Linen /ˈlɪnᵻn/ is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant. Linen is laborious to manufacture, but the fiber is very absorbent, many products are made of linen, bags, napkins, bed linens, runners, chair covers, and mens and womens wear. The word linen is of West Germanic origin and cognate to the Latin name for the plant, linum. This word history has given rise to a number of terms in English, most notably line. Textiles in a linen weave texture, even made of cotton, hemp. Such fabrics generally have their own names, for example fine cotton yarn in a linen-style weave is called Madapolam. The collective term linens is still used generically to describe a class of woven or knitted bed, table. The inner layer of fine composite cloth garments was traditionally made of linen, Linen textiles appear to be some of the oldest in the world, their history goes back many thousands of years. Fragments of straw, fibers and various types of dating to about 8000 BC have been found in Swiss lake dwellings.
Dyed flax fibers found in a cave in Georgia suggest the use of woven linen fabrics from wild flax may date back even earlier to 36,000 BP. Linen was sometimes used as currency in ancient Egypt, egyptian mummies were wrapped in linen as a symbol of light and purity, and as a display of wealth. Some of these fabrics, woven from hand-spun yarns, were fine for their day. In 1923 the German city Bielefeld issued banknotes printed on linen, linen is usually an expensive textile produced in relatively small quantities. It has a long staple relative to cotton and other natural fibers, the word linen is derived from the Latin for the flax plant, which is linum, and the earlier Greek λίνον. The discovery of dyed flax fibers in a cave in Georgia dated to thirty-six thousand years ago suggests that ancient people used wild flax fibers to create linen-like fabrics from an early date, in ancient Mesopotamia, flax was domesticated and linen was first produced. It was used mainly by the class of the society.
The Sumerian poem of the courtship of Inanna and Dumuzi, translated by Samuel Noah Kramer and Diane Wolkstein and published in 1983, mentions flax and linen. It opens with briefly listing the steps of preparing linen from flax, in a form of questions, in ancient Egypt, linen was used for mummification and for burial shrouds
Wissant is a seaside commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France. Vulganius, Wissant was specified, probably anachronistically, as the disembarkation point for the early eighth-century Celtic saint in his evangelizing travels. Wissant was the port of Robert de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Leicester, for his ill-fated invasion of England in 1173. Henry III of England of England was stranded at Wissant for lack of cash, according to Matthew Paris its naucleri habitually interfered with English fishing fleets. From the 7th to the 14th century, the language was the West Franconian dialect called Old Dutch. Shifting coastal sands silted up the harbor, at the time that Calais was rising in importance as a port towards the end of the 12th century. At the end of the 19th century, the dunes of Wissant began to be covered with seaside villas. During the 20th century, an entrepreneur, Mr. Létendart from Calais, extracted sand and gravel from the dunes to the west of Wissant, the huge excavations now form lakes and a nature reserve.
At the time of the exploitation of gravel pits, the bones of a complete mammoth with its tusks were discovered by four workers. In July 1909 Wissant stood at the centre of worldwide focus, three contenders for the £1,000 Northcliffe prize offered by the Daily Mail for the first heavier-than-air craft to cross the English channel were camped along the coast between Calais and Wissant. The Franco-Russian Comte Charles de Lambert who had two Wright Flyers and was camped at Wissant, while practising over the dunes he crashed heavily and cancelled his plans. Louis Blériot won the prize and worldwide fame, from his camp at Calais, because of the frequent and usually favourable winds and the proximity of the TGV railway station and the Eurostar trains to Frethun, Parisians call Wissant the Mecca” of surfing. Only by Queen Philippa of Hainauts request the six men were saved, auguste Rodin used this subject for his famous sculpture The Burghers of Calais. The French President Charles de Gaulle had a summer house in Wissant that still exists today.
