Coswig is a town in the district of Meißen, in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. It is situated on the bank of the Elbe, approximately 9 km southeast of Meißen. It is the home of Fachkrankenhaus Coswig, a hospital specializing in thoracic surgery, the town can be reached from Dresden by Dresdner Verkehrsbetriebe tram route 4, or from both Dresden and Meißen by Dresden S-Bahn line S1. Monika Mrklas, cross-country skier and cyclist Heinz Werner, porcelain artist Hans-Ulrich Thomale and coach Eugene dAlbert, composer Teresa Carreño, composer
Cochem is the seat of and the biggest town in the Cochem-Zell district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. With just over 5,000 inhabitants, Cochem falls just behind Kusel, in the Kusel district, since 7 June 2009, it has belonged to the Verbandsgemeinde of Cochem. Cochem lies at an elevation of some 83 m above sea level, the town centre with the outlying centre of Sehl upstream lies on the Moselles left bank, while the constituent centre of Cond lies on its right. A further constituent centre, with its area, air force barracks and new town development, lies in the heights of the Eifel on Bundesstraße 259. Emptying into the Moselle in Cochem are the Kraklebach, the Ebernacher Bach, the Sehlerbach, the Falzbach, the Märtscheltbach, as early as Celtic and Roman times, Cochem was settled. In 886, it had its first documentary mention as Villa cuchema and it was pledged by King Adolf of Nassau in 1294 to the Archbishopric of Trier and remained Electoral-Trier territory until the French occupation began in 1794.
In 1332, Cochem was granted rights, and shortly thereafter, the town fortifications. Between 1423 and 1425, the town was stricken with a Plague epidemic, in 1623, Elector Lothar von Metternich brought about the founding of a Capuchin monastery. In the Thirty Years War, the town was besieged, in 1689, King Louis XIVs troops first burnt the Winneburg down and conquered the town of Cochem with its castle. Reconstruction was long and drawn out, beginning in 1794, Cochem lay under French rule. In 1815 it was assigned to the Kingdom of Prussia at the Congress of Vienna, Louis Fréderic Jacques Ravené bought the ruin of the former Imperial castle in 1866 and began its reconstruction. Only after a bridge was built across the Moselle at Cochem in 1927 were the two fishing villages of Cond and Sehl amalgamated with the town in the course of reform in 1932. This bridge, called the Skagerrak Bridge, was dedicated on 23 January 1927, in the Second World War, great parts of Cochems old town were destroyed.
Also during the war, the staff of the underground subcamp of Zeisig of the Natzweiler concentration camp between the villages of Bruttig and Treis was located here. At its height,13,000 people were imprisoned and they provided slave labour for Bosch, which made spark plugs, ignition systems and glow plugs, which were important to the German war effort, under brutal conditions. Since 1946, Cochem has been part of the newly founded state of Rhineland-Palatinate. The council is made up of 22 council members, who were elected at the election held on 25 May 2014. The municipal election held on 25 May 2014 yielded the following results, Cochems mayor is since 2011 Wolfgang Lambertz, the town of Cochem and its castle were held by the Archbishops of Trier beginning in 1298
Augustus II the Strong
Augustus II the Strong of the Albertine line of the House of Wettin was Elector of Saxony, Imperial Vicar and became King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. Augustus great physical strength earned him the nicknames the Strong, the Saxon Hercules, in order to be elected King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Augustus converted to Roman Catholicism. As a Catholic, he received the Order of the Golden Fleece from the Holy Roman Emperor, as Elector of Saxony, he is perhaps best remembered as a patron of the arts and architecture. He established the Saxon capital of Dresden as a cultural centre. Augustus amassed an art collection and built lavish baroque palaces in Dresden. His reigns brought Poland some troubled times and he led the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Great Northern War, which led to the Russian Empire strengthening its influence in Europe, especially within Poland. His main pursuit was bolstering royal power in the Commonwealth, characterized by broad decentralization in comparison with other European monarchies and he tried to accomplish this goal using foreign powers and thus destabilized the state.
