The Daily Planet is a fictional broadsheet newspaper appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics in association with Superman. The newspaper was first mentioned in Action Comics #23; the Daily Planet building's most distinguishing and famous feature is the enormous globe that sits on top of the building. The newspaper is based in the fictional city of Metropolis, employs Clark Kent, Lois Lane, Jimmy Olsen, with Perry White as its editor-in-chief; the building's original features appear to be based upon the Old Toronto Star Building, where Superman co-creator Joe Shuster was a newsboy when the Toronto Star was still called the Daily Star. Shuster has claimed. However, over the years, Metropolis has served as a fictional analogue to New York City; when Superman first appeared in comics, his alter ego Clark Kent worked for a newspaper named the Daily Star, under editor George Taylor. Superman co-creator Joe Shuster named the Daily Star after the Toronto Daily Star newspaper in Toronto, the newspaper that Shuster's parents received and for which Shuster had worked as a newsboy.
It was not until years that the fictional paper became the Daily Planet. While choosing a name for the fictitious newspaper, consideration was given to combining the names of The Globe and Mail and the Daily Star to become The Daily Globe, but when the comic strip appeared, the newspaper's name was permanently made the Daily Planet to avoid a name conflict with real newspapers. In Superman #5, the publisher of the Daily Planet is shown to be Burt Mason, a man, determined to print the truth when corrupt politician Alex Evell threatens him. In Superman #6, Mason gives free printing equipment to The Gateston Gazette after its editor, Jim Tirrell, is killed and its equipment is destroyed by racketeers that Tirrell insisted on reporting; when DC made use of its multiverse means of continuity tracking between the early 1960s and mid-1980s, it was declared that the Daily Star was the newspaper's name in the Golden Age or "Earth-Two" versions of Clark Kent, Lois Lane and Jimmy Olsen, while the Daily Planet was used in the Silver Age or "Earth-One" versions.
The Clark Kent of Earth-Two became the editor-in-chief of the Daily Star, something his Earth-One counterpart did not achieve. In the Silver and Bronze Age universes, Clark's first contact with the Daily Planet came when reporter Perry White came to Smallville to write a story about Superboy, wound up getting an interview where the Boy of Steel first revealed his extraterrestrial origins; the story resulted in Perry earning a Pulitzer Prize. During Clark Kent's years in college, Perry White was promoted to editor-in-chief upon the retirement of the Daily Planet's previous editor, the Earth-One version of George Taylor. After graduating from Metropolis University with a degree in journalism, Clark Kent went to work at the Planet, met Lois Lane. After Clark was hired, Jimmy Olsen joined the paper's staff. In 1971, the Daily Planet was purchased by president of the Galaxy Broadcasting System. Edge proceeded to integrate Metropolis television station WGBS-TV's studios into the Daily Planet building, named Clark Kent as the anchor for the WGBS evening news.
Clark's former schoolmate from Smallville Lana Lang joined Clark as a co-anchor. After the 1985–1986 miniseries Crisis on Infinite Earths, many of these elements, including Morgan Edge buying the Daily Planet, were retroactively changed or eliminated from the Superman canon. In the post-Crisis comics' canon, years before Clark or Lois began working for the paper, Lex Luthor owned the Daily Planet; when Luthor, deciding to sell the paper, began taking bids for the Planet, Perry White convinced an international conglomerate, TransNational Enterprises, to buy the paper. They agreed to this venture with only one stipulation: that Perry White would become editor-in-chief. White had served as the Planet editor-in-chief since, barring the few times he was absent. During those times people such as Sam Foswell and Clark Kent have looked after the paper. Franklin Stern, an old friend of White's, became the Daily Planet's publisher; the Planet saw its share of rough times during White's tenure. For example, it had many violent worker strikes.
The building itself, along with most of the city, was destroyed during the "Fall of Metropolis" storyline. The Planet building sustained heavy damages after the villain Doomsday's rampage. Franklin Stern decided to put the paper up for sale. Lex Luthor, disliking the heavy criticism of himself and his company that the Planet became noted for, purchased the Daily Planet and subsequently closed the paper down. Luthor fired every employee of the newspaper except for four people: Simone D'Neige, Dirk Armstrong, Jimmy Olsen, Lois Lane; as a final insult, Luthor saw to it that the Planet globe was unceremoniously dumped in the Metropolis landfill. In the Planet's place emerged "LexCom," a news-oriented Internet website that catered to Luthor's views of "quality journalism." After Lois Lane made a deal with Luthor where, in exchange for him returning the Planet to Perry, she would kill one story of his choosing with no questions asked, Luthor sold the Daily Planet to Perry White for the token sum of one dollar.