The church of St. Nicholas, dating from the fifteenth century, le Typhonium, a villa built in Egyptian style by the artist Adrien Demont and his wife Virginie Demont-Breton Two 17th century fortified manorhouses. An old watermill, converted into a museum, now closed to the public. The Commonwealth War Graves Commission cemetery which contains the graves of 11 Commonwealth war dead of the Second World War, communes of the Pas-de-Calais department INSEE commune file Official Wissant website A Wissant website The history of Wissant Wissant on the Quid website The CWGC cemetery
Christianity is a Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ, who serves as the focal point for the religion. It is the worlds largest religion, with over 2.4 billion followers, or 33% of the global population, Christians believe that Jesus is the Son of God and the savior of humanity whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Christian theology is summarized in creeds such as the Apostles Creed and his incarnation, earthly ministry and resurrection are often referred to as the gospel, meaning good news. The term gospel refers to accounts of Jesuss life and teaching, four of which—Matthew, Luke. Christianity is an Abrahamic religion that began as a Second Temple Judaic sect in the mid-1st century, following the Age of Discovery, Christianity spread to the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, and the rest of the world through missionary work and colonization. Christianity has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization, throughout its history, Christianity has weathered schisms and theological disputes that have resulted in many distinct churches and denominations.
Worldwide, the three largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the denominations of Protestantism. There are many important differences of interpretation and opinion of the Bible, concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds. They began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith, even agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. The Baptists have been non-creedal in that they have not sought to establish binding authoritative confessions of faith on one another. Also rejecting creeds are groups with roots in the Restoration Movement, such as the Christian Church, the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada, the Apostles Creed is the most widely accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists and this particular creed was developed between the 2nd and 9th centuries.
Its central doctrines are those of the Trinity and God the Creator, each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period. The creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Most Christians accept the use of creeds, and subscribe to at least one of the mentioned above. The central tenet of Christianity is the belief in Jesus as the Son of God, Christians believe that Jesus, as the Messiah, was anointed by God as savior of humanity, and hold that Jesus coming was the fulfillment of messianic prophecies of the Old Testament. The Christian concept of the Messiah differs significantly from the contemporary Jewish concept, having become fully human, suffered the pains and temptations of a mortal man, but did not sin
Victoricus, Fuscian, and Gentian
Victoricus and Gentian were three Christian martyrs venerated as Roman Catholic saints. Their feast day falls on December 11 and they were followers of Saint Quentin, as well as of Crispin and Crispinian. Near Amiens, they met Gentian, who warned them that Christians were being killed for their faith, the governor Rictius Varus questioned Gentian about the whereabouts of Victoricus and Fuscian. Gentian refused to him and was consequently beheaded. According to the Golden Legend, the governor brought Victoricus, took spears of iron and put them through their ears and through their nostrils, and had them decapitated. And by the will and power of our Lord, they arose up, and took their heads in their hands and it is said that all three were buried at the place called Saint-Fuscien. It is said that Honoratus of Amiens, seventh bishop of Amiens, had discovered in his diocese the relics of these martyrs, childebert attempted to possess these relics, but was prevented from removing them. Subsequently, the king made generous gifts to endow the cult of the three saints and sent goldsmiths to fashion decorative pieces in their honour, statues of Fuscian and Victoricus stand in the left portal of Amiens Cathedral.
During the 7th century, Saint Audomare re-evangelized the same area, stephen Murray, The Portals, Access to Redemption Saint Victoric et Saint Fuscien
Mere in English refers to a lake that is broad in relation to its depth, e. g. Martin Mere. A significant effect of its depth is that for all or most of the time. The word mere is recorded in Old English as mere ″sea, lake″, corresponding to Old Saxon meri, Old Low Franconian *meri, Old High German mari / meri, Goth. mari-, Old Norse marr ″sea″. They derive from reconstituted Proto-Germanic *mari, itself from Indo-European *mori, the Indo-European root *mori gave birth to similar words in the other European languages, Latin mare ″sea″, Old Celtic *mori ″sea″, Old Slavic morje. The word once included the sea or an arm of the sea in its range of meaning and it is a poetical or dialect word meaning a sheet of standing water, a lake or a pond. The OEDs fourth definition includes such as fen amongst usages of the word which is reflected in the lexicographers recording of it. In a quotation from the year 598, mere is contrasted against moss, the OED quotation from 1609 does not say what a mere is, except that it looks black.