Augustus was born in Dresden on 12 May 1670, the son of the Elector Johann Georg III. As the second son, Augustus had no expectation of inheriting the electorate, since his brother, Johann Georg IV. Augustus married Kristiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth in Bayreuth on 20 January 1693 and they had a son, Frederick Augustus II, who succeeded his father as Elector of Saxony and King of Poland as Augustus III. While cavorting during the season in Venice, his older brother. On 27 April 1694, Johann Georg died without issue and Augustus became Elector of Saxony. To be eligible for election to the throne of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1697, the Saxon dukes had traditionally been called champions of the Reformation. Saxony had been a stronghold of German Protestantism and Augustus conversion was considered shocking in Protestant Europe. Although the prince-elector guaranteed Saxonys religious status quo, Augustus conversion alienated many of his Protestant subjects, as a result of the enormous expenditure of money used to bribe the Polish nobility and clergy, Augustus contemporaries derisively referred to the Saxon dukes royal ambitions as his Polish adventure.
His church policy within the Holy Roman Empire followed orthodox Lutheranism and ran counter to his new-found religious, the Protestant princes of the empire and the two remaining Protestant electors were anxious to keep Saxony well-integrated in their camp. Saxony remained Lutheran and the few Roman Catholics residing in Saxony lacked any political or civil rights. In 1717, it clear just how awkward the situation was, to realize his ambitious dynastic plans in Poland and Germany
Prince Ernst Heinrich of Saxony
Prince Ernst Heinrich of Saxony, Duke of Saxony was a member of the Saxon Royal Family. Ernst Heinrich was the youngest son of the last Saxon monarch Frederick Augustus III and his wife Archduchess Luise of Austria, from 1923 through 1945, Ernst Heinrich was Administrative Chief of the association „House of Wettin – Albertinische Linie e. V. “. Prince Ernst Heinrich of Saxony spent his childhood in Dresden, the loss of his mother, who left the family permanently in 1902, affected his father and siblings very deeply, according to their own statements. Ernst Heinrich, who was six at the time, was possibly the child who felt this loss most. When World War I broke out, Ernest Heinrich was First lieutenant in the 1st Royal Saxon Leib-Grenadier-Regiment Nr.100, in September 1914, he became Batman in the General Kommando of XIX Corps at Reims and Lille. He did his Abitur during a leave in 1916, took part in the Battle of the Somme as a member of the staff of the 24th Reserve Division. On 30 August 1916, Ernst Heinrich received the Military Order of St.
Henry for merit, in the spring of 1917, he took over the leadership of the 9th Company of Reserve-Infantry Regiment No.104 in Berezhany. He was in the hospital for two months in 1917, after which he commanded the 9th Battery of Artillery Regiment No.115 in the area around Ypres, in November and December 1918, Ernst Heinrich oversaw the return of Saxon troops to Germany. In 1919 and 1920, Ernst Heinrich learned to administer a manor in Silesia, during the Kapp Putsch in March 1920, he acted as a liaison between the putschists in Berlin and the Reichswehr in Wrocław. After the failure of the putsch, he moved to Munich and he married on 12 April 1921 in the Nymphenburg Palace to Sophie, the youngest sister of Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg and of Rupprechts wife Princess Antonia of Luxembourg. This was considered a marriage, they had three sons. Ernst Heinrich did not participate in the Beer Hall Putsch on 8 and 9 November 1923 in Munich and he rejected the Nazi ideology consistently and distanced himself from Hitler and Ludendorff.
