Labour Party (UK)
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom. Labour served in the coalition from 1940 to 1945. Labour was in government from 1964 to 1970 under Harold Wilson and from 1974 to 1979, first under Wilson and James Callaghan. The Labour Party was last in government from 1997 to 2010 under Tony Blair and Gordon Brown, beginning with a majority of 179. Having won 232 seats in the 2015 general election, the party is the Official Opposition in the Parliament of the United Kingdom, the party organises in Northern Ireland, but does not contest elections to the Northern Ireland Assembly. The Labour Party is a member of the Party of European Socialists and Progressive Alliance. In September 2015, Jeremy Corbyn was elected Leader of the Labour Party, the first Lib–Lab candidate to stand was George Odger in the Southwark by-election of 1870. In addition, several small socialist groups had formed around this time, among these were the Independent Labour Party, the intellectual and largely middle-class Fabian Society, the Marxist Social Democratic Federation and the Scottish Labour Party.
In the 1895 general election, the Independent Labour Party put up 28 candidates, Keir Hardie, the leader of the party, believed that to obtain success in parliamentary elections, it would be necessary to join with other left-wing groups. Hardies roots as a lay preacher contributed to an ethos in the party led to the comment by 1950s General Secretary Morgan Phillips that Socialism in Britain owed more to Methodism than Marx. The motion was passed at all stages by the TUC, the meeting was attended by a broad spectrum of working-class and left-wing organisations—trades unions represented about one third of the membership of the TUC delegates. This created an association called the Labour Representation Committee, meant to coordinate attempts to support MPs sponsored by trade unions and it had no single leader, and in the absence of one, the Independent Labour Party nominee Ramsay MacDonald was elected as Secretary. He had the task of keeping the various strands of opinions in the LRC united.
The October 1900 Khaki election came too soon for the new party to campaign effectively, only 15 candidatures were sponsored, but two were successful, Keir Hardie in Merthyr Tydfil and Richard Bell in Derby. Support for the LRC was boosted by the 1901 Taff Vale Case, the judgement effectively made strikes illegal since employers could recoup the cost of lost business from the unions. In their first meeting after the election the groups Members of Parliament decided to adopt the name The Labour Party formally, the Fabian Society provided much of the intellectual stimulus for the party. One of the first acts of the new Liberal Government was to reverse the Taff Vale judgement, the Peoples History Museum in Manchester holds the minutes of the first Labour Party meeting in 1906 and has them on display in the Main Galleries. Also within the museum is the Labour History Archive and Study Centre, the governing Liberals were unwilling to repeal this judicial decision with primary legislation
Gwyneth Patricia Dunwoody was a British moderate Labour Party politician, who was the Member of Parliament for Exeter from 1966 to 1970, and for Crewe from 1974 to her death in 2008. She had a reputation as a fiercely independent parliamentarian, described as intelligent, opinionated, Dunwoody was born in Fulham, where her father was Labour parliamentary agent. Both of her grandmothers were suffragettes, and all four grandparents were Labour party loyalists and she attended the Fulham County Secondary School for Girls, now known as the Fulham Cross Girls School, and the Notre Dame Convent in Battersea. She left school aged 16, and became a journalist with a newspaper in Fulham, covering births, marriages. She joined the Labour Party in 1947, and spoke at the 1948 Labour party conference in Scarborough and she worked as an actress in repertory and as a journalist in the Netherlands, learning fluent Dutch, before suffering a bout of tuberculosis. She married John Dunwoody in 1954, the year he qualified as a doctor.
Her husband became a general practitioner based in Totnes in Devon and they had two sons and a daughter. Her husband stood as Labour candidate in the safe Conservative seat of Tiverton in 1959, Dunwoody was a councillor on Totnes Borough Council from 1963-6. Her husband was elected as Labour MP for Falmouth and Camborne in 1966. He served as a Parliamentary Under-Secretary at the Department of Health, a well-regarded orator at the Labour Party Conference, John Dunwoody was spoken of as a future leader of the Party but lost his seat in the 1970 general election and did not return to Parliament. Dunwoody stood as the Labour Party candidate for the Exeter seat in the 1964 general election and she was elected as Member of Parliament for Exeter in 1966, emulating her husband in Falmouth and Camborne. Like her husband, she served as a junior minister, as a Parliamentary Secretary at the Board of Trade. From 1970 to 1975, she was Director of the Film Producers Association of Great Britain and she returned to the House of Commons after the February 1974 general election, becoming MP for the safe Labour seat of Crewe, having received the sponsorship of the National Union of Railwaymen.
