Middle Irish is the Goidelic language, spoken in Ireland, most of Scotland and the Isle of Man from circa 900–1200 AD. The modern Goidelic languages—Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Manx—are all descendants of Middle Irish; the Lebor Bretnach, the "Irish Nennius", survives only from manuscripts preserved in Ireland. Middle Irish is a VSO, nominative-accusative language. Nouns decline for two genders: masculine, though traces of neuter declension persist. Adjectives agree with nouns in gender and case. Verbs conjugate for three tenses: past, future. Verbs conjugate for an impersonal, agentless form. There are a number of preverbal particles marking the negative, subjunctive, relative clauses, etc. Prepositions inflect for number. Different prepositions govern different cases, depending on intended semantics; the following is a poem in Middle Irish about King of Connacht. Dún Eogain Bél forsind loch forsrala ilar tréntroch, ní mair Eogan forsind múr ocus maraid in sendún. Maraid inad a thige irraibe' na chrólige, ní mair in rígan re cair nobíd.
Cairptech in rí robúi and, innsaigthech oirgnech Érenn, ní dechaid coll cána ar goil, rocroch tríchait im óenboin. Roloisc Life co ba shecht, rooirg Mumain tríchait fecht, nír dál do Leith Núadat nair co nár dámair immarbáig. Doluid fecht im-Mumain móir do chuinchid argait is óir, d’iaraid sét ocus móine do gabail gíall dagdóine. Trían a shlúaig dar Lúachair síar co Cnoc mBrénainn isin slíab, a trían aile úad fo dess co Carn Húi Néit na n-éces. Sé fodéin oc Druimm Abrat co trían a shlúaig, nísdermat, oc loscud Muman maisse, ba subach don degaisse. Atchím a chomarba ind ríg a mét dorigne d’anfhír, nenaid ocus tromm ’malle, conid é fonn a dúine. Dún Eogain. MacManus, Damian. "A chronology of the Latin loan words in early Irish". Ériu. 34: 21–71. McCone, Kim. "The dative singular of Old Irish consonant stems". Ériu. 29: 26–38. McCone, Kim. "Final /t/ to /d/ after unstressed vowels, an Old Irish sound law". Ériu. 31: 29–44. McCone, Kim. "Prehistoric and Middle Irish". Progress in medieval Irish studies. Pp. 7–53.
McCone, Kim. A First Old Irish Reader, Including an Introduction to Middle Irish. Maynooth Medieval Irish Texts 3. Maynooth. Dictionary of the Irish Language
Inverness is a city in the Scottish Highlands. It is the administrative centre for The Highland Council and is regarded as the capital of the Highlands. Inverness lies near two important battle sites: the 11th-century battle of Blàr nam Fèinne against Norway which took place on the Aird and the 18th century Battle of Culloden which took place on Culloden Moor, it is the northernmost city in the United Kingdom and lies within the Great Glen at its north-eastern extremity where the River Ness enters the Moray Firth. At the latest, a settlement was established by the 6th century with the first royal charter being granted by Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim in the 12th century; the Gaelic king Mac Bethad Mac Findláich whose 11th-century killing of King Duncan was immortalised in Shakespeare's fictionalized play Macbeth, held a castle within the city where he ruled as Mormaer of Moray and Ross. The population of Inverness grew from 40,969 in 2001 to 46,869 in 2012; the Greater Inverness area, including Culloden and Westhill, had a population of 59,969 in 2012.
In 2018, it had a population of 69,989. Inverness is one of Europe's fastest growing cities, with a quarter of the Highland population living in or around it, is ranked fifth out of 189 British cities for its quality of life, the highest of any Scottish city. In the recent past, Inverness has experienced rapid economic growth: between 1998 and 2008, Inverness and the rest of the central Highlands showed the largest growth of average economic productivity per person in Scotland and the second greatest growth in the United Kingdom as a whole, with an increase of 86%. Inverness is twinned with one German city and two French towns, La Baule and Saint-Valery-en-Caux. Inverness College is the main campus for the University of the Islands. With around 8,500 students, Inverness College hosts around a quarter of all the University of the Highlands and Islands' students, 30% of those studying to degree level. In 2014, a survey by a property website described Inverness as the happiest place in Scotland and the second happiest in the UK.