At his fathers request, he took over the function of head of the administratieon of the association House of Wettin — Albertinische Linie e. V. His father gave him power of attorney to negotiate with the Free State of Saxony about the use of the manors owned by the Wettin family. In subsequent years, Ernst Heinrich, who was an art lover, made several trips to Egypt with his wife. In 1928/29, he was approached by Gustav Stresemann of the DVP, Ernst Heinrich considered this a hopeless undertaking and declined. Ernst Heinrich opposed the Nazis after they formed a government on 30 January 1933, however, he failed to read the political situation correctly. He believed that Hitler could be stopped by the political opposition and, in the spring of 1933, he joined the Stahlhelm
Dresden is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany. It is situated in a valley on the River Elbe, near the border with the Czech Republic, Dresden has a long history as the capital and royal residence for the Electors and Kings of Saxony, who for centuries furnished the city with cultural and artistic splendour. The city was known as the Jewel Box, because of its baroque, the controversial American and British bombing of Dresden in World War II towards the end of the war killed approximately 25,000, many of whom were civilians, and destroyed the entire city centre. After the war restoration work has helped to reconstruct parts of the inner city, including the Katholische Hofkirche, the Zwinger. Since German reunification in 1990 Dresden is again a cultural and political centre of Germany, the Dresden University of Technology is one of the 10 largest universities in Germany and part of the German Universities Excellence Initiative.
The economy of Dresden and its agglomeration is one of the most dynamic in Germany and it is dominated by high-tech branches, often called as “Silicon Saxony”. The city is one of the most visited in Germany with 4,3 million overnight stays per year. The royal buildings are among the most impressive buildings in Europe, main sights are the nearby National Park of Saxon Switzerland, the Ore Mountains and the countryside around Elbe Valley and Moritzburg Castle. The most prominent building in the city of Dresden is the Frauenkirche, built in the 18th century, the church was destroyed during World War II. The remaining ruins were left for 50 years as a war memorial, the church was rebuilt from 1994 to 2005. Although Dresden is a relatively recent city of Germanic origin followed by settlement of Slavic people, Dresdens founding and early growth is associated with the eastward expansion of Germanic peoples, mining in the nearby Ore Mountains, and the establishment of the Margraviate of Meissen. Its name etymologically derives from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the forest, Dresden evolved into the capital of Saxony.
Around the late 12th century, a Slavic settlement called Drežďany had developed on the southern bank, another settlement existed on the northern bank, but its Slavic name is unknown. It was known as Antiqua Dresdin by 1350, and as Altendresden, Margrave of Meissen, chose Dresden as his interim residence in 1206, as documented in a record calling the place Civitas Dresdene. After 1270, Dresden became the capital of the margraviate and it was given to Friedrich Clem after death of Henry the Illustrious in 1288. It was taken by the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1316 and was restored to the Wettin dynasty after the death of Valdemar the Great in 1319, from 1485, it was the seat of the dukes of Saxony, and from 1547 the electors as well. The Elector and ruler of Saxony Frederick Augustus I became King Augustus II the Strong of Poland in personal union and he gathered many of the best musicians and painters from all over Europe to the newly named Royal-Polish Residential City of Dresden. His reign marked the beginning of Dresdens emergence as a leading European city for technology, during the reign of Kings Augustus II the Strong and Augustus III of Poland the Zwinger Royal Palace, the Hofkirche and the Frauenkirche were built
Its capital is Dresden, and its largest city is Leipzig. Saxony is the tenth largest of Germanys sixteen states, with an area of 18,413 square kilometres, located in the middle of a large, formerly all German-speaking part of Europe, the history of the state of Saxony spans more than a millennium. It has been a medieval duchy, an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, a kingdom, the area of the modern state of Saxony should not be confused with Old Saxony, the area inhabited by Saxons. Old Saxony corresponds approximately to the modern German states of Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Saxony is divided into 10 districts,1. After a reform in 2008, these regions - with some alterations of their respective areas - were called Direktionsbezirke, in 2012, the authorities of these regions were merged into one central authority, the Landesdirektion Sachsen. The Erzgebirgskreis district includes the Ore Mountains, and the Schweiz-Osterzgebirge district includes Saxon Switzerland, the largest cities in Saxony according to the 31 December 2015 estimate.
