Morgan Plus 8
The Morgan Plus 8 is a sports car built by British car makers Morgan from 1968 to 2004 and put back into production in revised form in 2012. Its instant and enduring popularity has been credited with saving the company and keeping the company famous during the 36 years of its manufacture. Among Morgan enthusiasts, it is associated with Peter Morgan, the owner-chairman behind its design; the development of the Plus 8 was led by Maurice Owen, an engineer taken on for the role. The Plus 8 prototype was based on a modified chassis from the Plus 4, altered to accept the Rover alloy block 215 cu in V8, purchased from GM-Buick in 1967. Plus 4's Moss gearbox was carried over and the Salisbury 7HA axle was uprated with a limited-slip differential; the chassis was developed in stages to accommodate gearbox changes in 1973 and 1976, the body widened in 1976 to accommodate the widened chassis and the wings widened to accommodate larger tyres to handle the increasing power and trend for lower profile and wider tyres.
The original 1968 Plus 8 was 57 inches wide and the last was 64 inches For several years in the 1960s the Plus Eight was the fastest-accelerating UK production car. To mark the 35th year of production of its Plus 8, MMC released a commemorative'Anniversary Edition' in 2003. Following the discontinuation of the Rover V8, production of Plus 8 ended in 2004. A revised Plus 8, powered by a 4.8-litre BMW V8 engine, was introduced in 2012. In 2014 Morgan announced a Limited Edition run of 60 Plus 8'Speedster' models; this limited run forwent the traditional roof in favour of a small fly screen and hidden roll bars behind the front seats. Pitched as an entry level Plus 8 model they went on sale for £69,999; the original Plus 8 engines were Rover V8s. Morgan was the first of a succession of sports car makers- including the likes of TVR and Marcos- to use the engine; the prototype Plus 8 used a Rover V8 engine and the Plus 8 was launched in 1968 using Rover's production engine, itself a re-engineered version of the Buick/Oldsmobile 215 motor with a compression of 10.5:1 fueled by two SU HS6 carburettors.
The high 10.5:1 CR was only usable because 5* petrol was still available. By 1973, the Rover 3500 saloon was available with a manual 4 speed gearbox and this engine/gearbox configuration was adopted by Morgan although the compression dropped to 9.25:1 with a resulting drop in power. With the adoption of an improved version of the engine developed for the Rover SD1 in 1977, compression increased to 9.35:1 and power increased slightly. After 1981 the engine was fueled by two Stromberg CD175 carburettors. At the end of 1983, the company offered an EFI version using a Bosch L-Jetronic based system. With the added power and low weight, the Plus 8 was, according to the magazine road tests of the day, able to best a Porsche up to 90 mph. In 1990 a 3.9 L version of the engine was fitted and that used the Lucas 14CUX fuel injection system. In 1996, the Rover 4.6 L engine became an option. From 2000, all Morgan Plus 8s were fueled by the GEMS system as used on the Range Rover P38a between 1994 and 1999.
On the 2012 Geneva Motor Show, Morgan introduced a new edition of the Plus 8 roadster, powered by a 4.8L BMW V8-Engine. At the same show, Morgan introduced an electric version of the Plus 8 roadster - called the Plus E -, powered by a Zytek 70 kW 300Nm electric motor. For two decades during the 1950s and 1960s, North America took the greater bulk of Morgan production. Popularity in the UK and Europe had fallen during that era; the era ended with the advent of structural laws. Luckily, the failure of the modern looking +4+ and the arrival of the powerful Plus 8 rekindled interest in the home market in the whole line. In the US, a way was found to keep importing Morgans after 1974. From 1974 to 1992, all imported Morgans to the United States were converted to run on propane as fuel to pass the U. S. emissions regulations. When the Rover Group re-certified their V-8 engine for use in the Range Rover SUV sold in the U. S. Morgan made a gasoline-powered +8 available with the same engine in the same tune and with the same anti-emission devices.
