mazursky had a small part as "Sunshine" the poker dealer in The Sopranos, he appeared in five episodes of season 4 of Curb Your Enthusiasm as Mel Brooks' associate Norm, a role that he reprised in a season 7 episode. Soon after starting his acting career, Mazursky became a writer and worked on The Danny Kaye Show in 1963.
In 1965, he collaborated with Larry Tucker in crafting the script of the original pilot of The Monkees television series, in which they both appeared in cameos. Mazursky's debut as a film screenplay writer was the Peter Sellers comedy I Love You, Alice B. Toklas; the following year he directed his first film Bob & Carol & Ted & Alice, which proved to be a major critical and commercial success. The film earned Mazursky his first Oscar nomination, his career behind the camera continued for the next two decades as he wrote and directed a prolific string of quirky and critically popular films. His most successful films were contemporary dramatic comedies and include the Academy Award-winning Harry and Tonto, the Best Picture-nominated An Unmarried Woman, popular hits such as Moscow on the Hudson and Down and Out in Beverly Hills. In light of his comedies that tackled a number of modern social subjects, The Hollywood Reporter has stated that "from the late'60s through the'80s, seemed to channel the zeitgeist..." and Variety has stated that "his oeuvre smacks of cultural significance."Other films made by Mazursky during this time include the Hollywood satire Alex in Wonderland, the cutting Los Angeles relationship comedy Blume in Love, the semi-autobiographical coming of age story Next Stop, Greenwich Village, the New York City-based Jules and Jim homage Willie & Phil, the contemporary Shakespeare comedy Tempest, the Caribbean-set political farce Moon over Parador, the acclaimed Isaac Bashevis Singer adaptation Enemies, a Love Story.
Film critic Roger Ebert was a particular fan of Mazursky's work, giving six of his films the optimal four stars in his reviews. In 1986, Ebert stated that "Mazursky has a way of making comedies that are more intelligent and relevant than most of the serious films around."Mazursky experienced less success in the 1990s, beginning with Scenes from a Mall, starring Woody Allen and Bette Midler. Following his filmmaking satire The Pickle, his last writing credit, Mazursky worked only sporadically as a director on such films as Faithful and Coast to Coast, his final film was the independent documentary Yippee. Every film written and directed by Mazursky used New York City or Los Angeles as one of its settings, his films received a total of twelve Academy Award nominations, with one win, nineteen Golden Globe nominations, with two wins. In his autobiography Show Me the Magic, Mazursky recounts his experiences in filmmaking and with several well-known screen personalities including Peter Sellers. Mazursky appeared as himself in a number of documentaries on film, including A Decade Under the Influence, New York at the Movies and Screenwriters: Words Into Image.
Late in his life, Mazursky was developing a Broadway musical adaptation of his 1988 film Moon Over Parador. From 2011 until his death in 2014, Mazursky served as a film critic for Vanity Fair. Mazursky received five Academy Award nominations, four for his screenplay writing on Bob & Carol & Ted & Alice and Tonto, An Unmarried Woman and Enemies, a Love Story, once as producer of An Unmarried Woman, he was twice nominated for a