The paper was reinstated, rehiring all of its old staff. Sometime ownership of the Planet fell into the hands
Superman is a fictional character, a superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Created by writer Jerry Siegel and artist Joe Shuster, the character first appeared in Action Comics #1 on April 18, 1938 which marked the rise of the Golden Age of Comic Books. Since his inception, Superman has been depicted as an hero that that originated the planet Krypton and named Kal-El; as a baby, he was sent to Earth in a small spaceship by his biological family, Jor-El and Lara, moments before Krypton was destroyed in a natural cataclysm. His ship landed in the American countryside. Clark displayed various superhuman abilities from the start as a young boy, such as incredible strength and impervious skin, his foster parents advised him to use his abilities for the benefit of humanity, he decided to fight crime as a vigilante. To protect his privacy, he changes into a colorful costume and uses the alias "Superman" when fighting crime. Clark Kent resides in the fictional American city of Metropolis in his adult life, where he works as a journalist for the Daily Planet disguising himself among the people there.
Depicted supporting characters of Superman are depicted as residing in Metropolis such as prominent love interest of Superman, Lois Lane, good friend of Superman, Jimmy Olsen, Daily Planet chief editor Perry White. He has many foes such as the genius inventor Lex Luthor, he is a friend of many other superheroes such as Batman and Wonder Woman. Although Superman was not the first superhero character, he popularized the superhero genre and defined its conventions, he remains the best selling superhero in comic books of all time and endured as one of the most lucrative franchises outside of comic books. He is regarded as the greatest superhero / comic book character of all time. Superman was created by Joe Shuster. A duo who met met in 1932 in a high school in Cleveland and bonded over their mutual love of fiction. Siegel aspired to become a writer and Shuster aspired to become an illustrator. Siegel wrote amateur science fiction stories, which he self-published a magazine called Science Fiction: The Advance Guard of Future Civilization.
His friend Shuster provided illustrations for his work. In January 1933, Siegel published a short story in his magazine titled "The Reign of the Superman"; the titular character is a vagrant named Bill Dunn, tricked by an evil scientist into consuming an experimental drug. The drug gives Dunn the powers of mind-reading, mind-control, clairvoyance, he uses these powers maliciously for profit and amusement, but the drug wears off, leaving him a powerless vagrant again. Shuster provided illustrations. Siegel and Shuster shifted with a focus on adventure and comedy, they wanted to become syndicated newspaper strip authors, so they showed their ideas to various newspaper editors. However, the newspaper editors told them. If they wanted to make a successful comic strip, it had to be something more sensational than anything else on the market; this prompted Siegel to revisit Superman as a comic strip character. Siegel modified Superman's powers to make him more sensational: Like Bill Dunn, the second prototype of Superman is given powers against his will by an unscrupulous scientist, but instead of psychic abilities, he acquires superhuman strength and bullet-proof skin.
Additionally, this new Superman was a crime-fighting hero instead of a villain, because Siegel noted that comic strips with heroic protagonists tended to be more successful. In years, Siegel once recalled that this Superman wore a "bat-like" cape in some panels, but he and Shuster agreed there was no costume yet, there is none apparent in the surviving artwork. Siegel and Shuster showed this second concept of Superman to Consolidated Book Publishers, based in Chicago. In May 1933, Consolidated had published a comic book titled Detective Dan: Secret Operative 48, it contained all-original stories as opposed to reprints of newspaper strips, a novelty at the time. Siegel and Shuster put together a comic book in similar format called The Superman. A delegation from Consolidated visited Cleveland that summer on a business trip, Siegel and Shuster took the opportunity to present their work in person. Although Consolidated expressed interest, they pulled out of the comics business without offering a book deal because the sales of Detective Dan were disappointing.