As safety regulations continue to change, Morgan was again challenged in 2006 to meet the new structural requirements announced by the NHTSA in 2000. A request for an exemption to the law on airbags was refused and the importation of traditional Morgans ceased. 1968–72 Moss gearbox, a 4-speed manual transmission with synchromesh 2nd, 3rd, 4th 1972–77 Rover 3500s, 4-speed all-synchromesh manual transmission used in the Rover 3500S saloon 1977–95 Rover LT77, 5-speed all-synchromesh manual transmission 1995–2004 Rover R380, 5-speed all-synchromesh manual transmission 2012 6-speed manual transmission GoMoG Plus 8 Manual Motor Trend Gentleman's Quarterly
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Morgan Aero 8
The Morgan Aero 8 is a sports car built by Morgan Motor Company at its factory in Malvern Link and designed by the firm's designer Matthew Humphries. The Aero 8 is notable for several reasons because it is the first new Morgan design since 1964's +4+, it does not use an oddity in a modern sporting car. It is the first Morgan vehicle with an aluminium chassis and frame as opposed to traditional Morgan vehicles that have an aluminium skinned wooden body tub on a steel chassis; the engine first powering the Aero 8 was a 4.4L BMW M62 V8 mated to a 6-speed Getrag transmission. In 2007, the Series 4 Aero 8 was released which had an upgraded 4.8L BMW N62 V8 with an optional ZF automatic transmission. All Aero 8s are assembled at Morgan's Malvern Link factory, where they are able to produce up to 14 cars a week, it has been criticized for its "crosseyed" look, justified by the manufacturers as conferring aerodynamic benefits. In response, Morgan changed the design for 2007 and cars to a front end design based on the Morgan Aeromax, using Mini rather than VW New Beetle headlights.
The Morgan Aeromax is the coupe variation of the Aero 8. Production, undertaken in 2008 and 2009, was limited to one hundred cars, each costing £110,000. Owners have included Rowan Atkinson and Paul O'Grady. Taillights of AeroMax and Super Sports were borrowed from Lancia Thesis; the Morgan Aero SuperSports is a targa-roofed version of the AeroMax, sharing its bonded aluminium chassis and lower bodywork with the coupe. At the Geneva Motor Show in March 2015 Morgan announced that the Morgan Aero 8 would be revived with a new model. Engine: BMW N62 V8 Bore & Stroke: 93mm x 83.3mm Engine size: 4799 cc Power Output: 367 PS at 6000 rpm Torque Output: 490 N⋅m at 3600 rpm Valvetrain setup: DOHC 32-valve Double'Vanos' Valvetronic Compression ratio: 10.0:1 Automatic: 6-speed Manual Transmission 1st gear: 4.05:1 2nd gear: 2.4:1 3rd gear: 1.58:1 4th gear: 1.19:1 5th gear: 1:1 6th gear: 0.87:1 Final drive: BTR Limited slip 3.08:1 Front: Independent, inboard Eibach coil springs over Koni shock absorbers Rear: Independent floating inboard Eibach coil springs over Koni shock absorbers Front: AP Racing 350 mm cast iron discs/6-pot calipers Rear: AP Racing 332 mm cast iron discs/2-pot calipers Wheels: 18 in by 9 in forged alloy wheels Tyres: 245/45/18 Chassis: Ultra stiff CAD designed aluminum alloy chassis specially treated and bonded with Gurrit Essex adhesive and riveted with Bollhoff rivets Body Panels: aluminium Weight: Automatic Gearbox 2596 lbs.
There have been several entries in the FIA GT series from both works cars and privateers. It is used in the British GT Series, it is racing in the FIA GT3 European championship and has proven competitive. The Aero 8 GT3 car is built by AUTO GT; the Aero 8 was used in the 2003 Bathurst 24 Hour scoring a DNF with a rare BMW engine failure and the 2004 12 Hours of Sebring finishing 20th outright and 10th in the GT class. Morgan Motor Company's Aero 8 webpage
The Venturi Fétish is a two-seater electric sports car. Unveiled for the first time in 2004, the Fétish is the first sports car designed to be electric, it has been produced by Venturi in Monaco since 2006, the design of the car was done by the Parisian designers Sacha Lakic. When it went into production, it was the first electrically-powered production sports car in the world. Before its electric version, a petrol version of the same vehicle was introduced in concept form at the 2002 Geneva Motor Show, was shown at the 2002 Paris Motor Show and the 2003 North American International Auto Show; the original Fétish used a 180 kW electric motor in place of the internal combustion engine fitted to most sports cars. This electric motor had a claimed maximum torque output of 162 lb⋅ft, delivered instantly. Venturi claimed that the Fétish could accelerate from 0–100 km/h in 4.5 seconds, that it was restricted to a top speed of 106 mph. For 2011, the electric motor was replaced by a 220 kW motor, the updated Fétish was claimed to be capable of 200 km/h and to be able to accelerate from 0–60 mph in four seconds.