Dunwoody was a Member of the European Parliament between 1975 and 1979 at a time when MEPs were nominated by national parliaments — MEPs have been elected since 1979. In 1983, Dunwoody stood for election as Deputy Leader of the Labour Party, alongside Peter Shore, the position was won by Roy Hattersley, and Dunwoody came last out of the four candidates with 1. 3% of the Electoral College. She did not return to office, but served as a front bench spokesman on, by turns, health. She served on the Labour National Executive Committee for seven years, from 1981 to 1988 and she resisted the Militant group in her constituency and opposed all-women shortlists. In 1983, boundary changes abolished the constituency of Crewe and created the constituency of Crewe and Nantwich and she narrowly won the election in 1983 by 290 votes
The Spectator is a weekly British conservative magazine. It was first published on 6 July 1828 and it is currently owned by David and Frederick Barclay who own The Daily Telegraph newspaper, via Press Holdings. Its principal subject areas are politics and culture and its editorial outlook is generally supportive of the Conservative Party, although regular contributors include some outside that fold, such as Frank Field, Rod Liddle and Martin Bright. The magazine contains arts pages on books, opera, in late 2008, Spectator Australia was launched. This offers 12 pages of Unique Australian Content in addition to the full UK contents, the Spectator’s founding editor, the Dundonian reformer Robert Stephen Rintoul, launched the paper on 5 December 1828. Almost certainly he revived the title from the 1711 publication by Addison & Steele, the Spectator’s political outlook in its first thirty years reflected Rintoul’s liberal-radical agenda. Despite its political stance it was regarded and respected for its non-partisanship.
Under Rintoul The Spectator came out strongly for the Great Reform Act of 1832, coining the phrase, The Bill. And There does not appear to be much glory gained in a contest so unequal that hundreds are killed on one side, what honour is there in going to shoot men, certain that they cannot hurt you. The cause of the war, be it remembered, is as disreputable as the strength of the parties is unequal, the war is undertaken in support of a co-partnery of opium-smugglers, in which the Anglo-Indian Government may be considered as the principal partner. Rintoul died in April 1858 and the magazine, whose circulation was falling, was sold, thereafter, it went into an accelerated period of decline. Records are scarce but it appears that it was owned by a Mr Scott. McHenry was a businessman and Moran was an Assistant Secretary to the ambassador, George M. Dallas, the editor was Thornton Hunt, a friend of Moran who had worked for Rintoul. Hunt was nominally the purchaser, having given the necessary monies in an attempt by McHenry.
Circulation declined with this loss of independence and inspirational leadership, and the views of James Buchanan, within weeks, the editorial line followed Buchanans pronouncements in being. neither pro-slavery nor pro-abolitionist. The Spectator now would publicly support that policy and this set it at odds with most of the British press but gained it the sympathy of ex-patriate Americans in the country. Richard Fulton notes that from until 1861, the Spectators commentary on American affairs read like a Buchanan administration propaganda sheet. And that this represented a volte-face, on 19 January 1861, The Spectator was bought by a journalist, Meredith Townsend, for £2000
James Keir Hardie was a Scottish socialist, the founder of the Labour Party, and the first ever Labour Member of Parliament. Hardie started work at the age of seven, but was educated at home by his parents. Working in the mines, he became a full-time trade union organiser. His leadership of the failed Ayrshire miners’ strike of 1881 made such an impact on the mine-owners that they granted important concessions for fear of industrial action. Hardie was a dedicated Georgist for a number of years and a member of the Scottish Land Restoration League and it was through the single tax on land monopoly that Hardie gradually became a Fabian socialist. He reasoned that whatever the idea may be, State socialism is necessary as a stage in the development of the ideal, having won the parliamentary seat of West Ham South as an independent candidate in 1892, he helped to form the Independent Labour Party the following year. In 1900 he helped to form the union-based Labour Representation Committee, soon renamed the Labour Party, Hardie was a lay preacher and temperance campaigner, who supported votes for women, self-rule for India, home-rule for Scotland, and an end to segregation in South Africa.