Siegel believed publishers kept rejecting them because he and Shuster were young and unknown, so he looked for an established artist to replace Shuster. When Siegel told Shuster what he was doing, Shuster reacted by burning their rejected Superman comic, sparing only the cover, they continued collaborating on other projects, but for the time being Shuster was through with Superman. Siegel wrote to numerous artists; the first response came in July 1933 from Leo O'Mealia, who drew the Fu Manchu strip for the Bell Syndicate. In the script that Siegel sent O'Mealia, Superman's origin story changes: He is a "scientist-adventurer" from the far future, when humanity has evolved "super powers". Just before the Earth explodes, he escapes in a time-machine to the modern era, whereupon he begins using his super powers to fight crime. O'Mealia produced a few strips and showed them to his newspaper syndicate. Nothing of Siegel and O'Mealia's collaboration survives, except in Siegel's memoir. In June 1934, Siegel found another partner: an artist in Chicago named Russell Keaton.
Keaton drew the Buck R
Super Friends is an American animated television series about a team of superheroes, which ran from 1973 to 1986 on ABC as part of its Saturday-morning cartoon lineup. It was produced by Hanna-Barbera and was based on the Justice League of America and associated comic book characters published by DC Comics; the name of the program has been variously represented at different points in its broadcast history. There were a total of 109 episodes and two backdoor-pilot episodes of The New Scooby-Doo Movies, with Batman and Robin appearing in "The Dynamic Scooby-Doo Affair" and "The Caped Crusader Caper". Over the years, the show existed under several titles: Super Friends The All-New Super Friends Hour Challenge of the Super Friends The World's Greatest Super Friends Super Friends Super Friends: The Legendary Super Powers Show The Super Powers Team: Galactic Guardians Plot lines for the series involved many of the familiar DC Comics super-villains that the first incarnation of the Super Friends did not.
Instead, like the comic books, they focused on the far-fetched schemes of mad scientists and aliens, who were invariably revealed as being well-intentioned, pursuing their goals through unlawful or disreputable means. At the end of each story, a peaceful and reasonable discussion would be performed by the heroes to convince the antagonists to adopt more reasonable methods; the All-New Super Friends Hour departed somewhat from the previous series' formula by featuring villains using more elaborate methods to further their goals. Beginning with Challenge of the Super Friends, several of the heroes' arch-villains from the comic books began to feature prominently in comic-style stories. Throughout the series, plots wrapped themselves up neatly in the final minutes of an episode in the fashion of the typical comic books and deus ex machina; when animation company Hanna-Barbera acquired rights to the DC Comics characters and adapted the Justice League of America comic book for television it made several changes in the transition, including the change of name to Super Friends.
Team members sometimes referred to themselves as the Justice League on the show. The violence common in superhero comics was toned down for a younger audience and to adhere to broadcast standards governing violence in 1970s children's television; as a DC Comics-based show, the Super Friends franchise was owned by DC's parent company Warner Bros. who put the series into syndication. Thus, Cartoon Network, which had the rights to air most of the rest of the Hanna-Barbera library from its inception in 1992, was not able to air Super Friends until after the merger of Warner Bros. parent company Time Warner and Cartoon Network parent company Turner Broadcasting System was completed in 1996. This merger led to Warner Bros. taking control of Hanna-Barbera and all of its other assets as well. The series was owned by DC Comics Entertainment, Warner Bros.. Family Entertainment and Warner Bros. Animation. Super Friends first aired on ABC on September 8, 1973, featuring well-known DC characters Superman and Robin, Wonder Woman, Aquaman.
Superman and Robin, Aquaman had each appeared in their own animated series produced by Filmation, voice talent from these prior programs was brought in to work on the new show. Shortly before the Super Friends series was developed and Wonder Woman guest-starred in two episodes of The Brady Kids, while Batman and Robin appeared in two episodes of The New Scooby-Doo Movies. In addition to the superheroes, a trio of sidekicks was introduced, each of whom were new characters not drawn from the comic books: Wendy and Marvin and Wonder Dog, none of whom had any special abilities; the trio -- or at least its human members -- were superheroes-in-training. Each episode began with the heroes responding to an emergency detected by the massive TroubAlert computer in the Hall of Justice, which served as the headquarters of the team. Colonel Wilcox, a U. S. Army official, was a recurring character who would act as a government liaison with the Super Friends during emergencies. Colonel Wilcox was voiced by John Stephenson.