Inverness was again found to be the happiest place in Scotland by a new study conducted in 2015. Inverness was one of the chief strongholds of the Picts, in CE 565 was visited by St Columba with the intention of converting the Pictish king Brude, supposed to have resided in the vitrified fort on Craig Phadrig, on the western edge of the city. A 93 oz silver chain dating to 500–800 was found just to the south of Torvean in 1983. A church or a monk's cell is thought to have been established by early Celtic monks on St Michael's Mount, a mound close to the river, now the site of the Old High Church and graveyard; the castle is said to have been built by Máel Coluim III of Scotland, after he had razed to the ground the castle in which Mac Bethad mac Findláich had, according to much tradition, murdered Máel Coluim's father Donnchad, which stood on a hill around 1 km to the north-east. The strategic location of Inverness has led to many conflicts in the area. Reputedly there was a battle in the early 11th century between King Malcolm and Thorfinn of Norway at Blar Nam Feinne, to the southwest of the city.
Inverness had four traditional fairs, including Legavrik or "Leth-Gheamhradh", meaning midwinter, Faoilleach. William the Lion granted Inverness four charters, by one. Of the Dominican friary founded by Alexander III in 1233, only one pillar and a worn knight's effigy survive in a secluded graveyard near the town centre. Medieval Inverness suffered regular raids from the Western Isles by the MacDonald Lords of the Isles in the 15th century. In 1187 one Domhnall Bán led islanders in a battle at Torvean against men from Inverness Castle led by the governor's son, Donnchadh Mac An Toisich. Both leaders were killed in the battle, Donald Ban is said to have been buried in a large cairn near the river, close to where the silver chain was found. Local tradition says that the citizens fought off the Clan Donald in 1340 at the Battle of Blairnacoi on Drumderfit Hill, north of Inverness across the Beauly Firth. On his way to the Battle of Harlaw in 1411, Donald of Islay harried the city, sixteen years James I held a parliament in the castle to which the northern chieftains were summoned, of whom three were arrested for defying the king's command.
Clan Munro defeated Clan Mackintosh in 1454 at the Battle of Clachnaharry just west of the city. Clan Donald and their allies stormed the castle during the Raid on Ross in 1491. In 1562, during the progress undertaken to suppress Huntly's insurrection, Queen of Scots, was denied admittance into Inverness Castle by the governor, who belonged to the earl's faction, whom she afterwards caused to be hanged; the Clan Munro and Clan Fraser of Lovat took the castle for her. The house in which she lived meanwhile stood in Bridge Street until the 1970s, when it was demolished to make way for the second Bridge Street development. Beyond the northern limits of the town, Oliver Cromwell built a citadel capable of accommodating 1,000 men, but with the exception of a portion of the ramparts it was demolished at the Restoration; the only surviving modern remnant is a clock tower. Inverness played a role in the Jacobite rising of 1689. In early May, it was besieged by a contingent of Jacobites led by MacDonell of Keppoch.
The town was rescued by Viscount Dundee, the overall Jacobite commander, when he arrived with the main Jacobite army, although he required Inverness to profess loyalty to King James VII. In 1715 the Jacobites occupie
Kingdom of Alba
The Kingdom of Alba refers to the Kingdom of Scotland between the deaths of Donald II in 900 and of Alexander III in 1286, which led indirectly to the Scottish Wars of Independence. The name is one of convenience, as throughout this period the elite and populace of the Kingdom were predominantly Pictish-Gaels or Pictish-Gaels and Scoto-Norman, differs markedly from the period of the Stuarts, in which the elite of the kingdom were speakers of Middle English, which evolved and came to be called Lowland Scots. There is no precise Gaelic equivalent for the English terminology "Kingdom of Alba", as the Gaelic term Rìoghachd na h-Alba means'Kingdom of Scotland'. English-speaking scholars adapted the Gaelic name for Scotland to apply to a particular political period in Scottish history during the High Middle Ages. Little is known about the structure of the Scottish royal court in the period before the coming of the Normans to Scotland, before the reign of David I. A little more is known about the court of the 12th and 13th centuries.
