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Morganton, North Carolina

Morganton is a city in and the county seat of Burke County, North Carolina, United States. The population was 16,918 at the 2010 census. Morganton is one of the principal cities in the Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton, NC Metropolitan Statistical Area. A site five miles north of here has been identified as the Mississippian culture chiefdom of Joara, occupied from AD 1400 to AD 1600; this was the site of Fort San Juan, built in 1567 by a Spanish expedition as the first European settlement in the interior of North America, 40 years before the English settlement of Jamestown, Virginia. The oldest-known European inland settlement in the United States of Fort San Juan has been identified at Joara, a former Mississippian culture chiefdom located about five miles north of present-day Morganton. In 1567 a Spanish expedition built the fort there, while seeking to establish an interior route to Mexican silver mines; this was more than 40 years before the English settled Jamestown, their first permanent settlement in North America.

The Spanish left a 31-man garrison that occupied the fort for 18 months before being overcome in a Mississippian attack. Five other Spanish forts in the larger interior region were destroyed about that time. Only one soldier survived; the fort and Indian settlement have been under professional excavation since the early 21st century, with findings published since 2004. Europeans associated with the British colonies did not try to settle this far west for nearly 200 years, organizing Burke County in 1777. Today Joara is identified as a significant archaeological and historic site near the Watersee River in the Upper Catawba Valley. Construction of its mounds is believed to have been started by the people of the Mississippian culture by AD 1000, they occupied the site continuously from 1400AD to 1600AD. Based on additional archeological excavations at the "Berry Site" that revealed the remains of a defensive moat constructed in European style, researchers in 2013 concluded that this was the site of Fort San Juan and Joara.

Earlier evidence found in the area included "military artifacts and burned remains of Spanish-built huts." Public welfare facilities, such as the North Carolina School for the Deaf: Main Building and Western North Carolina Insane Asylum, were first authorized by the state legislature in the late 19th century after the American Civil War. In the early 20th century, textile mills were developed in the Piedmont as industry left union-dominated areas of the Northeast United States. During the century, these industrial jobs moved offshore. In the late 20th century and Burke County, still rural and with big poultry farms, became locations for industrial-scale poultry processing plants; these jobs attracted many new immigrants to the state from Central America, leading to an increase in Latino population in this area. During the 1990s, Guatemalan-born workers in Morganton worked to organize a union at the Case Farms poultry plant but were unsuccessful. Labor and factory work have changed in the "Nuevo" South, where many Latino immigrants work in low paid industrial jobs.

They are competing with globalization in some industries. At the state level, North Carolina is working to encourage immigrant communities and their contributions. On January 31, 2006, an explosion occurred at Synthron Inc. a paint additive chemical manufacturer's plant in Morganton. Workers at Synthron reported hearing a loud hiss minutes before the explosion. Most were able to escape the building before the blast, but some who were outside were thrown as far as 20 feet; the explosion was felt as far away as 50 miles. On the day of the explosion, operations appeared normal until after the steam was turned off and the polymer initiating solution was pumped into the reactor; the operator in charge noted that the reaction did not proceed as vigorously as expected, but the solvent evaporated and the condensed solvent flow returning to the reactor appeared within normal range. A few minutes the operator heard a loud hissing and saw vapor venting from the reactor manway; the irritating vapor forced him out of the building.

Three other employees left the building because of the vapors. The operator reentered the building wearing a respirator and started emergency cooling water flow to the reactor; the building exploded less than 30 seconds. The US Chemical Safety Board stated that the solvent vapor leaked from the overheated and over-pressurised process reactor, forming a flammable vapour cloud inside the building that ignited. A total of 14 people were injured in the blast, of whom one man died. In addition, at least 300 fish died due to chemicals leaking into a creek behind the Synthron plant which leads into the Catawba River. Properties recognized for their historic significance date to the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the period of more dense development, they include public facilities, such as the state school for the deaf, numerous private homes and former business facilities, as well as several historic districts. They reflect the development of the area by yeoman farmers, cotton planters who had plantations, as well as the development of cotton and textile mills, followed by other industries.