Conflicts were resolved with the antagonists persuaded to adapt more reasonable methods to achieve their aims. Natural disasters triggered by human activity were shown, environmental themes featured in the program. Three other DC Comics superheroes were featured as guest stars during this season: the Flash, Plastic Man, Green Arrow; this first run of Super Friends, consisting of 16 one-hour episodes which were rerun several times, concluded on August 24, 1974. At this point, the series was cancelled. However, interest in superheroes among ABC's prime-time viewers caused the network to revive Super Friends; the original 16 episodes of the series were rebroadcast as a mid-season replacement, running from Feb
Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of centralized enterprises run by criminals who intend to engage in illegal activity, most for profit. Some criminal organizations, such as terrorist groups, are politically motivated. Sometimes criminal organizations force people to do business with them, such as when a gang extorts money from shopkeepers for "protection". Gangs may become disciplined enough to be considered organized. A criminal organization or gang can be referred to as a mafia, mob, or crime syndicate. European sociologists define the mafia as a type of organized crime group that specializes in the supply of extra-legal protection and quasi law enforcement. Gambetta's classic work on the Sicilian Mafia generates an economic study of the mafia, which exerts great influence on studies of the Russian Mafia, the Chinese Mafia, Hong Kong Triads and the Japanese Yakuza. Other organizations—including states, militaries, police forces, corporations—may sometimes use organized-crime methods to conduct their activities, but their powers derive from their status as formal social institutions.
There is a tendency to distinguish organized crime from other forms of crime, such as white-collar crime, financial crimes, political crimes, war crime, state crimes, treason. This distinction is not always apparent and academics continue to debate the matter. For example, in failed states that can no longer perform basic functions such as education, security, or governance, organized crime and war sometimes complement each other; the term "Oligarchy" has been used to describe democratic countries whose political and economic institutions come under the control of a few families and business oligarchs. In the United States, the Organized Crime Control Act defines organized crime as "he unlawful activities of a organized, disciplined association ". Criminal activity as a structured process is referred to as racketeering. In the UK, police estimate that organized crime involves up to 38,000 people operating in 6,000 various groups. Due to the escalating violence of Mexico's drug war, a report issued by the United States Department of Justice characterizes the Mexican drug cartels as the "greatest organized crime threat to the United States".
Patron-client networks are defined by fluid interactions. They produce crime groups that operate as smaller units within the overall network, as such tend towards valuing significant others, familiarity of social and economic environments, or tradition; these networks are composed of: Hierarchies based on'naturally' forming family and cultural traditions. Bureaucratic/corporate organized crime groups are defined by the general rigidity of their internal structures, they focus more on how the operations works, sustains itself or avoids retribution, they are typified by: A complex authority structure. However, this model of operation has some flaws: The'top-down' communication strategy is susceptible to interception, more so further down the hierarchy being communicated to. While bureaucratic operations emphasize business processes and authoritarian hierarchies, these are based on enforcing power relationships rather than an overlying aim of protectionism, sustainability or growth. An estimate on youth street gangs nationwide provided by Hannigan, et al. marked an increase of 35% between 2002 and 2010.
A distinctive gang culture underpins many, but not organized groups. The term “street gang” is used interchangeably with “youth gang,” referring to neighborhood or street-based youth groups that meet “gang” criteria. Miller defines a street gang as “a self-formed association of peers, united by mutual interests, with identifiable leadership and internal organization, who act collectively or as individuals to achieve specific purposes, including the conduct of illegal activity and control of a particular territory, facility, or enterprise." Some reasons youth join gangs include to feel accepted, attain status, increase their self-esteem. A sense of unity brings together many of the youth gangs. "Zones of transition" are deteriorating neighborhoods with shifting populations. In such areas, co
Superman's Pal Jimmy Olsen
Superman's Pal, Jimmy Olsen is an American comic book series published by DC Comics from September–October 1954 until March 1974, spanning a total of 163 issues. Featuring the adventures of Superman supporting character Jimmy Olsen, it contains stories of a humorous nature; the 1952 television series Adventures of Superman co-starred actor Jack Larson, who appeared as Jimmy Olsen. Because of the popularity of Larson and his portrayal of the character, National Comics Publications decided to create a regular title featuring Jimmy as the leading character, which debuted with a September–October 1954 cover date. Curt Swan was the main artist on the series for its first decade. In 1958, a second title was introduced, Superman's Girl Friend, Lois Lane, which revolves around another supporting character in a similar fashion. Lucy Lane was introduced in issue #36 and became an on-again, off-again romantic interest of Jimmy Olsen. In issue #57, he marries Supergirl after she loses both her powers and memories of being Supergirl, only for her to recover her powers and memories after their marriage.