In 1629 mere and marsh were becoming interchangeable but in 1876 mere was heard, at times, applied to ground permanently under water, in other words, a very shallow lake. This can be delayed where the mere is fed by water from chalk or limestone upland. In these circumstances, the lime is deposited on the peaty bed, a typical feature of these meres is that they are alongside a river rather than having the river flowing through them. In this way, the mere is replenished by seepage from the bed of the river, through the rivers natural levée. The water of the mere is static through the summer, even quite shallow lake water can develop a thermocline in the short term but where there is a moderately windy climate, the circulation caused by wind drift is sufficient to break this up. This means that the bed of the mere is aerated and bottom-feeding fish and wildfowl can survive. Expressed more technically, the mere consists entirely of the epilimnion and this is quite unlike Windermere where in summer, there is a sharp thermocline at a depth of 9 to 15 metres, well above the maximum depth of 60 metres or so.
At first sight, the feature of a mere is its breadth in relation to its shallow depth. This means that it has a surface in proportion to the volume of water it contains. However, there is a depth beyond which a lake does not behave as a mere since the sun does not warm the deeper water. Here, a thermocline develops but where the limiting dimensions lie is influenced by the sunniness and windiness of the site and this last usually depends on how eutrophic the water is
Augustus was the founder of the Roman Principate and considered the first Roman emperor, controlling the Roman Empire from 27 BC until his death in AD14. He was born Gaius Octavius into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia and his maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, and Octavius was named in Caesars will as his adopted son and heir, known as Octavianus. He, Mark Antony, and Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar, following their victory at the Battle of Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators. The Triumvate was eventually torn apart by the ambitions of its members. Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, in reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, and it took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule.
He rejected monarchical titles, and instead called himself Princeps Civitatis, the resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire. The reign of Augustus initiated an era of peace known as the Pax Romana. Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Pannonia and Raetia, expanding possessions in Africa, expanding into Germania, beyond the frontiers, he secured the Empire with a buffer region of client states and made peace with the Parthian Empire through diplomacy. Augustus died in AD14 at the age of 75 and he probably died from natural causes, although there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him. He was succeeded as Emperor by his adopted son Tiberius, Augustus was known by many names throughout his life, At birth, he was named Gaius Octavius after his biological father. Historians typically refer to him simply as Octavius between his birth in 63 until his adoption by Julius Caesar in 44 BC, upon his adoption, he took Caesars name and became Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus in accordance with Roman adoption naming standards.
He quickly dropped Octavianus from his name, and his contemporaries referred to him as Caesar during this period, historians. In 27 BC, following his defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra and it is the events of 27 BC from which he obtained his traditional name of Augustus, which historians use in reference to him from 27 BC until his death in AD14. While his paternal family was from the town of Velletri, approximately 40 kilometres from Rome and he was born at Ox Head, a small property on the Palatine Hill, very close to the Roman Forum. He was given the name Gaius Octavius Thurinus, his cognomen possibly commemorating his fathers victory at Thurii over a band of slaves. Due to the nature of Rome at the time, Octavius was taken to his fathers home village at Velletri to be raised. Octavius only mentions his fathers equestrian family briefly in his memoirs and his paternal great-grandfather Gaius Octavius was a military tribune in Sicily during the Second Punic War
Amiens is a city and commune in northern France,120 km north of Paris and 100 km south-west of Lille. It is the capital of the Somme department in Hauts-de-France, the city had a population of 136,105 according to the 2006 census. It has one of the biggest university hospitals in France with a capacity of 1,200 beds, Amiens Cathedral, the tallest of the large, Gothic churches of the 13th century and the largest in France of its kind, is a World Heritage Site. The author Jules Verne lived in Amiens from 1871 until his death in 1905, during December, the town hosts the largest Christmas market in northern France. The first known settlement at this location was Samarobriva, the settlement of the Ambiani. The town was given the name Ambianum by the Romans, meaning settlement of the Ambiani people, the town has been much fought over, being attacked by barbarian tribes, and by the Normans. In 1113 the city was recognized by King Louis VI of France, in 1597, Spanish soldiers held the city during the six-month Siege of Amiens, before Henry IV regained control.
During the 18th and 19th century, the tradition of Amiens became famous for its velours. In 1789 the provinces of France were dismantled and the territory was organised into departments, much of Picardy became the newly created department of Somme, with Amiens as the departmental capital. During the industrial revolution the city walls were demolished, opening up space for large boulevards around the town centre, the Henriville neighbourhood in the south of the city was developed around this time. In 1848, the first railway arrived in Amiens, linking the city to Boulogne-sur-Mer, during the 1870 Battle of Amiens, when the Somme was invaded by Prussian forces, Amiens was occupied. The town was fought over during both the First and Second World Wars, suffering damage, and being occupied several times by both sides. The 1918 Battle of Amiens, was the phase of the Hundred Days Offensive. It was heavily bombed by the Royal Air Force during the Second World War, the city was rebuilt according to Pierre Dufaus plans, with a focus on widening the streets to ease traffic congestion.