At the outbreak of World War I, he tried to organise a pacifist general strike, James Keir Hardie was born on 15 August 1856 in a two-roomed cottage on the western edge of Newhouse, North Lanarkshire, near Holytown, a small town close to Motherwell in Scotland. His mother, Mary Keir, was a servant and his step-father. Hardies first job came at the young age of seven. Formal schooling henceforth became impossible, but his parents spent evenings teaching him to read and write, a great lockout of the Clydeside shipworkers took place in which the unionised workers were sent home for a period of six months. With their main source of income terminated, the family was forced to sell all their possessions to pay for food, one sibling took ill and died in the miserable conditions which followed, while the pregnancy of his mother limited her own ability to work. Making matters worse, young James lost his job for turning up late on two occasions, in desperation, his step-father returned to work at sea, while his mother moved from Glasgow to Newarthill, where his maternal grandmother still lived.
At the age of 10 years old, Hardie went to work in the mines as a trapper — opening and closing a door for a 10-hour shift in order to maintain the air supply for miners in a given section. Hardie began to attend school in Holytown at this time. Hardies father returned from sea and went to work on a line being constructed between Edinburgh and Glasgow. When this job was completed, the moved to the village of Quarter, South Lanarkshire. He worked for two years above ground in the quarries, by the time he was 20, he had become a skilled practical miner
Bargoed is a town in the Rhymney Valley, one of the South Wales Valleys. Greater Bargoed, as defined by the local authority Caerphilly County Borough Council, consists of the towns of Bargoed, the combined population of these settlements is approximately 13,000. The English meaning of the towns Welsh language name, Bargod, is border, pronunciation of the towns name varies depending on street. There are many variations, from the standard Welsh Barr-god and English Bar-goyd to the informal Baa-Gud, originally a market town, Bargoed grew into a substantial town following the opening of a colliery in 1903. By 1921 Bargoed had a population of 17,901, this has been declining since that time. The colliery, which was the subject of a painting by L. S. Lowry, closed during the 1980s, an electoral ward with the same name exists. At the 2011 census this ward had a population of 6,196, there are ongoing issues with plans for a state of the art Odeon Cinema and the site remains undeveloped. At the rear of the library a new park has been created using 40ft flower sculptures.
The sites of the collieries of Bargoed, Gilfach. The A469 by-pass road connects with the A465 Heads of the Valleys road to the north, Bargoed Grammar Technical School existed as the local grammar school before Heolddu Comprehensive School was formed. Primary Schools include St Gwladys Bargoed School, Park Primary School, Aberbargoed Primary School, Gilfach Fargoed Primary School, Welsh singer-songwriter and British Eurovision contestant James Fox grew up in Gilfach. Ivor Powell, former footballer and manager, was born in Gilfach-Bargoed on July 5,1916. Alun Hoddinott, a composer of music, one of the first Welsh composers to receive international recognition. John Davies, Air Force mechanic, United Church minister and NDP of Canada candidate Justin Edwards - jazz musician, dafydd Williams - Space Shuttle astronaut, whose father Bill was born in Bargoed but moved to Canada when he was 30, displayed the Welsh flag in space. Gerwyn Williams - maker of films and composer of film scores - went to Heolddu Comprehensive School Nathan Cleverly - Boxer - Grew up in Bargoed.
Only Boys Aloud - Welsh Group - Some boys attended Heolddu Comprehensive School, howard Smith - British Olympic Bobsleigher, from John St, educated at Bargoed Grammar School and Heolddu Comprehensive. Competed at the 1984 Winter Olympics at Sarajevo in the 4 Man Bobsleigh, morgan Phillips - General Secretary of the Labour Party 1944-1961. Www. geography. co. uk, photos of Bargoed, Volume 1, The History of Bargoed and Gilfach in Photographs
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
George Lansbury, PC was a British politician and social reformer who led the Labour Party from 1932 to 1935. Originally a radical Liberal, Lansbury converted to socialism in the early 1890s and his activities were underpinned by his Christian beliefs which, except for a short period of doubt, sustained him through his life. Elected to parliament in 1910, he resigned his seat in 1912 to campaign for womens suffrage, in 1912 Lansbury helped to establish the Daily Herald newspaper, and became its editor. Throughout the First World War the paper maintained a strongly pacifist stance and these positions contributed to Lansburys failure to be elected to parliament in 1918. He devoted himself to politics in his home borough of Poplar. After his return to parliament in 1922, Lansbury was denied office in the brief Labour government of 1924, after the political and economic crisis of August 1931 Lansbury did not follow his leader, Ramsay MacDonald, into the National Government, but stayed with the Labour Party.