She was the anonymous "Miss X" whom Jimmy kissed in issue #44 to break the spell that turned him into a werewolf. When Jack Kirby began working at DC in 1970, he insisted on taking on this title since it was the lowest-selling in the publishing line and without assigned talent at the time, so he would not cost someone their job. During his run, Kirby introduced many memorable characters, notably the Fourth World's New Gods, Project Cadmus and Transilvane, he reintroduced the Newsboy Legion and the Guardian. The faces of the Superman and Jimmy Olsen figures drawn by Kirby were redrawn by Al Plastino or Murphy Anderson. Comedian Don Rickles guest starred in a two-part story by Kirby in issues #139 and #141. Kirby left the series with issue #148. Lucy Lane was believed to have died in Superman's Girl Friend, Lois Lane #120 but was revived in a story in Superman's Pal Jimmy Olsen #160. Nick Cardy was the cover artist for Superman's Pal Jimmy Olsen for issues #154–163. Superman's Pal Jimmy Olsen; the new series continued the numbering from Superman's Pal Jimmy Olsen.
Superman Family itself was canceled in 1982. A Superman's Pal Jimmy Olsen special one-shot was published in December 2008, following on from the "Atlas" storyline, leading into Superman: New Krypton. Many of the issues include Jimmy undergoing a transformation of some form; these include: Speed Demon - In 1956, a month before the debut of Barry Allen as the new Flash, Jimmy drank a potion produced by a Professor Claude and gained super-speed. Radioactive - After being exposed to a radioactive substance, Jimmy began to irradiate everything in his presence. Super-Brain - Jimmy evolved into a "man of the future" with superhuman mental powers. Monstrous beard growth - The machinations of the sinister Beard Band cause Jimmy to grow an immense beard. Gorilla - When Jimmy switched minds with a gorilla, he went about his reporting duties as a gorilla in Jimmy's clothes. Elastic Lad - As Elastic Lad, Jimmy by serum or by alien virus could sometimes stretch himself, akin to Elongated Man or Plastic Man.
As Elastic Lad, Jimmy was inducted as an Honorary Member of the Legion of Super-Heroes. Alien-form - Aliens transformed Jimmy into a telepathic Jovian for a week; this turned out to be a Jovian week..., much shorter than an Earth week, about 70 hours = less than three days. Fire-Breather - An accident involving an experiment gives Jimmy fire-breath. Human Octopus - After eating an extraterrestrial fruit, Jimmy grew four extra arms. According to Superman, this was a hallucination, but Jimmy suspected that Superman said this to teach him a lesson since Jimmy had foolishly ignored advice from the Man of Steel that would have saved him a lot of trouble. Genie - Jimmy found a genie's lamp and was tricked into replacing its villainous occupant. Wolf-Man - In the vein of the 1957 Michael Landon film I Was a Teenage Werewolf, Jimmy found himself transformed into a werewolf. Woman - Jimmy would go undercover dressed as a woman in #44, #67, #84, #159. Morbidly Obese - Jimmy tried to get fat in an attempt to stop a jewel smuggler and to impress a Circus Fat Lady.
Giant Turtle Man - One of Jimmy's most cited transformations was that of his turning into a giant turtle man. Human Porcupine - After rejecting the romantic advances of an imp from the Fifth Dimension. Bizarro Jimmy - Although Jimmy has a counterpart on Bizarro World, he was turned into a Bizarro himself. Hippie - Investigating a colony of hippies at "Guru Kama's Dream Pad", Jimmy grew a beard and participated in a mock "hate-in". On the cover of this story's issue, Jimmy is wielding a sign that says "Superman is a freak-out!" Viking - Jimmy put on Viking armor and mistakenly thought he had been transported 1,000 years backward in time. In 1959, the producers of the action/adventure series Adventures of Superman were hit by a snag as to how revive the now-canceled series after series star George Reeves had died that summer from a gunshot wound. Jack Larson, who played Jimmy in the series, was approached with the idea of continuing the franchise as a spin-off for two new seasons of 26 episodes each to begin airing in 1960.