They include the Avery Avenue Historic District, Avery Avenue School, Alphonse Calhoun Avery House, Broughton Hospital Historic District, Burke County Courthouse, Creekside, U. S. B. Dale's Market, Dunavant Cotton Manufacturing Company, Gaither House, Garrou-Morganton Full-Fashioned Hosiery Mills, Gaston Chapel, Hunting Creek Railroad Bridge, Jonesboro Historic District, John Alexander Lackey House, Magnolia Place, Morganton Downtown Historic District, Mountain

Stockton Formation

The Triassic Stockton Formation is a mapped bedrock unit in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York. It is named after New Jersey, where it was first described, it is laterally equivalent to the New Oxford Formation in the Gettysburg Basin of Pennsylvania and Maryland. The Stockton is defined as a light-gray to light brown and yellowish medium to coarse grained sandstone and reddish to purplish-brown siltstone and mudstone with shale interbeds. In New Jersey, feldspar pebbly sandstone and conglomerate, quartz-pebble conglomerate are mapped; the Stockton is described as a bajada. The sediments were a result of the rifting of Pangea; the sediments came from the southeast from a granitic terrane and spread across an plain. Interfingered with the Stockton, the Lockatong Formation are lake sediments, which grew during wetter climatic cycles during the Late Triassic; some fossils found within the Stockton Formation are fossil ferns including Sphenopteris sitholeyi. Virginia Museum of Natural History Guidebook, no 1, p83.

Relative age dating of the Stockton places it in the Upper Triassic System, i.e. deposition between 237 and 207 million years ago. It rests unconformably a top many different formations of the Appalachian Piedmont, it interfingers with the Lockatong Formation and rests conformably below the Passaic Formation. There are numerous diabase intrusions into the Stockton with local contact metamorphic rocks. Geology of New Jersey Geology of Pennsylvania

José Rodrigo da Câmara

José Rodrigo da Câmara, member of the Azorean dynastic Gonçalves da Câmara family, he was son of Manuel Luís Baltazar da Câmara, by extension the second Count, 11th Donatary Captain of the island of São Miguel. He spend little time in the Azores. Born in the Azores, nonetheless he was educated, for the most part, in Lisbon, his father died when he was eight years old, he was invested in the title of Donatary-Captain of the island, under the administration of his ouvidores who responded to his mother and tutor. At the age of 19 he married in Paris, by civil union, the Princess Constance Émilie de Rohan, daughter of the French House of Rohan and Prince of Soubise, with his godparents the King of France, he spent little time in the Captaincy of the São Miguel, only between 1691 and 1693 around 1701. The only incentive recorded by this noble was the establishment of a wool textile factory in Ribeira Grande, founded in conjunction with his son Luís Manuel da Câmara, who resided in Paris, contracted people to handle his affairs locally.

This included 52 French workmen, who were sent to work in the establishment. He died in Lisbon in 1724, a year after the death of his son. Notes SourcesBento, Carlos Melo, História dos Açores: Da descoberta a 1934, Ponta Delgada, Portugal: Câmara Municipal de Ponta Delgada


Fatty acid binding protein 7, brain, is a human gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a brain fatty acid binding protein. Fatty acid binding proteins are a family of small conserved, cytoplasmic proteins that bind long-chain fatty acids and other hydrophobic ligands. FABPs are thought to play roles in fatty acid uptake and metabolism. FABP7 is expressed, in radial glia by the activation of Notch receptors. Reelin was shown to induce FABP7 expression in neural progenitor cells via Notch-1 activation. According to one study, FABP7 binds DHA with the highest affinity among all of the FABPs. FABP7 maps onto human chromosome 6q22.31, a schizophrenia linkage region corroborated by a meta-analysis. As of 2008, two studies have been conducted into FABP7 as a possible risk gene for schizophrenia, with one, that tested for only one SNP, showing negative and another, with seven SNPs, a positive result; the effect of the gene in the latter study was stronger in males. This study linked FABP7 variation to weak prepulse inhibition in mice.