In the words of Geoffrey Barrow, this court "was emphatically feudal, non-Celtic in character". Some of the offices were Gaelic in origin, such as the Hostarius, the man in charge of the royal bodyguard, the rannaire, the Gaelic-speaking member of the court whose job was to divide the food; the Seneschal or dapifer, had been hereditary since the reign of David I. The Steward had responsibility for the royal household and its management.. The Chancellor was in charge of the royal chapel; the latter was the king's place of worship, but as it happened, was associated with the royal scribes, responsible for keeping records. The chancellor was a clergyman, he held this office before being promoted to a bishopric; the Chamberlain had control and responsibility over royal finances The Constable was hereditary since the reign of David I and was in charge of the crown's military resources. The Butler The Marshal or marischal; the marischal differed from the constable in that he was more specialised, responsible for and in charge of the royal cavalry forces In the 13th century, all the other offices tended to be hereditary, with the exception of the Chancellor.
The royal household of course came with numerous other offices. The most important was the aforementioned hostarius, but there were others such as the royal hunters, the royal foresters and the cooks. King Donald II was the first man to have been called rí Alban, when he died at Dunnottar in 900; this meant king of Scotland. All his predecessors bore the style of King of Fortriu; such an apparent innovation in the Gaelic chronicles is taken to spell the birth of Scotland, but there is nothing special about his reign that might confirm this. Donald had the nickname dásachtach; this meant a madman, or in early Irish law, a man not in control of his functions and hence without legal culpability. The reason was the restlessness of his reign, continually spent fighting battles against Vikings, it is possible he gained his unpopularity by violating the rights of the church or through high taxes, but it is not known for certain. However, his negative nickname makes him an unlikely founder of Scotland. Donald's successor Constantine II is more regarded as a key figure in the formation of Alba.
Constantine reigned for nearly half a century. When he lost at Brunanburh, he was discredited and retired as a Culdee monk at St. Andrews. Despite this, the Prophecy of Berchán is full of praise for the king, in this respect is in line with the views of other sources. Constantine is credited in tradition as the man who, with bishop Ceallach of St Andrews, brought the Catholic Church in Scotland into conformity with that of the larger Gaelic world, although it is not known what this means. There had been Gaelic bishops in St Andrews for two centuries, Gaelic churchmen were amongst the oldest features of Caledonian Christianity; the reform may have been organizational, or some sort of purge of certain unknown and disliked legacies of Pictish ecclesiastical tradition. However, other than these factors, it is difficult to appreciate the importance of Constantine's reign; the period between the accession of Malcolm I and Malcolm II is marked by good relations with the Wessex rulers of England, intense internal dynastic disunity and, despite this successful expansionary policies.
Some time after an English invasion of cumbra land by King Edmund of England in 945, the English king handed the province over to king Malcolm I on condition of a permanent alliance. Some time in the reign of King Indulf, the Scots captured the fortress called oppidum Eden, i.e. certainly Edinburgh. It was the first Scottish foothold in Lothian; the Scots had had some authority in Strathclyde since the part of the 9th century, but the kingdom kept its own rulers, it is not clear that the Scots were always strong enough to enforce their authority. In fact, one of Indulf's successors, Cuilén, died at the hands of the men of Strathclyde while trying to enforce his authority. King Kenneth II began his reign by invading Britannia as an early ass
Clan Murray is a Highland Scottish clan. The chief of the Clan Murray holds the title of Duke of Atholl, their ancestors who established the family in Scotland in the 12th century were the Morays of Bothwell. In the 16th century descendants of the Morays of Bothwell, the Murrays of Tullibardine, secured the chiefship of the clan and were created Earls of Tullibardine in 1606; the first Earl of Tullibardine married the heiress to the Stewart earldom of Atholl and Atholl therefore became a Murray earldom in 1626. The Murray Earl of Atholl was created Marquess of Atholl in 1676 and in 1703 it became a dukedom; the marquess of Tullibardine title has continued as a subsidiary title, being bestowed on elder sons of the chief until they succeed him as Duke of Atholl. The Murray chiefs played an important and prominent role in support of William Wallace and Robert the Bruce during the Wars of Scottish Independence in the 13th and 14th centuries; the Murrays largely supported the Jacobite House of Stuart during the Jacobite risings of the 18th century.
