An art centre or arts center is distinct from an art gallery or art museum. An arts centre is a functional community centre with a specific remit to encourage arts practice and to provide facilities such as theatre space, gallery space, venues for musical performance, workshop areas, educational facilities, technical equipment, etc. In the United States, "art centers" are either establishments geared toward exposing and making accessible art making to arts-interested individuals, or buildings that rent to artists, galleries, or companies involved in art making. In Britain, art centres began after World War II and changed from middle-class places to 1960s and 1970s trendy, alternative centres and in the 1980s to serving the whole community with a programme of enabling access to wheelchair users and disabled individuals and groups. In the rest of Europe it is common among most art centres that they are government funded, since they are considered to have a positive influence on society and economics according to the Rhineland model philosophy.
A lot of those organisations started in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s as squatted spaces and were legalized. Calgary, Alberta: Arts Commons Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island: Confederation Centre of the Arts Ottawa, Ontario: National Arts Centre Toronto, Ontario: Toronto Centre for the Arts Vancouver, British Columbia: Firehall Arts Centre Arlington, Virginia: Artisphere Atlanta, Georgia: Eyedrum Chicago, Illinois: Hairpin Arts Center, Hyde Park Art Center, Lillstreet Art Center, South Side Community Art Center Dallas, Texas: The Dallas Contemporary Indianapolis, Indiana: Indianapolis Art Center Milford, Pennsylvania: Pike County Arts and Crafts Minneapolis, Minnesota: Walker Art Center New York City, New York: Apexart, Exit Art, International Studio & Curatorial Program Philadelphia: Painted Bride Art Center Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh Center for the Arts, Pittsburgh Glass Center Raleigh, North Carolina: Pullen Park Richmond, Virginia: Visual Arts Center of Richmond Ghent: VooruitItaly Sesto al Reghena: Art Aia-Creatives/In/Residence Nantes: Le Lieu unique Amsterdam: OT301 Nijmegen: Extrapool Rotterdam: WORM Matadero Madrid Gijón: LABoral Centro de Arte y Creación Industrial Aberystwyth: Aberystwyth Arts Centre Belfast Metropolitan Arts Centre Birmingham: mac Bristol: Arnolfini Cambridgeshire: Wysing Arts Centre Cardiff: Chapter Arts Centre Coventry: Warwick Arts Centre Derby: Quad Dundee: Dundee Contemporary Arts Edinburgh: Summerhall Fareham: Ashcroft Arts Centre Glasgow: Third Eye Centre Centre for Contemporary Arts Havant: The Spring Arts & Heritage Centre Leicester: Attenborough Arts Centre (?–present]] London: Barbican Centre Camden Arts Centre Southbank Centre Battersea Arts Centre Manchester: Cornerhouse HOME Newcastle: Newcastle Arts Centre Norwich: Norwich Arts Centre Omagh: Strule Arts Centre Plymouth: Plymouth Arts Centre Gerard Behar Center, Jerusalem Huaxia Art Centre, Shenzhen Ciputra Artpreneur, Jakarta National Arts Center, Los Baños, Laguna Cultural Center of the Philippines Complex, City of Manila Changhua: National Changhua Living Art Center Chiayi City: Art Site of Chiayi Railway Warehouse Kaohsiung: Dadong Arts Center, Pier-2 Art Center, Wei-Wu-Ying Center for the Arts Miaoli: Wu Zhuo-liu Art and Cultural Hall New Taipei: Banqiao 435 Art Zone, Xinzhuang Culture and Arts Center Pingtung: Pingtung Performing Arts Center Taichung: Taichung City Tun District Art Center Taipei: National Taiwan Arts Education Center Taoyuan: Taoyuan Arts Center, Zhongli Arts Hall Yilan: National Center for Traditional Arts Bangkok Art and Culture Centre Artivism Cultural center Infoshop Music venue Not-for-profit arts organization Social center
Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media, including ancient pottery, ink painting and calligraphy on silk and paper, ukiyo-e paintings and woodblock prints, ceramics and more manga, modern Japanese cartoons and comics along with a myriad of other types. It has a long history, ranging from the beginnings of human habitation in Japan, sometime in the 10th millennium BC, to the present-day country. Japan has been subject to sudden invasions of new ideas followed by long periods of minimal contact with the outside world. Over time the Japanese developed the ability to absorb and assimilate those elements of foreign culture that complemented their aesthetic preferences; the earliest complex art in Japan was produced in the 7th and 8th centuries in connection with Buddhism. In the 9th century, as the Japanese began to turn away from China and develop indigenous forms of expression, the secular arts became important. After the Ōnin War, Japan entered a period of political and economic disruption that lasted for over a century.