As the most senior of the contingent of Labour MPs that survived the 1931 general election. He spent his final years travelling through the United States and Europe in the cause of peace, George Lansbury was born in Halesworth in the county of Suffolk on 22 February 1859. He was the third of nine born to a railway worker, named George Lansbury. George seniors job involved the supervision of railway construction gangs, the family was often on the move, by the end of 1868 the family had moved into Londons East End, the district in which Lansbury would live and work for almost all his life. The essayist Ronald Blythe has described the East End of the 1860s and 1870s as stridently English, the smoke-blackened streets were packed with illiterate multitudes stayed alive through sheer birdlike ebullience. Interspersed with spells of work, Lansbury attended schools in Bethnal Green and he held a succession of manual jobs, including work as a coaling contractor in partnership with his elder brother, James and unloading coal wagons.
This was heavy and dangerous work, and led to at least one near-fatal accident and he was present at the riots which erupted outside Gladstones house on 24 February 1878 after a peace meeting in Hyde Park. Shepherd writes that Gladstones Liberalism, proclaiming liberty and community interests was a mix that left an indelible mark on the youthful Lansbury. George Lansbury senior died in 1875 and that year young George met 14-year-old Elizabeth Brine, whose father Isaac Brine owned a local sawmill. The couple eventually married in 1880, at Whitechapel parish church, apart from a period of doubt in the 1890s when he temporarily rejected the Church, Lansbury remained a staunch Anglican until his death. In 1881 the first of Lansburys 12 children, was born, another daughter, seeking to improve his familys prospects, Lansbury decided that their best hopes of prosperity lay in emigrating to Australia. On the outward passage the family experienced illness and danger, on arrival at Brisbane in July 1884, Lansbury found that contrary to the London agents promises, there was a superfluity of labour and work was hard to find
Aneurin Bevan, often known as Nye Bevan, was a Welsh Labour Party politician who was the Minister for Health in the post-war Attlee government from 1945 to 1951. The son of a miner, Bevan was a lifelong champion of social justice, rights of working people. He was a long-time Member of Parliament, representing Ebbw Vale in South Wales for 31 years and he was one of the chief spokesmen for the Labour Partys left wing, and of left-wing British thought generally. He resigned when the Attlee government decided to transfer funds from the National Insurance Fund to pay for rearmament, the left-wing group within the party, known as Bevanite, was named after him, but he did not control it. Bevan remains one of Waless most revered politicians, in 2004, over 40 years after his death, he was voted first in a list of 100 Welsh Heroes, having been credited for his contribution to the welfare state. Bevan was born in Tredegar, Monmouthshire, in the South Wales Valleys and on the edge of the South Wales coalfield, the son of coal miner David Bevan and Phoebe née Prothero.
Both Bevans parents were Nonconformists, his father was a Baptist, one of ten children, Bevan did poorly at school and his academic performance was so bad that his headmaster made him repeat a year. At the age of 13, Bevan left school and began working in the local Ty-Trist Colliery. David Bevan had been a supporter of the Liberal Party in his youth, Aneurin Bevan joined the Tredegar branch of the South Wales Miners Federation and became a trade union activist, he was head of his local Miners Lodge at only 19. Bevan became a well-known local orator and was seen by his employers, the manager of the colliery found an excuse to get him sacked. But, with the support of the Miners Federation, the case was judged as one of victimisation, in 1919, he won a scholarship to the Central Labour College in London, sponsored by the South Wales Miners Federation. There, he spent two years studying economics and history and he read Marxism at the college, developing his left-wing political outlook. Reciting long passages by William Morris, Bevan gradually began to overcome the stammer that he had had since he was a child.