To this can be added that Leipzig forms a metropolitan region with Halle. The latter city is located just across the border to Saxony-Anhalt, Leipzig shares for instance an S-train system and an airport with Halle. Saxony has, after Saxony Anhalt, the most vibrant economy of the states of the former East Germany and its economy grew by 1. 9% in 2010. Nonetheless, unemployment remains above the German average, the eastern part of Germany, excluding Berlin, qualifies as an Objective 1 development-region within the European Union, and is eligible to receive investment subsidies of up to 30% until 2013. FutureSAX, a business competition and entrepreneurial support organisation, has been in operation since 2002. Microchip makers near Dresden have given the region the nickname Silicon Saxony, the publishing and porcelain industries of the region are well known, although their contributions to the regional economy are no longer significant. Today the automobile industry, machinery production and services contribute to the development of the region.
Saxony is one of the most renowned tourist destinations in Germany - especially the cities of Leipzig and Dresden, new tourist destinations are developing, notably in the lake district of Lausitz. Saxony reported an unemployment of 8. 8% in 2014. By comparison the average in the former GDR was 9. 8% and 6. 7% for Germany overall, the unemployment rate reached 8. 2% in May 2015. The Leipzig area, which recently was among the regions with the highest unemployment rate, could benefit greatly from investments by Porsche. With the VW Phaeton factory in Dresden, and many part suppliers, zwickau is another major Volkswagen location
States of Germany
Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen federal states. Since todays Germany was formed from a collection of several states, it has a federal constitution. The remaining 13 states are called Flächenländer, the creation of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949 was through the unification of the western states created in the aftermath of World War II. West Berlin, while not part of the Federal Republic, was largely integrated and considered as a de facto state. In 1952, following a referendum, Baden, Württemberg-Baden, in 1957, the Saar Protectorate rejoined the Federal Republic as the Saarland. Federalism is one of the constitutional principles of Germany. After 1945, new states were constituted in all four zones of occupation, in 1949, the states in the three western zones formed the Federal Republic of Germany. This is in contrast to the development in Austria, where the Bund was constituted first. The use of the term Länder dates back to the Weimar Constitution of 1919, before this time, the constituent states of the German Empire were called Staaten.
Today, it is common to use the term Bundesland. However, this term is not used officially, neither by the constitution of 1919 nor by the Basic Law of 1949, three Länder call themselves Freistaaten, Bavaria and Thuringia. He summarizes the arguments for boundary reform in Germany. The German system of dual federalism requires strong Länder that have the administrative and fiscal capacity to implement legislation, too many Länder make coordination among them and with the federation more complicated. But several proposals have failed so far, territorial reform remains a topic in German politics. Federalism has a tradition in German history. The Holy Roman Empire comprised many petty states numbering more than 300 around 1796, the number of territories was greatly reduced during the Napoleonic Wars. After the Congress of Vienna,39 states formed the German Confederation, the new German Empire included 25 states and the imperial territory of Alsace-Lorraine. The empire was dominated by Prussia, which controlled 65% of the territory, after the territorial losses of the Treaty of Versailles, the remaining states continued as republics of a new German federation
A heritage railway is a railway kept to carry living history rail traffic in order to re-create or preserve railway scenes of the past. Often heritage railways are old railway lines preserved in a state which depicts a certain period, or periods, Heritage railway lines contain historic rail infrastructure that has been substituted or made obsolete in modern railway transit systems. Historical installations, such as hand operated points, water cranes, due to the lack of modern technology, or to a desire for historical accuracy, railway operations can be handled with traditional practices, such as the use of physical tokens. Use of heritage infrastructure and operations often calls for assigning roles based on historical occupations to the railway staff, station masters and signalmen, sometimes wearing period-appropriate attire, can be seen on some heritage railways. Most heritage railways carry heritage rolling stock, but modern rail vehicles can be used to showcase railway scenes with historical line infrastructure, still other heritage railways offer a viable public transit option and can therefore sustain operations with a sufficient amount of revenue from regular riders or government subsidies.