In the state that emerged under the leadership of the Tokugawa shogunate, organized religion played a much less important role in people's lives, the arts that survived were secular. Painting is the preferred artistic expression in Japan, practiced by amateurs and professionals alike; until modern times, the Japanese wrote with a brush rather than a pen, their familiarity with brush techniques has made them sensitive to the values and aesthetics of painting. With the rise of popular culture in the Edo period, a style of woodblock prints became a major form and its techniques were fine tuned to produce colorful prints; the Japanese, in this period, found sculpture a much less sympathetic medium for artistic expression. Japanese ceramics are among the finest in the world and include the earliest known artifacts of their culture. In architecture, Japanese preferences for natural materials and an interaction of interior and exterior space are expressed; the first settlers of Japan, the Jōmon people, named for the cord markings that decorated the surfaces of their clay vessels, were nomadic hunter-gatherers who practiced organized farming and built cities with populations of hundreds if not thousands.
They built simple houses of wood and thatch set into shallow earthen pits to provide warmth from the soil. They crafted lavishly decorated pottery storage vessels, clay figurines called dogū, crystal jewels. During the Early Jōmon Period, villages started to be discovered and ordinary everyday objects were found such as ceramic ports purposed for boiling water; the pots that were found during this time had flat bottoms and had elaborate designs made out of materials such as bamboo. In addition, another important find was the early Jōmon figurines which might have been used as fertility objects due to the breasts and swelling hips that they exhibited; the Middle Jōmon Period, contrasted from the Early Jōmon Period in many ways. These people began to settle in villages, they created tools that were able to process the food that they gathered and hunted which made living easier for them. Through the numerous aesthetically pleasing ceramics that were found during this time period, it is evident that these people had a stable economy and more leisure time to establish beautiful pieces.
In addition, the people of the Middle Jōmon period differed from their preceding ancestors because they developed vessels according to their function, for example, they produced pots in order to store items. The decorations on these vessels started to become more realistic looking as opposed to the early Jōmon ceramics. Overall, the production of works not only increased during this period, but these individuals made them more decorative and naturalistic. During the Late and Final Jōmon period, the weather started to get colder, therefore forcing them to move away from the mountains; the main food source during this time was fish, which made them improve their fishing supplies and tools. This advancement was a important achievement during this time. In addition, the numbers of vessels increased which could conclude that each house had their own figurine displayed in them. Although various vessels were found during the Late and Final Jōmon Period, these pieces were found damaged which might indicate that they used them for rituals.
In addition, figurines were found and were characterized by their fleshy bodies and goggle like eyes. The next wave of immigrants was the Yayoi people, named for the district in Tokyo where remnants of their settlements first were found; these people, arriving in Japan about 300 BC, brought their knowledge of wetland rice cultivation, the manufacture of copper weapons and bronze bells, wheel-thrown, kiln-fired ceramics. The third stage in Japanese prehistory, the Kofun period, represents a modification of Yayoi culture, attributable either to internal development or external force; the period is named for the large number of kofun megalithic tombs created during this period. In this period, diverse groups of people coalesced into a nation. Typical artifacts are bronze mirrors, symbols of political alliances, clay sculptures called haniwa which were erected outside tombs. During the Asuka and Nara periods, so named because the seat of Japanese government was located in the Asuka Valley from 542 to 645 and in the city of Nara until 7
Japanese New Year
The Japanese New Year is an annual festival with its own customs. Since 1873, the official Japanese New Year has been celebrated according to the Gregorian calendar, on January 1 of each year, New Year's Day. However, some traditional events of the Japanese New Year are celebrated on the first day of the year on the modern Tenpō calendar, the last official lunisolar calendar, used until 1872 in Japan. Prior to the Meiji period, the date of the Japanese New Year had been based on Japanese versions of lunisolar calendar and, prior to Jōkyō calendar, the Chinese versions. However, in 1873, five years after the Meiji Restoration, Japan adopted the Gregorian calendar and the first day of January became the official and cultural New Year's Day in Japan. Japanese people eat a selection of dishes during the New Year celebration called osechi-ryōri shortened to osechi. Many of these dishes are sweet, sour, or dried, so they can keep without refrigeration—the culinary traditions date to a time before households had refrigerators, when most stores closed for the holidays.