Bevan remained at the College until 1921, attending at a time when a number of his contemporaries from South Wales, some historians have questioned how influential the College was on his political development. He was not, one of the most diligent students, Bevan was one of the founding members of the Query Club with his brother Billy and Walter Conway. The club started in 1920 or 1921 and they met in Tredegar and they would collect money each week for any member who needed it. The club intended to break the hold that the Tredegar Iron, upon returning home in 1921, he found that the Tredegar Iron & Coal Company refused to re-employ him. He did not find work until 1924 and his employer, the Bedwellty Colliery, Bevan had to endure another year of unemployment
Glamorgan or, Glamorganshire is one of the thirteen historic counties of Wales and a former administrative county of Wales. It was originally a medieval petty kingdom of varying boundaries known as Glywysing until taken over by the Normans as a lordship. Glamorgan is latterly represented by the three preserved counties of Mid Glamorgan, South Glamorgan and West Glamorgan, the name survives in that of Vale of Glamorgan, a county borough. After falling under English rule in the 16th century, Glamorgan became a more stable county, the county of Glamorgan comprised several distinct regions, the industrial valleys, the agricultural Vale of Glamorgan, and the scenic Gower Peninsula. The county was bounded to the north by Brecknockshire, east by Monmouthshire, south by the Bristol Channel and its total area was 2,100 km2, and the total population of the three preserved counties of Glamorgan in 1991 was 1,288,309. From 1974 Glamorgan contained two cities, the county town and from 1955 the capital city of Wales, the highest point in the county is Craig y Llyn which is situated near the village of Rhigos in the Cynon Valley.
Glamorgans terrain has been inhabited by humankind for over 200,000 years, climate fluctuation caused the formation and reformation of glaciers which, in turn, caused sea levels to rise and fall. At various times life has flourished, at others the area is likely to have been completely uninhabitable, evidence of the presence of Neanderthals has been discovered on the Gower Peninsula. Whether they remained in the area during periods of cold is unclear. Sea levels have been 150 metres lower and 8 metres higher than at present, archaeological evidence shows that humans settled in the area during an interstadial period. The oldest known burial in Great Britain – the Red Lady of Paviland – was discovered in a coastal cave between Port Eynon and Rhossili, on the Gower Peninsula. The lady has been dated to c.29,000 years before present – during the Late Pleistocene – at which time the cave overlooked an area of plain. From the end of the last ice age Mesolithic hunter-gatherers began to migrate to the British Peninsula – through Doggerland – from the European mainland.
Human lifestyles in North-West Europe changed around 6000 BP, from the Mesolithic nomadic lives of hunting and gathering, to the Neolithic agrarian life of agriculture and they cleared the forests to establish pasture and to cultivate the land and developed new technologies such as ceramics and textile production. A tradition of long construction began in continental Europe during the 7th millennium BP – the free standing megalithic structures supporting a sloping capstone. Nineteen Neolithic chambered tombs and five possible henges have been identified in Glamorgan, two major groups of Neolithic architectural traditions are represented in the area, portal dolmens, and Severn-Cotswold chamber tombs, as well as tombs that do not fall easily into either group. Such massive constructions would have needed a large labour force – up to 200 men – suggestive of large communities nearby, archaeological evidence from some Neolithic sites has shown the continued use of cromlechi in the Bronze Age. The Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – has made an impression on the area
Metropolitan Borough of Fulham
It was a riverside borough, and included the areas of Fulham, West Kensington, Walham Green, Parsons Green and Sands End. The SW6 postal district approximately follows the old Fulham parish, when the metropolitan borough was formed it carried on using the unofficial arms adopted by its predecessor, Fulham vestry in 1886. This was a shield, with a depiction of a bridge in the first. The bridge in the first quarter was the original wooden Putney Bridge and its replacement, the present Putney Bridge, constructed of stone, was shown in the fourth quarter. The new bridge was opened in 1886, when the arms were designed, the second quarter showed crossed swords, from the arms of the Bishop of London. The manor of Fulham was held by the bishop from 691, the third quarter was the arms associated with the county of Middlesex, in which Fulham lay until 1889. The three seaxes on a red field was regarded as the arms of Essex. In 1927 councillor F. H. Barber, proprietor of Barbers Department Store in the borough, offered to pay the costs of a grant of arms, the silver and blue wavy field was for the River Thames, the swords and mitre signifying the Bishop of London.
The crest rose from a mural crown, resembling a city wall. The crest itself was a ship, recalling an expedition to Fulham by the Danes in 879. The main sail was charged with a Tudor rose, recalling the importance of the area in that era, the Latin motto, Pro Civibus Et Civitate, was translated as for citizens and state. Over its existence the boroughs area varied from 1,704 to 1,707 acres, the population, as recorded at the census, Fulham Vestry 1801-1899 Metropolitan Borough 1900–1961 The borough was administered from Fulham Town Hall, on Fulham Broadway, in Walham Green. The hall had been built in 1888 –1890 for the Fulham vestry, when the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham was formed, Hammersmith Town Hall was adopted as the administrative centre. Some offices remain at Fulham however, and contains a registry office, the grand hall is a popular venue for concerts and dances. The london borough council makes the building available for filming purposes, under the Metropolis Management Act 1855 any parish that exceeded 2,000 ratepayers was to be divided into wards, however the parish of Fulham did not exceed this number so was not divided into wards.