Childrens railways are extracurricular educational institutions, where children and teenagers learn railway professions, often they are fully functional, passenger-carrying narrow gauge rail lines. This phenomenon originated in the USSR and was developed in Soviet times. Many sites were called pioneer railways, after the communist youth organisation, the first childrens railway was opened Moscow in 1932, and at the breakup of the USSR,52 childrens railways existed in the country. Even though the fall of communist governments has led to closures of these railways, many preserved childrens railways are still functioning in post-Soviet states, many childrens railways were built on parklands in urban areas. Unlike many industrial areas, typically served by a gauge railway. Child volunteers and socialist fiscal policy enabled stagnant existence for many of these railways, the old childrens railways, which still carry traffic, have often retained their original infrastructure and rolling stock, including vintage steam locomotives.
Some have acquired heritage vehicles from other railways, creating passages for trains up steep hills and through mountain regions offers many obstacles which call for special technical solutions. Special steep grade railway -technologies and extensive tunneling may be employed, the use of narrow gauge allows tighter curves in the track and offers a smaller structure gauge and tunnel size. Pit railways have been an important part of operating an underground mine all over the world, small rail vehicles offer effective transportation of ore and waste rock, as well as workers, through narrow tunnels. Sometimes the trains were the mode of transport in the passages between the work sites and the mine entrance. Often the loading gauge of the railway dictated the cross-section of the passages to be dug, and the tunnel, on many mining sites, pit railways have been abandoned due to mine closure or adoption of new kinds of transportation equipment. Nowadays some show mines exhibit a vintage pit railway and offer a chance to experience a mantrip into the mine, Millennium Underground Railway or M1, built from 1894 to 1896, is the oldest line of the Budapest Metro system and the second oldest underground railway in the world.
In the 1980s and 1990s, M1 underwent major reconstruction, the original appearance of the old stations has been preserved
The style began around 1600 in Rome and Italy, and spread to most of Europe. The aristocracy viewed the dramatic style of Baroque art and architecture as a means of impressing visitors by projecting triumph, Baroque palaces are built around an entrance of courts, grand staircases, and reception rooms of sequentially increasing opulence. However, baroque has a resonance and application that extend beyond a reduction to either a style or period. It is yields the Italian barocco and modern Spanish barroco, German Barock, Dutch Barok, others derive it from the mnemonic term Baroco, a supposedly laboured form of syllogism in logical Scholastica. The Latin root can be found in bis-roca, in informal usage, the word baroque can simply mean that something is elaborate, with many details, without reference to the Baroque styles of the 17th and 18th centuries. The word Baroque, like most periodic or stylistic designations, was invented by critics rather than practitioners of the arts in the 17th, the term Baroque was initially used in a derogatory sense, to underline the excesses of its emphasis.
In particular, the term was used to describe its eccentric redundancy and noisy abundance of details, although it was long thought that the word as a critical term was first applied to architecture, in fact it appears earlier in reference to music. Another hypothesis says that the word comes from precursors of the style, Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola and he did not make the distinctions between Mannerism and Baroque that modern writers do, and he ignored the phase, the academic Baroque that lasted into the 18th century. Long despised, Baroque art and architecture became fashionable between the two World Wars, and has remained in critical favour. In painting the gradual rise in popular esteem of Caravaggio has been the best barometer of modern taste, William Watson describes a late phase of Shang-dynasty Chinese ritual bronzes of the 11th century BC as baroque. The term Baroque may still be used, usually pejoratively, describing works of art, the appeal of Baroque style turned consciously from the witty, intellectual qualities of 16th-century Mannerist art to a visceral appeal aimed at the senses.