These newer structures were built of brick and white stone with slate roofs. The architect Auguste Perret designed the Gare dAmiens train station and nearby Tour Perret, the regional prefecture of Picardy, is the prefecture of the Somme, one of the three departments in the region. Located in the Paris Basin, across the country the city benefits from a geographical position. At the crossroads of major European routes of movement, the city is at the heart of a major rail star
Calais is a town and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture. Although Calais is by far the largest city in Pas-de-Calais, the prefecture is its third-largest city of Arras. The population of the area at the 2010 census was 126,395. Calais overlooks the Strait of Dover, the narrowest point in the English Channel, which is only 34 km wide here, the White Cliffs of Dover can easily be seen on a clear day from Calais. Calais is a port for ferries between France and England, and since 1994, the Channel Tunnel has linked nearby Coquelles to Folkestone by rail. Due to its position, Calais since the Middle Ages has been a major port and it was annexed by Edward III of England in 1347 and grew into a thriving centre for wool production. The town came to be called the brightest jewel in the English crown owing to its importance as the gateway for the tin, lace. Calais was a possession of England until its capture by France in 1558. In 1805 it was an area for Napoleons troops for several months during his planned invasion of the United Kingdom.
The town was razed to the ground during World War II. During World War II, the Germans built massive bunkers along the coast in preparation for launching missiles on England, the old part of the town, Calais proper, is situated on an artificial island surrounded by canals and harbours. The modern part of the town, St-Pierre, lies to the south, south east of the Place is the church of Notre-Dame, built during the English occupancy of Calais. It is arguably the only built in the English perpendicular style in all of France. In this church former French President Charles de Gaulle married his wife Yvonne Vendroux, south of the Place and opposite the Parc St Pierre is the Hôtel-de-ville, and the belfry from the 16th and early 17th centuries. Today, Calais is visited by more than 10 million annually, although the early history of habitation in the area is limited, the Romans called the settlement Caletum. Julius Caesar mustered 800 to 1,000 sailing boats, five legions, as the pebble and sand ridge extended eastward from Calais, the haven behind it developed into fen, as the estuary progressively filled with silt and peat.
Calais was improved by the Count of Flanders in 997 and fortified by the Count of Boulogne in 1224, in 1189, Richard the Lionheart is documented to have landed at Calais on his journey to the Third Crusade. Angered, the English king demanded reprisals against the citizens for holding out for so long
Cassel is a commune in the Nord départment in northern France. Built on a prominent hill overlooking French Flanders, the town has existed since Roman times and it was developed by the Romans into an important urban centre and was the focus of a network of roads, which are still in use today, that converge on the hill. It was the headquarters of Marshal Ferdinand Foch during part of the First World War, in 1940, during the German invasion of France, Cassel was the scene of a fierce three-day battle between British and German forces which resulted in much of the town being destroyed. Today the town, which was following the war, is a popular destination for visitors to French Flanders. It is renowned for its views from the summit of Mont Cassel and is the location of the Nord départments principal museum of local art, history. It is the home of the legendary giants Reuze-Papa and Reuze-Maman, the town of Cassel is situated at the top of Mont Cassel, a prominent hill located in the local Houtland region about 30 kilometres from the sea.
The hill rises to a height of 176 metres above sea level and its geological composition comprises limestone capped with a very hard ferruginous layer of rock. The hill of Mont Cassel was occupied during the late Iron Age by the Menapii, a Belgic tribe, the hilltop was probably used as an oppidum or hill fort. The Menapii fought against Julius Caesar but were forced to submit to Rome in 53 BC and they rebelled along with their neighbours, the Morini, in 30 or 29 BC. The Roman governor of Gaul, successfully quelled the rebellion, Cassel was redeveloped as Castellum Menapiorum, the urban centre or civitas of the Menapii, the modern town takes its name from the Roman settlement. From the 1st century AD onwards, Cassel developed into a key centre for the whole region with an extensive road network converging on the hill. Following the collapse of the Roman Empire, Flanders became part of the Merovingian realm of Neustria, in the 9th century it became part of West Francia, forming a pagus within the kingdom of Charles the Bald.