In 1883-84 the population had increased enough for the parish to be divided into three wards, North End and South Fulham. In 1894 as its population had increased the incorporated vestry was re-divided into eight wards, Barons Court, Munster, Walham, Hurlingham. The metropolitan borough was divided into eight wards for elections, Barons Court, Lillie, Munster, Sands End, municipal Year Book of the United Kingdom for 1907
Attlee was the first person to hold the office of Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, serving under Winston Churchill in the wartime coalition government. He went on to lead the Labour Party to an election victory in summer 1945. One of only a handful of Labour frontbenchers to retain his seat in the defeat of 1931. In 1935 he became the Leader of the Party, at first advocating pacificism and appeasement, he reversed his position and by 1938 became a strong critic of Neville Chamberlains attempts to appease Adolf Hitler. He took Labour into the Churchill war ministry in 1940, initially serving as Lord Privy Seal, he was appointed Deputy Prime Minister in 1942. With victory in Europe in May 1945, the government was dissolved. Attlee led Labour to win a majority in the ensuing 1945 general election two months later. Within this context, his government undertook the nationalisation of public utilities and major industries, Attlee himself had little interest in economic matters but this settlement was broadly accepted by all parties for three decades.
Foreign policy was the domain of Ernest Bevin, but Attlee took special interest in India. He supervised the process by which India was partitioned into India and he arranged the independence of Burma, and Ceylon. His government ended the British Mandates of Palestine and Jordan, from 1947 he and Bevin pushed the United States to take a more vigorous role in the emerging Cold War against Soviet Communism. When the budgetary crisis forced Britain out of Greece in 1947 he called on Washington to counter the Communists with the Truman Doctrine and he avidly supported the Marshall Plan to rebuild Western Europe with American money. In 1949, he promoted the NATO military alliance against the Soviet bloc and he sent British troops to fight in the Malayan Emergency in 1948 and sent the RAF to participate in the Berlin Airlift. He commissioned an independent nuclear deterrent for the UK and he used 13,000 troops and passed special legislation to promptly end the London dock strike in 1949. After leading Labour to a victory in the 1950 general election.
Attlee was narrowly defeated by the Conservatives under Churchill in the 1951 general election and he continued as Labour leader but had lost his effectiveness by then. He retired after losing the 1955 general election and was elevated to the House of Lords, in public, Attlee was modest and unassuming, he was ineffective at public relations and lacked charisma. His strengths emerged behind the scenes, especially in committees where his depth of knowledge, quiet demeanour, objectivity and he saw himself as spokesman on behalf of his entire party and successfully kept its multiple factions in harness
Moyra Tamsin Dunwoody, sometimes known as Tamsin Dunwoody-Kneafsey, is a British politician. Dunwoody was born in Totnes, the daughter of the late Labour MPs Gwyneth Dunwoody, through her mother she is the granddaughter of former Labour Party General Secretary Morgan Phillips and Norah Phillips, Baroness Phillips. She was educated at the Grey Coat Hospital Church of England girls school in Westminster and she has five children, Demelza, twins Michael and Morgana and Clarissa. Dunwoody trained in the National Health Service, and worked in London hospitals for nearly 15 years and she has been an adviser to small businesses in west Wales, and lives in Haverfordwest. Dunwoody was elected as Assembly Member for Preseli Pembrokeshire from 2003 to 2007, in October 2005 she was appointed Deputy Minister for Environment and Countryside and Deputy Minister for Economic Development and Transport in the Welsh Assembly Government. She was defeated in the 2007 election by Conservative Party candidate Paul Davies and she was selected as the Labour candidate at the Crewe and Nantwich by-election, held on 22 May 2008, which was triggered by the death of her mother.
She lost to Conservative candidate Edward Timpson, by 7,860 votes marking the first Conservative Party parliamentary by-election victory in a Labour-held constituency since 1978. The last parliamentary by-election in which the Conservatives had gained a seat held by another party was in 1982, in Mitcham