It employed an iconography that was direct, obvious, germinal ideas of the Baroque can be found in the work of Michelangelo. Even more generalised parallels perceived by some experts in philosophy, prose style, see the Neapolitan palace of Caserta, a Baroque palace whose construction began in 1752. In paintings Baroque gestures are broader than Mannerist gestures, less ambiguous, less arcane and mysterious, more like the stage gestures of opera, Baroque poses depend on contrapposto, the tension within the figures that move the planes of shoulders and hips in counterdirections. Baroque is a style of unity imposed upon rich, heavy detail, Baroque style featured exaggerated lighting, intense emotions, release from restraint, and even a kind of artistic sensationalism. There were highly diverse strands of Italian baroque painting, from Caravaggio to Cortona, the most prominent Spanish painter of the Baroque was Diego Velázquez. The Baroque style gradually gave way to a more decorative Rococo, while the Baroque nature of Rembrandts art is clear, the label is less often used for Vermeer and many other Dutch artists.
Flemish Baroque painting shared a part in this trend, while continuing to produce the traditional categories
Maurice, Elector of Saxony
Maurice was Duke and Elector of Saxony. His clever manipulation of alliances and disputes gained the Albertine branch of the Wettin dynasty extensive lands, Maurice was the fourth child but first son of the future Henry IV, Duke of Saxony, a Catholic, and his Protestant wife Catherine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Henry was the brother of George, Duke of Saxony. In December 1532, aged 11, came to live at the castle of his godfather Cardinal Albert of Brandenburg, Archbishop of Magdeburg, for two years, he lived the contemplative life of a cardinal until his uncle Duke George demanded his return to Saxony. George began the training of the future Duke and educated him as a Catholic, but in 1536 Maurices father became a Protestant, and when he succeeded George in 1539, the entire Duchy followed him. Henry and Catherine took the education of their son into their hands. That same year, now 18 years old, went to live in Torgau with his older cousin John Frederick I, Elector of Saxony, whom he despised, this led to a strong hatred between them.
With another cousin, Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse, after Maurice came of age, in 1539, his parents began to look for a wife for him. The favorite was Philips eldest daughter, the marriage plans threatened to fail, because of the illegal double marriage of the Landgrave. Without the knowledge of his parents, Maurice remained committed to his engagement with Agnes, the wedding, particularly disapproved of by his mother, took place in Marburg on 9 January 1541. Letters from that time illustrate the strong mutual devotion of the couple, together they had two children, married on 24 August 1561 to Prince William I of Orange-Nassau. On 18 August 1541 Duke Henry died, and Maurice, as the eldest son, succeeded him as Duke of Saxony and he replaced most of his advisors, because they had been opposed to his marriage with Agnes from the very start. George von Carlowitz, one of the new confidants of the Duke, thus he participated in the emperors army in the war against the forces of the Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire, Duke William of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, and King Francis I of France.
However, on the hand, the Duke confiscated the properties of the Catholic Church in his lands. From the wealth of dissolved monasteries in his country Maurice founded the schools of Schulpforta, Meissen. The legal basis for this was the New National Order of 1543, Maurice refused to join the Protestant Schmalkaldic League, although the Landgrave Philip of Hesse, his friend and father-in-law, was its leader. In the Holy Week of 1542, in the process of the Wurzener Feud it nearly came to a fratricidal war, there had previously been a controversy between Maurice and John Frederick over the use of tax funds from this area. The intervention of the Landgrave Philip of Hesse and Martin Luther prevented the war, the emperor tried in this way to drive a still deeper wedge into the Protestant camp in order to prevent a further propagation of the Protestant Faith
Albert Casimir, Duke of Teschen
Prince Albert Casimir August of Saxony, Duke of Teschen was a German prince from the House of Wettin who married into the Habsburg imperial family. He was noted as an art collector and founded the Albertina in Vienna, one of the largest and finest collections of old master prints and drawings in the world. He was a son of king Augustus III of Poland and Maria Josepha of Austria. Prince Albert of Saxony, Duke of Teschen, was one of the godparents to his namesake Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg. Young Albert was specifically chosen by Archduchess Maria Christina of Austria to be her husband and this was a special favour granted by her mother, the great empress Maria Theresa of Austria because marriages of imperial children were usually used for diplomatic purposes. From his father-in-laws estate, Albert received the territory of Teschen in Austrian Silesia and was given the title of Duke of Teschen. Since he became a member of the Habsburg-Lorraine family, the title Archduke was given to him, Archduchess Maria Christina the daughter of Francis of Lorraine received the duchy among her dowry.