There are many variations of osechi, some foods eaten in one region are not eaten in other places on New Year's Day. Another popular dish is ozōni, a soup with mochi rice cake and other ingredients that differ based on various regions of Japan. Today and sushi are eaten, as well as non-Japanese foods. To let the overworked stomach rest, seven-herb rice soup is prepared on the seventh day of January, a day known as jinjitsu. Another custom is to eat rice cakes. Boiled sticky rice is put into a wooden container usu and patted with water by one person while another person hits it with a large wooden mallet. Mashing the rice, it forms a sticky white dumpling; this is eaten during the beginning of January. Mochi is made into a New Year's decoration called kagami mochi, formed from two round cakes of mochi with a tangerine placed on top; the name daidai is supposed to be auspicious since it means "several generations." At midnight on December 31, Buddhist temples all over Japan ring their bells a total of 108 times to symbolize the 108 human sins in Buddhist belief, to get rid of the 108 worldly desires regarding sense and feeling in every Japanese citizen.
A major attraction is The Watched Night bell, in Tokyo. Japanese believe; the bell is rung 107 times on once past midnight. It is very common to eat buckwheat noodles called toshikoshi soba on the New Year's Eve; the end of December and the beginning of January are the busiest times for the Japanese post offices. The Japanese have a custom of sending New Year's Day postcards to their friends and relatives, similar to the Western custom of sending Christmas cards, their original purpose was to give your faraway friends and relatives tidings of yourself and your immediate family. In other words, this custom existed for people to tell others whom they did not meet that they were alive and well. Japanese people send these postcards; the post office guarantees to deliver the greeting postcards on 1 January if they are posted within a time limit, from mid-December to near the end of the month and are marked with the word nengajō. To deliver these cards on time, the post office hires students part-time to help deliver the letters.
It is customary not to send these postcards. In this case, a family member sends a simple postcard called mochū hagaki to inform friends and relatives they should not send New Year's cards, out of respect for the deceased. People get their nengajō from many sources. Stationers sell preprinted cards. Most of these have the Chinese zodiac sign of the New Year as their design, or conventional greetings, or both; the Chinese zodiac has a cycle of 12 years. Each year is represented by an animal; the animals are, in order: Rat, Ox, Rabbit, Snake, Goat, Rooster and Pig. 2008 was the year of the Rat, 2009 Ox, 2010 Tiger, 2011 Rabbit, 2012 Dragon, 2013 was the year of the Snake. Famous characters like Snoopy, other cartoon characters like Mickey and Minnie Mouse, have been popular in their celebrated years. Addressing is done by hand, is an opportunity to demonstrate one's handwriting; the postcards may have spaces for the sender to write a personal message. Blank cards are available, so people can hand-write or draw their own.
Rubber stamps with conventional messages and with the annual animal are on sale at department stores and other outlets, many people buy ink brushes for personal greetings. Special printing devices are popular among people who practice crafts. Software lets artists create their own designs and output them using their computer's color printer; because a gregarious individual might have hundreds to write, print shops offer a wide variety of sample postcards with short messages so that the sender has only to write addresses. With the rise in popularity of email, the nengajō remains popular in Japan, although the younger generation hardly send any cards, preferring to exchange digital greetings using their mobile phones. In recent years this digital greeting preference is accepted among the society. Conventional greetings include: kotoshi mo yoroshiku o-negai-shimasu akemashite o-medetō-gozaimasu
Morikami Park is a park in Palm Beach County, Florida. The park is named for George Morikami, a Japanese immigrant to Florida who donated the land for the park to the county, it is the site of the Morikami Museum and Japanese Gardens and includes picnic areas and playgrounds. The American Orchid Society Visitor Center and Botanical Garden used to be located in the park, but the orchid collection was moved to Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden in 2011, the visitor center was sold
Culture of Japan
The culture of Japan has changed over the millennia, from the country's prehistoric Jōmon period, to its contemporary modern culture, which absorbs influences from Asia and North America. Strong 9,000 year old ancient Han Chinese cultural influences, including the 8,000 year old ancient Han Chinese writing script, are still evident in traditional Japanese culture as China had been a global superpower, which has resulted in Japan absorbing many elements of ancient Han Chinese culture first through what as the Imperial Chinese tributary vassal state of Korea later through direct cultural exchanges during China's Sui and Tang dynasties; the inhabitants of Japan experienced a long period of relative isolation from the outside world during the Tokugawa shogunate after Japanese missions to Imperial China, until the arrival of the "Black Ships" and the Meiji period. Today, the culture of Japan stands as one of the leading and most prominent cultures around the world due to the global reach of its popular culture.