The progenitor of the Clan Murray was Freskin. It has been claimed that he was Pictish but it is much more that he was a Flemish knight, one of a ruthless group of warlords who were employed by the Norman kings to pacify their new realm after the Norman conquest of England. David I of Scotland, brought up in the English court, employed such men to keep hold of the wilder parts of his kingdom and granted to Freskin lands in West Lothian; the ancient Pictish kingdom of Moray was given to Freskin and this put an end to the remnants of that old royal house. In a series of astute political moves Freskin and his sons intermarried with the old house of Moray to consolidate their power. Freskin's descendants were designated by the surname de Moravia and this became'Murray' in the Lowland Scottish language; the original Earls of Sutherland descend from Freskin's eldest grandson, Hugh de Moravia, whereas the chiefs of Clan Murray descend from Freskin's younger grandson, William de Moravia. Sir Walter Murray became Lord of Bothwell in Clydesdale thanks to a marriage to an heiress of the Clan Oliphant.
He was a regent of Scotland in 1255. He started construction of Bothwell Castle, which became one of the most powerful strongholds in Scotland, it was the seat of the chiefs of Clan Murray until 1360. During the Wars of Scottish Independence, Andrew Moray took up the cause of Scottish independence against Edward I of England and he was joined by William Wallace. Andrew Moray was killed following the Scottish victory at the Battle of Stirling Bridge in 1297, after which Wallace assumed command of Scottish forces, it has been suggested that the whole war might have taken a different course if Moray had survived the battle at Stirling Bridge as he had shown significant skill in pitched battle, which Wallace lacked. His son was Sir Andrew Murray, 4th Lord of Bothwell and third Regent of Scotland who married Christian Bruce, a sister of king Robert the Bruce; this Andrew Murray fought at the Battle of Halidon Hill in 1333. The lordship of Bothwell passed to the Douglases in 1360 when the fifth Murray Lord of Bothwell died of plague and his wife, took Archibald the Grim, Lord of Galloway and Earl of Douglas, as her second husband.
The Murray's feuds with their neighbours were not as numerous as those of many other clans. However, one incident of note, the Battle of Knockmary in 1490 pitted Murrays of Auchtertyre against the Clan Drummond. There were many branches of the Clan Murray, it was not until the 16th century that the Murrays of Tullibardine are recorded as using the undifferenced arms of Murray in 1542, in a work that pre-dates the establishment of the Lord Lyon's register of 1672 and is considered of equal authority. The claim to the chiefship by the Murrays of Tullibardine rested upon their descent from Sir Malcom, sheriff of Perth in around 1270 and younger brother of the first Lord of Bothwell; the Murrays of Tullibardine consolidated their position as chiefs with two bands of association in 1586 and 1598 in which John Murray the first Earl of Tullibardine, was recognized as chief by numerous Murray lairds including the Morays of Abercairny in Perthshire who were amongst the signatories. In 1562, at the Battle of Corrichie, Clan Murray supported Mary, Queen of Scots against George Gordon, 4th Earl of Huntly.
In 1594 the Murrays fought on the side of Archibald Campbell, 7th Earl of Argyll, chief of Clan Campbell at the Battle of Glenlivet against George Gordon, 1st Marquess of Huntly, chief of Clan Gordon. In the early 17th century a deadly feud broke out between the Murrays of Broughton and Clan Hannay which resulted in the Hannays being outlawed. Sir John Murray of Tullibardine, 1548-1613, created first Earl of Tullibardine in 1606, married Catherine Drummond and Elizabeth Haldane, his son William Murray, 2nd Earl of Tullibardine married Dorothea Stewart, heiress to the Earls of Atholl. The Stewart earldom of Atholl became a Murray earldom in 1629 and a marquessate in 1676; the chief of Clan Murray, James Murray, 2nd Earl of Tullibardine, was a strong supporter of King Charles I, receiving the leader of the royalist army, James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose at Blair Castle in 1644, he raised no fewer than eighteen hundred men to fight for the king. It was this addition of men that won Montrose the Battle of Tippermuir in 1644.