Prince Albert of Saxony thus became the Duke of Teschen, the only non-Habsburg to become such after the title passed into Habsburg control, Albert was royal governor of Hungary from 1765 to 1781, with his seat at Bratislava Castle and his summer residence in Halbturn Castle at Neusiedl. He was governor of the Austrian Netherlands, with his seat at Brussels where he built Laeken palace as his seat. In Vienna a palace adjoining the Hofburg originally designed by Emanuel Teles Silva-Tarouca was enlarged for them by architect Louis Montoyer and that palace is today called the Albertina, after Albert, and houses the collection he started. Only two-thirds of his survives, because one of the cargo ships bringing it from Brussels sank en route. After his return to Vienna, he used as an advisor Adam von Bartsch, the Curator of the Imperial prints collection and the greatest prints scholar of his age. After the early death of his wife in 1798 of typhus, he lived only for his art collection, next door to his palace, in the Augustinerkirche Albert had a famous memorial to his wife carved by Antonio Canova.
Media related to Prince Albert of Saxony, Duke of Teschen at Wikimedia Commons Albertina Museum
Moritzburg Castle or Moritzburg Palace is a Baroque palace in Moritzburg, in the German state of Saxony, about 13 kilometres northwest of the Saxon capital, Dresden. The castle has four towers and lies on a symmetrical artificial island. It is named after Duke Moritz of Saxony, who had a lodge built there between 1542 and 1546. The surrounding woodlands and lakes have been a hunting area of the electors. The original castle, built from 1542–1546, was a lodge for Moritz of Saxony. Elector John George II of Saxony had the extended, the chapel was added between 1661 and 1671. Designed by his architect, Wolf Caspar von Klengel, the chapel is an example of early Baroque architecture. Between 1723 and 1733, Augustus had the castle remodelled as a seat by architects Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann and Zacharias Longuelune, adding a formal park, several ponds. The surroundings of the castle were developed by Elector Frederick Augustus III of Saxony. The Little Pheasant Castle was built between 1770 and 1776, prince Ernst Heinrich of Saxony, who lived in the castle between 1933 and 1945, was the last resident of the House of Wettin.
He was dispossessed in 1945 by the postwar Soviet administration, the interior of the castle is furnished with examples of opulent baroque decor from the time of Augustus the Strong. The walls are covered in 17th century gold-gilded leather, many rooms furnishings are dedicated to courtly hunting. The collection of red deer antlers is one of the most important of its kind, the castles largest collection of antlers is shown in the Speisesaal. Most of its 71 trophies are between 270 and 400 years old, they were purchased or acquired as presents, among them is the heaviest red deer antler in the world, weighing 19.8 kilograms and spanning almost 2 metres. In the Monströsensaal, there are 39 contorted antlers, one specimen, a 66-point red deer antler is from an animal killed by Elector Frederick III of Brandenburg in 1696. In 1723, Augustus the Strong acquired a four-poster bed for his Japanese palace and it had approximately a million peacock, guinea hen and duck feathers woven into the canvas.
Rather than gluing or tying the feathers onto the canvas, they were woven in as weft, upon acquisition, Augustus had the curtains removed and turned into wall hangings, inspiring the rooms name, Federzimmer, or feather room. This ensemble was moved to Schloss Moritzburg in 1830, following an extensive 19-year restoration, the bed and wall hangings have been on view again since 2003