List of electric cars available List of production battery electric vehicles Lightning GT Tesla Roadster Wrightspeed X1 Official website
A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidizing agent into electricity through a pair of redox reactions. Fuel cells are different from most batteries in requiring a continuous source of fuel and oxygen to sustain the chemical reaction, whereas in a battery the chemical energy comes from metals and their ions or oxides that are already present in the battery, except in flow batteries. Fuel cells can produce electricity continuously for as long as oxygen are supplied; the first fuel cells were invented in 1838. The first commercial use of fuel cells came more than a century in NASA space programs to generate power for satellites and space capsules. Since fuel cells have been used in many other applications. Fuel cells are used for primary and backup power for commercial and residential buildings and in remote or inaccessible areas, they are used to power fuel cell vehicles, including forklifts, buses, boats and submarines. There are many types of fuel cells, but they all consist of an anode, a cathode, an electrolyte that allows ions positively charged hydrogen ions, to move between the two sides of the fuel cell.
At the anode a catalyst causes the fuel to undergo oxidation reactions that generate ions and electrons. The ions move from the anode to the cathode through the electrolyte. At the same time, electrons flow from the anode to the cathode through an external circuit, producing direct current electricity. At the cathode, another catalyst causes ions and oxygen to react, forming water and other products. Fuel cells are classified by the type of electrolyte they use and by the difference in startup time ranging from 1 second for proton exchange membrane fuel cells to 10 minutes for solid oxide fuel cells. A related technology is flow batteries. Individual fuel cells produce small electrical potentials, about 0.7 volts, so cells are "stacked", or placed in series, to create sufficient voltage to meet an application's requirements. In addition to electricity, fuel cells produce water, heat and, depending on the fuel source small amounts of nitrogen dioxide and other emissions; the energy efficiency of a fuel cell is between 40–60%.
The fuel cell market is growing, in 2013 Pike Research estimated that the stationary fuel cell market will reach 50 GW by 2020. The first references to hydrogen fuel cells appeared in 1838. In a letter dated October 1838 but published in the December 1838 edition of The London and Edinburgh Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, Welsh physicist and barrister William Grove wrote about the development of his first crude fuel cells, he used a combination of sheet iron and porcelain plates, a solution of sulphate of copper and dilute acid. In a letter to the same publication written in December 1838 but published in June 1839, German physicist Christian Friedrich Schönbein discussed the first crude fuel cell that he had invented, his letter discussed current generated from oxygen dissolved in water. Grove sketched his design, in 1842, in the same journal; the fuel cell he made used similar materials to today's phosphoric-acid fuel cell. In 1939, British engineer Francis Thomas Bacon developed a 5 kW stationary fuel cell.
In 1955, W. Thomas Grubb, a chemist working for the General Electric Company, further modified the original fuel cell design by using a sulphonated polystyrene ion-exchange membrane as the electrolyte. Three years another GE chemist, Leonard Niedrach, devised a way of depositing platinum onto the membrane, which served as catalyst for the necessary hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions; this became known as the "Grubb-Niedrach fuel cell". GE went on to develop this technology with NASA and McDonnell Aircraft, leading to its use during Project Gemini; this was the first commercial use of a fuel cell. In 1959, a team led by Harry Ihrig built a 15 kW fuel cell tractor for Allis-Chalmers, demonstrated across the U. S. at state fairs. This system used potassium hydroxide as the electrolyte and compressed hydrogen and oxygen as the reactants. In 1959, Bacon and his colleagues demonstrated a practical five-kilowatt unit capable of powering a welding machine. In the 1960s, Pratt and Whitney licensed Bacon's U.