Japanese is the primary language of Japan. Japanese has a lexically distinct pitch-accent system. Early Japanese is known on the basis of its state in the 8th century, when the three major works of Old Japanese were compiled; the earliest attestation of the Japanese language is in a Chinese document from 252 AD. Japanese is written with a combination of three scripts: hiragana, derived from the Chinese cursive script, derived as a shorthand from Chinese characters, kanji, imported from China; the Latin alphabet, rōmaji, is often used in modern Japanese for company names and logos and when inputting Japanese into a computer. The Hindu-Arabic numerals are used for numbers, but traditional Sino-Japanese numerals are very common. Shintoism and Buddhism are the primary religions of Japan, though a secular Christmas is widespread, minority Christian and Islamic communities exist. Shintoism is an ethnic religion that focuses on rituals. In Shintoism, followers believe that kami, a Shinto deity or spirit, are present throughout nature, including rocks and mountains.
Humans can be considered to possess a kami. One of the goals of Shintoism is to maintain a connection between humans and kami; the religion developed in Japan prior to the sixth century CE, after which point followers built shrines to worship kami. Buddhism developed in India around the 6th and 4th centuries BCE and spread through China and Korea, it arrived in Japan during the 6th century CE, where it was unpopular. Most Japanese people were unable to understand the difficult philosophical messages present in Buddhism, however they did have an appreciation for the religion's art, believed to have led to the religion growing more popular. Buddhism is concerned with the life after dying. In the religion a person's status was unimportant, as every person would get sick, die, be reincarnated into a new life, a cycle called saṃsāra; the suffering people experienced during life was one way for people to gain a better future. The ultimate goal was to escape the cycle of rebirth by attaining true insight.
The Japanese "national character" has been written about under the term Nihonjinron meaning "theories/discussions about the Japanese people" and referring to texts on matters that are the concerns of sociology, history and philosophy, but emphasizing the authors' assumptions or perceptions of Japanese exceptionalism. Early works of Japanese literature were influenced by cultural contact with China and Chinese literature written in Classical Chinese. Japanese literature developed into a separate style in its own right as Japanese writers began writing their own works about Japan. Since Japan reopened its ports to Western trading and diplomacy in the 19th century and Eastern literature have affected each other and continue to do so; the flowing, brush-drawn Japanese rendering of text itself is seen as a traditional art form as well as a means of conveying written information. The written work can consist of phrases, stories, or single characters; the style and format of the writing can mimic the subject matter to the point of texture and stroke speed.
In some cases, it can take over one hundred attempts to produce the desired effect of a single character but the process of creating the work is considered as much an art as the end product itself. This calligraphy form is known as'shodō' which means'the way of writing or calligraphy' or more known as'shūji"learning how to write characters'. Confused with calligraphy is the art form known as'sumi-e' meaning'ink painting', the art of painting a scene or object. Painting has been an art in Japan for a long time: the brush is a traditional writing and painting tool, the extension of that to its use as an artist's tool was natural. Japanese painters are categorized by what they painted, as most of them constrained themselves to subjects such as animals, landscapes, or figures. Chinese papermaking was introduced to Japan around the 7th century. Washi was developed from it. Native Japanese painting techniques are still in use today, as well as techniques adopted from continental Asia and from the West.
Schools of painting such as the Kano school of the 16th century became known for their bold brush strokes and contrast between light and dark after Oda Nobunaga and Tokugawa Ieyasu
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and