In 1703 the Murrays as Earls and Marquesses of Atholl were created Dukes of Atholl, reaching the pinnacle of the peerage. John Murray, Marquis of Tullibardine was killed fighting for the
The Great Glen known as Glen Albyn or Glen More is a long and straight glen in Scotland running for 62 miles from Inverness on the edge of Moray Firth, to Fort William at the head of Loch Linnhe. The Great Glen follows a large geological fault known as the Great Glen Fault, it bisects the Scottish Highlands into the Grampian Mountains to the southeast and the Northwest Highlands to the northwest. The glen is a natural travelling route in the Highlands of Scotland, used by both the Caledonian Canal and the A82 road, which link the city of Inverness on the northeast coast with Fort William on the west coast; the Invergarry and Fort Augustus Railway was built in 1896 from the southern end of the glen to the southern end of Loch Ness, but was never extended to Inverness. The railway closed in 1947. A recent development was the opening of a long-distance route for cyclists and walkers. Called the Great Glen Way, it links Fort William to Inverness. Opened on 30 April 2002 by the Earl of Inverness, the route is a series of footpaths, forestry tracks, canal paths and occasional stretches of road.
Its strategic importance in controlling the Highland Scottish clans around the time of the Jacobite risings of the 18th century, is recognised by the presence of the towns of Fort William in the south, Fort Augustus in the middle of the Glen, Fort George, just to the north of Inverness. Much of the glen is taken up with rivers connecting them; the Caledonian Canal uses the lochs as part of the route, but the rivers are not navigable. From northeast to southwest, the natural water features along the Great Glen are: River Ness Loch Dochfour Loch Ness River Oich Loch Oich Loch Lochy River Lochy Loch Linnhe The watershed, or water-divide, lies between Loch Oich and Loch Lochy. Loch Linnhe to the south of Fort William is a sea-loch into which both the River Lochy and Caledonian Canal emerge. At the north end, the River Ness empties into the Moray Firth. Although earthquakes in the vicinity of the Great Glen Fault tend to be minor, seismic activity is a consideration in the design of infrastructure.
For example, the Kessock Bridge includes seismic buffers
Clan Cumming known as Clan Comyn, is a Scottish clan from the central Highlands that played a major role in the history of 13th-century Scotland and in the Wars of Scottish Independence. The Clan Comyn were the most powerful family in 13th-century Scotland, until they were defeated in civil war by their rival to the Scottish throne, Robert the Bruce. Like many of the families that came to power under King David I of Scotland, the Comyn clan is of Norman or Flemish origin; the surname is either a place-name derived from Bosc-Bénard-Commin, near Rouen in the Duchy of Normandy, or from Comines, near Lille, in France. Richard Comyn, the nephew of William Comyn, chancellor to King David, is the one who established this family in Scotland, his son was William Comyn, who married Countess of Buchan. William's mother was the granddaughter of king Donald III of Scotland, his son was the man who acquired the lordship of Badenoch. The seat of power was Ruthven Castle. Ruthven Castle commanded the northern end of two passes over the Mounth, the Drumochter and Minigaig passes.
This lordship passed to the first John Comyn. This John was the first to be known as "the Red" Comyn, he was a descendant of William Comyn, Earl of Buchan, by Sarah Fiz Hugh. The chiefs possessed the lordship of Lochaber. Here can be found the remains of Inverlochy Castle, built by the Comyns about 1270–1280; the Comyns were forced to sign an oath of allegiance to Henry III of England in 1244. However, the English king recognized the Comyn's political leadership in Scotland when in 1251, as the father-in-law to Alexander III of Scotland, he returned them to power during the minority period, it was only when Henry supported a take over of the Scottish government in 1255 that the Comyns resorted to kidnapping the young Alexander III in 1257. When Alexander III's minority ended, the Comyns, instead of suffering political eclipse dominated public offices between 1260 and 1286; the son of the first John Comyn was John II Comyn, Lord of Badenoch, known as John "the Black" Comyn. He had a claim to the throne based on his descent from king Donald III of Scotland.