S. patents for use in the U. S. space program to supply drinking water. In 1991, the first hydrogen fuel cell automobile was developed by Roger Billings. UTC Power was the first company to manufacture and commercialize a large, stationary fuel cell system for use as a co-generation power plant in hospitals and large office buildings. In recognition of the fuel cell industry and America’s role in fuel cell development, the US Senate recognized 8 October 2015 as National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Day, passing S. RES 217; the date was chosen in recognition of the atomic weight of hydrogen. Fuel cells come in many varieties, they are made up of three adjacent segments: the anode, the electrolyte, the cathode. Two chemical reactions occur at the interfaces of the three different segments; the net result of the two reactions is that fuel is consumed, water or carbon dioxide is created, an electric current is created, which can be used to power electrical devices referred to as the load. At the anode a catalyst oxidizes
A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electronic component that stores electrical energy in an electric field. The effect of a capacitor is known as capacitance. While some capacitance exists between any two electrical conductors in proximity in a circuit, a capacitor is a component designed to add capacitance to a circuit; the capacitor was known as a condenser or condensator. The original name is still used in many languages, but not in English; the physical form and construction of practical capacitors vary and many capacitor types are in common use. Most capacitors contain at least two electrical conductors in the form of metallic plates or surfaces separated by a dielectric medium. A conductor may be sintered bead of metal, or an electrolyte; the nonconducting dielectric acts to increase the capacitor's charge capacity. Materials used as dielectrics include glass, plastic film, mica and oxide layers. Capacitors are used as parts of electrical circuits in many common electrical devices. Unlike a resistor, an ideal capacitor does not dissipate energy.
When two conductors experience a potential difference, for example, when a capacitor is attached across a battery, an electric field develops across the dielectric, causing a net positive charge to collect on one plate and net negative charge to collect on the other plate. No current flows through the dielectric. However, there is a flow of charge through the source circuit. If the condition is maintained sufficiently long, the current through the source circuit ceases. If a time-varying voltage is applied across the leads of the capacitor, the source experiences an ongoing current due to the charging and discharging cycles of the capacitor. Capacitance is defined as the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential difference between them; the unit of capacitance in the International System of Units is the farad, defined as one coulomb per volt. Capacitance values of typical capacitors for use in general electronics range from about 1 picofarad to about 1 millifarad; the capacitance of a capacitor is proportional to the surface area of the plates and inversely related to the gap between them.
In practice, the dielectric between the plates passes a small amount of leakage current. It has an electric field strength limit, known as the breakdown voltage; the conductors and leads introduce an undesired resistance. Capacitors are used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while allowing alternating current to pass. In analog filter networks, they smooth the output of power supplies. In resonant circuits they tune radios to particular frequencies. In electric power transmission systems, they stabilize power flow; the property of energy storage in capacitors was exploited as dynamic memory in early digital computers. In October 1745, Ewald Georg von Kleist of Pomerania, found that charge could be stored by connecting a high-voltage electrostatic generator by a wire to a volume of water in a hand-held glass jar. Von Kleist's hand and the water acted as conductors, the jar as a dielectric. Von Kleist found that touching the wire resulted in a powerful spark, much more painful than that obtained from an electrostatic machine.
The following year, the Dutch physicist Pieter van Musschenbroek invented a similar capacitor, named the Leyden jar, after the University of Leiden where he worked. He was impressed by the power of the shock he received, writing, "I would not take a second shock for the kingdom of France."Daniel Gralath was the first to combine several jars in parallel to increase the charge storage capacity. Benjamin Franklin investigated the Leyden jar and came to the conclusion that the charge was stored on the glass, not in the water as others had assumed, he adopted the term "battery", subsequently applied to clusters of electrochemical cells. Leyden jars were made by coating the inside and outside of jars with metal foil, leaving a space at the mouth to prevent arcing between the foils; the earliest unit of capacitance was the jar, equivalent to about 1.11 nanofarads. Leyden jars or more powerful devices employing flat glass plates alternating with foil conductors were used up until about 1900, when the invention of wireless created a demand for standard capacitors, the steady move to higher frequencies required capacitors with lower inductance.
More compact construction methods began to be used, such as a flexible dielectric sheet sandwiched between sheets of metal foil, rolled or folded into a small package. Early capacitors were known as condensers, a term, still used today in high power applications, such as automotive systems; the term was first used for this purpose by Alessandro Volta in 1782, with reference to the device's ability to store a higher density of electric charge than was possible with an isolated conductor. The term became deprecated because of the ambiguous meaning of steam condenser, with capacitor becoming the recommended term from 1926. Since the beginning of the study of electricity non conductive materials like glass, porcelain and mica have been used as insulators; these materials some decades were well-suited for further use as the dielectric for the first capacitors. Paper capacitors made by sandwiching a strip of impregnated paper between strips of metal, rolling the result into a cylinder were used in the late 19th century.