In 864, Cassel passed into the hands of Baldwin Ironarm, at the time, the town was on the edge of a deep bay of the North Sea, making it vulnerable to raids by the Vikings, who attacked and destroyed it in the 9th century. It was rebuilt by Baldwins grandson, Arnulf I, in the 10th century. In 1071, the sixth Count of Flanders, Arnulf III, was killed in the first Battle of Cassel by the forces of Robert the Frisian in a dispute over the succession to the title of count. The town was re-fortified, possibly by Robert, with a castle, Cassel was the capital of a chatellany during the Middle Ages, serving as the administrative centre for an area comprising about fifty towns and villages. It was the site of a battle that took place on 23 August 1328 involving Philip VI of France. The rebels had driven the ruling Count Louis I out of Flanders and sought to press their advantage by occupying Cassel, although they achieved some initial successes, the rebels were decisively defeated when William I, Count of Hainaut lent his support to the French side
The Veneti were a seafaring Celtic people who lived in the Brittany peninsula, which in Roman times formed part of an area called Armorica. They gave their name to the city of Vannes. Other ancient Celtic peoples historically attested in Armorica include the Redones, Osismii, the Veneti inhabited southern Armorica, along the Morbihan bay. They built their strongholds on coastal eminences, which were islands when the tide was in and their most notable city, and probably their capital, was Darioritum, mentioned in Ptolemys Geography. The Veneti built their ships of oak with large transoms fixed by iron nails of a thumbs thickness and they navigated and powered their ships through the use of leather sails. This made their ships strong and structurally sound, capable of withstanding the harsh conditions of the Atlantic, judging by Caesars Bello Gallico the Veneti evidently had close relations with Bronze Age Britain, he describes how the Veneti sail to Britain. They controlled the tin trade from mining in Cornwall and Devon, Caesar mentioned that they summoned military assistance from that island during the war of 56 BCE.
Julius Caesars victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BCE, extended Romes territory to the English Channel, Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both bodies of water when he built a bridge across the Rhine and conducted the first invasion of Britain. Caesar reports in the Bellum Gallicum that in 57 BCE, the Gauls on the Atlantic coast and they were obliged to sign treaties and yield hostages as a token of good faith. Angered by what he considered a breach of law, Caesar prepared for war, given the highly defendable nature of the Veneti strongholds, land attacks were frustrated by the incoming tide, and naval forces were left trapped on the rocks when the tide ebbed. Despite this, Caesar managed to engineer moles and raised siegeworks that provided his legions with a base of operations. However, once the Veneti were threatened in one stronghold, they used their fleet to evacuate to another stronghold, since the destruction of the enemy fleet was the only permanent way to end this problem, Caesar directed his men to build ships.
However, his galleys were at a disadvantage compared to the far thicker Veneti ships. The Veneti manoeuvred so skilfully under sail that boarding was impossible and these factors, coupled with their intimate knowledge of the coast and tides, put the Romans at a disadvantage. However, these advantages would not stand in the face of Roman perseverance, the Romans were at last able to board, and the whole Veneti fleet fell into their hands. The strongholds on the coast were now stormed and the nobles were slaughtered and this served as a lesson to the rest of the confederacy of the fate in store for those who dared to stand against Rome. History of Brittany List of Celtic tribes List of peoples of Gaul Cunliffe, Brice Falling Masts, Rising Masters, The Ethnography of Virtue in Caesars Account of the Veneti, American Journal of Philology 123, 601-22
Vercingetorix was a king and chieftain of the Arverni tribe, he united the Gauls in a revolt against Roman forces during the last phase of Julius Caesars Gallic Wars. Vercingetorix came to power after his designation as chieftain of the Arverni at the oppidum Gergovia in 52 BC. He immediately established an alliance with other Gallic tribes, took command and combined all forces and he won the Battle of Gergovia against Julius Caesar in which several thousands Romans and allies died and Caesars Roman legions withdrew. However, Caesar had been able to exploit Gaulish internal division to easily subjugate the country, at the Battle of Alesia, the Romans besieged and defeated his forces. In order to save as many of his men as possible he gave himself to the Romans and he was held prisoner for five years. In 46 BC, as part of Caesars triumph, Vercingetorix was paraded through the streets of Rome, Vercingetorix is primarily known through Caesars Commentaries on the Gallic War. To this day, Vercingetorix is considered a hero in Auvergne.