Titled Superman's Pal Jimmy Olsen, it would focus on a more serious angle of Olsen's rising career as a reporter and journalist with Larson reprising his role. In place of Reeves, stock footage of Superman flying and a look-alik
Metropolis is a fictional city appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics, best known as the home of Superman. First appearing by name in Action Comics #16, Metropolis is depicted as a prosperous and massive city in the Northeastern United States, within close proximity to Gotham City; the co-creator and original artist of Superman, Joe Shuster, modeled the Metropolis skyline after Toronto, where he was born and lived until he was ten. Since however, the look and feel of Metropolis has been influenced by New York City. Within the DC Universe, Metropolis is depicted as being one of the largest and wealthiest cities in the world, having a population of 11 million citizens. In addition to Superman, the city is home to other superheroes, such as Booster Gold and Blue Beetle. Like many other fictional cities in DC Comics, the location of Metropolis has varied over the years but is portrayed as a major city in the Northeast, sharing various qualities with New York City. Superman co-creator Joe Shuster moved to Cleveland at age ten, where he met co-creator and Ohio native Jerry Siegel.
Intending to sell the Superman strips to a Cleveland newspaper, they decided to set the stories there, but when the strips were re-used for the comic books, they changed the location to the fictional Metropolis. Shuster was quoted as having modeled his Metropolis cityscape on that of his hometown, in the early versions of Superman, Clark Kent worked for a newspaper called the Daily Star, modeled after the real-life Toronto Star. Action Comics #2, mistakenly portrays Clark Kent as a reporter for the Cleveland Evening News. In Superman #2, Metropolis was placed in the U. S. state of New York, making it the earliest specific reference to the location of Metropolis. In that issue, Clark Kent sends a telegram to George Taylor, the editor of the Daily Star, addressed to "Metropolis, N. Y."In the 1940s Superman cartoons, produced by Paramount Pictures and Fleischer Studios, Superman is said to live on the island of Manhattan. In the seventh cartoon of the series, "Electric Earthquake," a Native American mad scientist claims that his people are the rightful owners of Manhattan, thus placing these cartoons on the island.
In the fifth episode in the series, "The Bulleteers," the name of the city is identified as Metropolis, as the Bulleteers address in that cartoon the population of Superman's city as "citizens of Metropolis". Metropolis is seen spelled out twice on the Metropolis Munition Works. In a 1970s edition of "Ask the Answer Man", a column that ran in DC publications, it was stated that Metropolis and Gotham City were adjacent to New York City; that same column stated that Green Arrow's home, Star City, was in Connecticut, Flash's Central City was in Ohio, Hawkman's Midway City was in Michigan. An earlier issue of DC's fanzine Amazing World of DC Comics, stated that Metropolis was located in Delaware, while Gotham was placed in New Jersey; the 1990 Atlas of the DC Universe role playing game supplement, published by Mayfair Games, states that Metropolis is in Delaware. In June 1976, Superman #300 featured an out-of-canon story about the infant Kal-El arriving on Earth in that year, triggering an increase in Cold War tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union.
In that story's version of the year 2001, passing reference is made to the merging of the eastern seaboard cities from Boston to Washington D. C. into a "newly incorporated urban center" called "Metropolis". In his 1978 work, The Great Superman Book, an encyclopedia of the first forty years of the Superman comics, author Michael Fleisher cites many, many examples which demonstrate that Metropolis equates with New York City; the most blatant of these might be the statement he cites from Action Comics #143, which states that the Statue of Liberty stands in "Metropolis Harbor". The Statue of Liberty, in fact, stands in New York Harbor. In the pre-Crisis on Infinite Earths comics, Smallville was shown as being within driving distance of Metropolis, although with no definitive location. John Byrne's 1986 revamp of Superman cited the city as being in Kansas; the 1992 "Death of Superman" storyline depicts Doomsday on a path from Ohio through the state of New York, ending in Metropolis, the 2005 comic Countdown to Infinite Crisis places Metropolis in the state of New York.
The 2003 DC Comics/Marvel Comics crossover mini-series JLA/Avengers depicts the city as along the multi-state Interstate 95, the main highway on the East Coast of the United States, portrays the corresponding location in the Marvel Universe as forests and fields, explaining that Marvel's Earth and DC's Earth have different surface areas to account for their different geography. On the television series Superman: The Animated Series, the second part of the episode titled "Little Girl Lost" depicts Darkseid's minion using a machine hidden in or around Metropolis to attempt to pull a comet into the earth; the beam from that machine is depicted originating from the area of the mid-western United States where Kansas is located. In the second part of the episode "Last Son of Krypton" when Lois is introduced to Clark Kent, she is told he is from Smallville, she replies "Smallville? Never heard of it," prompting Clark Kent to ask her if she had been to Kansas. Lois replies "God No!" while turning her head in a sign of visible disgust.