Wheel hub motor
The wheel hub motor is an electric motor, incorporated into the hub of a wheel and drives it directly. First wheel motor concept: Wellington Adams of St. Louis first conceived of building an electric motor directly in the vehicle wheel, though it was attached via complicated gearing; the Adams patent is U. S. Patent 300,827in 1884. High torque low RPM wheel motor invented: The motor was incorporated into the wheel without gearing and addressed torque considerations through the use of a new high torque, low rpm motor invented by Edward Parkhurst of Woburn, MA in U. S. Patent 422,149 in 1890. Electric wheel motor advantages revealed in patent: An early wheel hub electric motor was invented by Frenchman Charles Theryc and patented in 1896 as U. S. Patent 572,036 entitled Wheel with Electric Motor hub for Vehicles. In the patent he explained all advantages including no transmission losses because of the absence of classic transmission rods from engines to wheels. Diesel wheel motor: Not all wheel hub motors were electric.
C F Goddard in 1896 invented a piston hub motor for horseless carriages patented in U. S. Patent 574,200, he envisioned it powered by expanding gas of some kind. His offcenter flexible bent spoke designs appeared in the Apollo moon rovers' wheels in 1960s. Using cams, another type of combustion wheel motor: In U. S. Patent 593,248 W C Smith in 1897 developed another explosive gas expansion motor inside a wheel hub that utilized cams on a track in the hub to transmit power to the wheel; the electric wheel hub motor was raced by Ferdinand Porsche in 1897 in Austria. Porsche's first engineering training was electrical, not internal combustion based; as a result, he developed his first cars as electric cars with electric wheel hub motors that ran on batteries. The Lohner Porsche, fitted with one wheel motor in each of the front wheels, appeared at the World Exhibition in Paris in 1900 and created a sensation in the young automobile world. In the following years, 300 Lohner Porsches were sold to wealthy buyers.
The growth in power of the gasoline engine overtook the power of the electric wheel hub motors and this made up for any losses through a transmission. As a result, autos moved to gasoline engines with transmissions, but they were never as efficient as electric wheel hub motors, they are found on electric bicycles. Wheel motors are applied in e.g. driving wheels that are part of assembly lines. They have not been used often on cars, despite being invented for this purpose; the only production car using them is the Luka EV by MW Motors. Hub motors can be found on buses. Several concept cars have been developed using in-wheel motors: General Motors Sequel 2005 Protean Electric's Mini QED in 2006, other cars using its Hi-Pa Drive Mitsubishi MIEV concept model in 2005 Chebela, a small urban EV prototype using 2 direct-drive in-wheel motors in the rear. Citroën C-Métisse with in wheel electric motors developed by TM4. Siemens VDO eCorner concept in 2006 Heuliez WILL using the Michelin Active Wheel in 2008 The ZAP-X in 2007 "would use high-tech electric hub motors at all four wheels, delivering 644 horsepower to the ground from a lithium-ion battery pack.
The hub motors would eliminate the need for transmission and conventional brakes, opening up space beneath the floor for a giant battery pack." The Peugeot BB1 in 2009 incorporates rear in-wheel motors designed with Michelin. The Protean Ford F-150 All-Electric Pickup Truck by Protean Electric uses four in-wheel motors; the Hiriko folding urban electric prototype has the drive motors located inside each of the four wheels, has an electronically controlled maximum speed of 50 km/h. Each wheel integrates a motor, steering actuators and braking right inside the wheel, controlled by a drive-by-wire system. Hub motor electromagnetic fields are supplied to the stationary windings of the motor; the outer part of the motor follows, or tries to follow, those fields. In a brushed motor, energy is transferred by brushes contacting the rotating shaft of the motor. Energy is transferred in a brushless motor electronically, eliminating physical contact between stationary and moving parts. Although brushless motor technology is more expensive, most are more efficient and longer-lasting than brushed motor systems.
A hub motor is designed in one of three configurations. Considered least practical is an axial-flux motor, where the stator windings are sandwiched between sets of magnets; the other two configurations are both radial designs with the motor magnets bonded to the rotor. In the other, the outer-rotation motor, the rotor rotates around it; the application of hub motors in vehicular uses is still evolving, neither configuration has become standard. Electric motors have their greatest torque at startup, making them ideal for vehicles as they need the most torque at startup too; the idea of "revving up" so common with internal combustion engines is unnecessary with electric motors. Their greatest torque occurs as the rotor first begins to turn, why electric motors do not require a transmission. A gear-down arrangement may be needed, but unlike in a transmission paired with a combustion engine, no shifting is needed for electric motors. Wheel hub motors are common on electric bikes and electric scooters in some parts of the world Asia.
Compared with the conventional electric vehicle design with one mo