John was made one of the six guardians of Scotland after the death of King Alexander III, in 1286. Their duty was to act as regents for Margaret of heir to the Scottish throne. King Edward I of England was asked to step in and decide who had the best claim to the crown of Scotland, he decided in favour of John Balliol. John Comyn had married Eleanor Balliol, daughter of John I de Balliol, between 1270 and 1283; the Black Comyn died at Lochindorb Castle in about 1303, a castle the Comyns built in the thirteenth century. The son of the Black Comyn was John, known as the Red Comyn; this John Comyn was a descendant of both kings Donald III and David I, as his maternal grandmother was Devorguilla of Galloway, the daughter of Margaret of Huntingdon. John Comyn married Joan de Valence. At this time the two main branches of the Clan Comyn were the Comyn Lords of Badenoch and Lochaber, the Comyn Earls of Buchan. By controlling key castles, the Comyns controlled the main lines of communication in northern Scotland, where their power stretched from Inverlochy Castle in the west to Slains Castle in the east.
Between these two points, they had allied forces strategically situated in the following castles: Ruthven Castle, Lochindorb Castle, Blair Castle, Balvenie Castle, Dundarg Castle, Cairnbulg Castle, Castle of Rattray and Kingedward. In particular Clan Comyn castles controlled important passes from the north and west highlands into the Tay basin. A third main branch of the Clan Comyn, the Comyns of Kilbride, held power in southern and central Scotland, they held castles at Kirkintilloch, Cruggleton Castle, Bedrule and Kilbride. In addition to their private holdings, the Clan Comyn held a number of royal castles through their role as hereditary sheriffs at Dingwall Castle, Banff Castle and Wigtown in the south west. In the early 1290s, the Clan Comyn took additional responsibility for royal castles, including Aberdeen Castle and Jedburgh Castle, as well as castles at Kirkcudbright, Clunie and Brideburgh. Comyn influence over the political scene was strengthened by marriages with the earls of Marr, Angus and Fife, with the powerful families of Clan MacDougall, Clan Murray, the Balliols, Mowbrays and Soules.
Other prominent allies of the Comyns were the Clan Graham, Clan Fraser, Clan Sinclair, the Cheynes, Lochores, Clan Maxwell and Clan Hay. The long-standing authority of the Clan Comyn was witnessed by their extended tenure of the Justiciarship of Scotia, the most important political and administrative office in the kingdom. Three successive Comyn Lords of Badenoch and Earls of Buchan were justiciars of Scotia for no fewer than sixty six years between 1205 and 1304. See: William Comyn, Lord of Badenoch and Alexander Comyn, Earl of Buchan. After suffering a succession of indignities, the Scottish people were forced into rebellion. John III Comyn, Lord of Badenoch, known as John "the red" Comyn was a leader in Scottish independence. With the outbreak of war between England and Scotland, his father, his cousin, John Comyn, Earl of Buchan, crossed the border and attacked Carlisle on 26 March 1296, defended for King Edward I of England by Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, the father of the future king of Scotland.
John Comyn became the most powerful political and military leader in Scotland from 1302 to 1304. He led the Scottish army against the English in the Ba
Pass of Drumochter
The Pass of Drumochter is the main mountain pass between the northern and southern central Scottish Highlands. The A9 road passes through here, as does the Highland Main Line, the railway between Inverness and the south of Scotland; the Sustrans National Cycle Route 7 between Glasgow and Inverness runs through the pass. The pass was formed by glacial action during successive Ice Ages. From this place the River Garry flows to the south, the River Truim to the north; the route through the pass has been used since prehistoric times. A military road built between 1728 and 1730 by General Wade came through here, it is the high point on the A9, at 460 m, in winter can be subject to severe weather conditions. There are routine winter patrols from November to March, the road is closed with snow gates near Dalwhinnie and Dalnacardoch; the summit of the railway line is 452 m, making it the highest in the UK. It is used by the RAF as a main route for low level flying and Tornados and other fast jets may be seen here.
It is isolated, the nearest settlement of any size is the small village of Dalwhinnie, some 10 km to the north. The summit of the pass marks the boundary between the Highland Council area. A sign at this point says "Welcome to the Highlands/Fàilte don Ghàidhealtachd", although this is the boundary for the authority rather than for the Scottish Highlands which extend further south of here. Image of Railway Summit Sign