Frank Miller has said. Gotham City is home to Batman, whose activities are more nocturnal, while Metropol
Capitalism is an economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit. Characteristics central to capitalism include private property, capital accumulation, wage labor, voluntary exchange, a price system, competitive markets. In a capitalist market economy, decision-making and investment are determined by every owner of wealth, property or production ability in financial and capital markets, whereas prices and the distribution of goods and services are determined by competition in goods and services markets. Economists, political economists and historians have adopted different perspectives in their analyses of capitalism and have recognized various forms of it in practice; these include welfare capitalism and state capitalism. Different forms of capitalism feature varying degrees of free markets, public ownership, obstacles to free competition and state-sanctioned social policies; the degree of competition in markets, the role of intervention and regulation, the scope of state ownership vary across different models of capitalism.
The extent to which different markets are free as well as the rules defining private property are matters of politics and policy. Most existing capitalist economies are mixed economies, which combine elements of free markets with state intervention and in some cases economic planning. Market economies have existed under many forms of government and in many different times and cultures. Modern capitalist societies—marked by a universalization of money-based social relations, a large and system-wide class of workers who must work for wages, a capitalist class which owns the means of production—developed in Western Europe in a process that led to the Industrial Revolution. Capitalist systems with varying degrees of direct government intervention have since become dominant in the Western world and continue to spread. Over time, capitalist countries have experienced consistent economic growth and an increase in the standard of living. Critics of capitalism argue that it establishes power in the hands of a minority capitalist class that exists through the exploitation of the majority working class and their labor.
Supporters argue that it provides better products and innovation through competition, disperses wealth to all productive people, promotes pluralism and decentralization of power, creates strong economic growth, yields productivity and prosperity that benefit society. The term "capitalist", meaning an owner of capital, appears earlier than the term "capitalism" and it dates back to the mid-17th century. "Capitalism" is derived from capital, which evolved from capitale, a late Latin word based on caput, meaning "head"—also the origin of "chattel" and "cattle" in the sense of movable property. Capitale emerged in the 12th to 13th centuries in the sense of referring to funds, stock of merchandise, sum of money or money carrying interest. By 1283, it was used in the sense of the capital assets of a trading firm and it was interchanged with a number of other words—wealth, funds, assets, property and so on; the Hollandische Mercurius uses "capitalists" in 1654 to refer to owners of capital. In French, Étienne Clavier referred to capitalistes in 1788, six years before its first recorded English usage by Arthur Young in his work Travels in France.
In his Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, David Ricardo referred to "the capitalist" many times. Samuel Taylor Coleridge, an English poet, used "capitalist" in his work Table Talk. Pierre-Joseph Proudhon used the term "capitalist" in his first work, What is Property?, to refer to the owners of capital. Benjamin Disraeli used the term "capitalist" in his 1845 work Sybil; the initial usage of the term "capitalism" in its modern sense has been attributed to Louis Blanc in 1850 and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in 1861. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels referred to the "capitalistic system" and to the "capitalist mode of production" in Capital; the use of the word "capitalism" in reference to an economic system appears twice in Volume I of Capital, p. 124 and in Theories of Surplus Value, tome II, p. 493. Marx did not extensively use the form capitalism, but instead those of capitalist and capitalist mode of production, which appear more than 2,600 times in the trilogy The Capital. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the term "capitalism" first appeared in English in 1854 in the novel The Newcomes by novelist William Makepeace Thackeray, where he meant "having ownership of capital".
According to the OED, Carl Adolph Douai, a German American socialist and abolitionist, used the phrase "private capitalism" in 1863. Capitalism in its modern form can be traced to the emergence of agrarian capitalism and mercantilism in the early Renaissance, in city states like Florence. Capital has existed incipiently on a small scale for centuries in the form of merchant and lending activities and as small-scale industry with some wage labour. Simple commodity exchange and simple commodity production, which are the initial basis for the growth of capital from trade, have a long history. Classical Islam promulgated capitalist economic policies such as free banking, their use of Indo-Arabic