Schizophrenia, Startled Response & Fabp7: Future Dietary Changes for At-Risk Mothers? Schizophrenia Daily News Blog, 2007-11-07 Gross L A Candidate Gene for a Biological Marker of Schizophrenia in Mice" PLoS Biol 5 e320 doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050320 - a synopsis for the general audience


Year 462 was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Leo; the denomination 462 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years. September 1 – Possible start of the first Byzantine indiction cycle. Emperor Leo I pays a large ransom for Licinia Placidia, they return after seven years of captivity in Carthage. The Statue of Zeus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, is destroyed by fire after being moved to Constantinople; the Monastery of Stoudios is founded in Constantinople. The Daming calendar is introduced in China by mathematician Zu Chongzhi. Anicia Juliana, daughter of Olybrius Muryeong, king of Baekje Licinia Eudoxia, Roman empress Lóegaire mac Néill, High King of Ireland

Fortín Solano

Fortín Solano is an eighteenth-century colonial fortification overlooking Puerto Cabello, Venezuela. With the Castillo San Felipe, an earlier fort built at sea level, it formed part of a complex of fortifications designed to protect Puerto Cabello and its important harbour from naval attacks, it was constructed c. 1766 by order of Don José Solano y Bote on behalf of the King of Spain. It has been described as the last military construction built in Venezuela during the colonial era; the fort has been the center of several notable events in Venezuelan history. Spanish commander Antonio Zuazola was hanged after a surprise attack by the forces of Rafael Urdaneta overthrew the royalists, giving control of the fort to the patriots. Pedro Carujo was imprisoned in the fort after attempting to kill Simón Bolívar in 1828. In 1962, the fort was the stronghold of an uprising led by several commanders in the city, it was declared a National monument in 1965 and is located inside the San Esteban National Park, designed in 1987.

Fortín Solano is located in the San Esteban National Park, south of Carabobo. It is a military fort built by order of governor of Venezuela, Don José Solano y Bote c. 1766 in the area referred to as Cresta de Vigía. It was designed to house artillery and was intended to protect the commercial complex of the city and the harbour from naval attacks, it was the only colonial fortification to be built between 1763 and 1771 and it is described as the last military construction built during the colonial era in Venezuela. Before the construction of Fortín Solano, Puerto Cabello had resisted attacks from the British in the Battle of Puerto Cabello. Puerto Cabello continued to be controlled by Spanish forces after the fort's construction in 1766 until it was lost to Venezuela patriots on September 1, 1813. A surprise attack took place, aided by the forces of Rafael Urdaneta, in the midst of the Admirable Campaign in the Venezuelan War of Independence; the following day, Spanish commander Antonio Zuazola, known for having mutilated hundreds of prisoners in the east of the country, was imprisoned.

Simón Bolívar, leader of the patriots, offered Domingo de Monteverde, leader of the royalists, the exchange of Zuazola with Domingo Jalón. After the proposal was rejected by the royalists, Bolívar ordered the death of Zuazola, hanged from a flagpole outside the walls of the fort. In 1828, Bolívar issued a decree establishing his dictatorship in the country. On the night of September 25, 1828 the conspirators attempted to assassinate Bolivar at the presidential palace. Pedro Carujo, born in Barcelona, became a Commander in 1828, hand picked by Simón Bolívar to lead the Military Academy founded in Bogotá. However, Carujo joined the supporters of Santander and attempted to kill Bolívar while on the revolt of September 25, for which he was sentenced to death and moved to the Solano fort in March 1829. After managing to escape several months he was recaptured and irons were attached to him, he was deported to Curacao in June 1830, only to return several months under the government of José Antonio Páez.

In 1904, a budget designed by engineer Germán Jimenez was approved by the Ministry of Public Works to repair the fort. On June 2, 1962 an uprising led by Manuel Ponte Rodriguez, commander Pedro Medina Silva and Lieutenant Commander Victor Hugo Morales occurred in the city of Puerto Cabello; as soon as the national Government became aware of the revolt, troops of both the Air Force and the Army led by Colonel Alfredo Monch are sent to bomb and surround the city. At the same time, most of the officers in command of 55th National Guard squadron and detachment refuse to participate in the uprising; the following day, the Ministry of Interior announced that Armed forces loyal to the government defeated the rebellion with a balance of 400 deaths and 700 wounded. On June 6, Fortín Solano, used as a stronghold by the rebels, fell when the leaders of the revolt were captured by the Army; the fort was declared a National monument in 1965. It is included in the boundaries of a National Park which, as well as being of ecological importance, protects other infrastructure dating from the colonial era, including the Camino de los Españoles, a route to Valencia.

Puerto Cabello San Esteban National Park