The generally accepted view is that Vercingetorix derives from the Gaulish ver-, cingeto-, in his Life of Caesar, Plutarch renders the name as Vergentorix. He made use of the factionalism among the Gallic elites, favoring certain noblemen over others with political support, the revolt that Vercingetorix came to lead began in early 52 BC while Caesar was raising troops in Cisalpine Gaul. Undeterred, Vercingetorix raised an army of the poor, took Gergovia and was hailed as king and he made alliances with other tribes, and having been unanimously given supreme command of their armies, imposed his authority through harsh discipline and the taking of hostages. He adopted the policy of retreating to natural fortifications, and undertook an early example of a scorched earth strategy by burning towns to prevent the Roman legions from living off the land. Vercingetorix scorched much of the land marching north with his army from Gergovia in an attempt to deprive Caesar of the resources and safe haven of the towns, the capital of the Bituriges, Avaricum, a Gallic settlement directly in Caesars path, was spared.
Due to the strong protests, naturally defendable terrain, and apparently strong man-made reinforcing defenses. Upon reaching Avaricum however, the Romans laid siege and eventually captured the capital, the next major battle was at Gergovia, capital city of the Arverni and Vercingetorix. During that battle and his warriors crushed Caesars legions and allies, Vercingetorix decided to follow Caesar but suffered heavy losses during a cavalry battle and he retreated and moved to another stronghold, Alesia. In the Battle of Alesia, Caesar built a fortification around the city to besiege it, the relief came in insufficient numbers, estimates range from 80,000 to 250,000 soldiers. Vercingetorix, the leader, was cut off from them on the inside. However, the attacks did reveal a point in the fortifications and the combined forces on the inside
Alesia was the capital of the Mandubii, one of the Gallic tribes allied with the Aedui. The Celtic oppidum was conquered by Julius Caesar during the Gallic Wars and its location was controversial for a long time. It is today considered to have located on Mont-Auxois, near Alise-Sainte-Reine in Burgundy. Alesia is best known for being the site of the decisive Battle of Alesia in 52 BC that marked the defeat of the Gauls under Vercingetorix by the Romans under Julius Caesar, Caesar described the battle in detail in his Commentarii de Bello Gallico. The battles outcome determined the fate of all of Gaul, in winning the battle, after being conquered by Caesar, Alesia became a Gallo-Roman town. It featured a centre with monumental buildings such as temples. For a long time after the abandonment of the Roman town, in the 19th century, Emperor Napoleon III developed an interest in the location of this crucial battle in pre-French history. He was writing a biography of Caesar and saw the command of Vercingetorix over all Gaulish armies as a symbol of the French nation, at the same time he realized that the future French nation was heavily influenced by the Roman victory and centuries of rule over Gaul.
In 1838, a find with the inscription, IN ALISIIA, had discovered near Alise-Sainte-Reine in the department Côte-dOr near Dijon. Napoleon ordered an excavation by Eugène Stoffel around Mont-Auxois. These excavations in 1861–65 concentrated on the vast Roman siege lines, the oppidum was located on a plateau of c.97 hectares, around 200 metres above the valley floor, surrounded by steep cliffs in every direction except at the eastern and western extremities. Later archaeological analysis at Alise-Sainte-Reine has corroborated the described siege in detail, the remains of siege rings said to match Caesar’s descriptions have been identified by archaeologists using aerial photography. Franco-German excavations led by Michel Reddé and Siegmar von Schnurbein in 1991–97 confirmed these findings, there have been other theories about Alesias location that claimed it was in Franche-Comté or around Salins-les-Bains in Jura. In total, around 40 towns and other locations have claimed to be the site of Alesia, no one knows where Alesia is.
Part of the area has become the MuséoParc Alésia, not much of the Gallic oppidum is visible today, except for some remains of a rampart. Most of the date to the town’s Roman period. A large copper statue of Vercingetorix, made in 1865 by Aimé Millet stands at the end of the plateau. Museumpark at Alesia The Siege of Alesia