Ai Kago, born February 7, 1988 in Yamatotokada, Japan, is a Japanese singer, actress and former Guinness World Record holder. Kago began her career at the age of 12 as a member of the idol group Morning Musume. In the same year, she became a founding member of Minimoni. In 2004, she graduated from both the aforementioned groups and formed W with Nozomi Tsuji, but she was withdrawn from the group in 2007. In 2008, she embarked on a career in film and returned to music, releasing a jazz album in 2010 and becoming part of the group Girls Beat!! in 2013. At age 12, Kago won the 4th National Audition of Morning Musume held by the Up-Front Works in 2000. On April 15, along with Rika Ishikawa, Hitomi Yoshizawa, Nozomi Tsuji, were inducted into the idol group Morning Musume as its fourth generation, their recording debut was in the group's ninth single "Happy Summer Wedding". Kago and Tsuji's addition to the group received positive critical response. With an increasing fan base, along with fellow Morning Musume member Mari Yaguchi and Coconuts Musume member Mika Todd, formed a new subgroup named Minimoni.
In addition to this, Kago was admitted into established subgroup Tanpopo as a second generation member. From 2001 to 2004 Kago participated in the annual Hello! Project shuffle units. In August 2004, Kago and Tsuji graduated from Morning Musume together after Minimoni began their indefinite hiatus. Under the arrangement of their agency and Tsuji formed a new pop duo, W, releasing two albums and six singles together. Before the release of their seventh single and their third album, W3: Faithful, on February 9, 2006, Friday published photos showing Kago smoking, she was 15 at the time. The following day, her agency issued a press statement saying that she and W's activities had been suspended "indefinitely." Kago spent the remainder of the year under house arrest at her family's residence in Nara. During this time, she was not allowed to have contact with Tsuji or any of the other members from her agency, she was caught smoking again during her probation period. In 2007 Up-Front Works reported. In late March 2007, photos of Kago going to an onsen with a man 18 years her senior and smoking for a third time circulated in the media, further tarnishing her reputation.
Not long after, Yuukichi Kawaguchi, the director of Up-Front Works, issued a statement announcing that she had been dismissed from the agency. After Kago departed from Up-Front Agency, her mother attempted to sign her to a new talent agency in her hometown, Nara; that year, Josei Seven published an interview with her mother, revealing that Kago left Japan and started residing in New York City. Kago herself revealed that she had not gone to New York, but rather to Los Angeles for three months because she felt like a criminal in Japan. During her stay, she met people who encouraged her, including Winona Ryder, was able to reflect on her situation, she considered suicide and cut her wrists. Kago made a well-publicized return to the entertainment industry in 2008 with plans of pursuing an acting career, she began appearing in multiple Hong Kong movies, including Kung Fu Chefs. On August 25, 2008, Kago released a book entitled Kago Ai Live—Miseinen Hakusho. On her blog, she described the book as "a book where I talk to young teens about their various troubles and dreams."During 2009, Kago focused on rebuilding her music career.
On June 24, 2009, she released her first solo single "No HesitAtIon" on independent record label In Da Groove. On February 16, 2010, she held her first jazz concert at bar JZ Brat in Tokyo. Kago's first jazz album, Ai Kago meets Jazz: The First Door, was released on March 31, 2010 through P-Vine Records and Avex Marketing. In August 2010 she was invited to perform at music festival Summer Sonic. Throughout the second half of 2010, Kago became unhappy with the direction of her work. Around the same time, she began dating restaurant owner Haruhiko Ando, who acted as an in-between for her agency and herself. Since beginning a relationship with Ando, Kago cancelled several jobs at the last minute, causing her agency to suspend her activities. Despite this, she opened a separate blog without permission. Kago parted ways with R&A Promotions in November 2010 despite her contract ending in March 2013; as a response, in 2011, Kazuyuki Ito, president of Mainstream, declared that the agency planned on suing for 100 million yen in damages for contract violations.
During that time, Kago's career was derailed by her personal life. In September 2011, Ando was arrested for alleged extortion and claiming to have connections with the yakuza. In the same month, Kago was rushed to a nearby hospital after agency officials found her on the floor of her apartment with cuts to her wrists, her life was reported to be not in danger, though there were speculations that it was a planned suicide. Following the incident and Ando registered their marriage, Kago became pregnant. After spending 2012 out of the public eye with the birth of her daughter, Kago transferred to a new agency in 2013. Planning to revive her music career, she formed an idol group, named Girls Beat!! The group would be crowd-sourced using lyrics and costume ideas submitted by fans. Remi Kita and Ryona Himeno were recruited as the other two members after passing the auditions. Girls Beat!! Released their first single, "Sekai Seifuku" on July 22, 2014, their activities were abruptly put on hold when an arrest warrant was put out for Ando in October on suspicions of loaning money at illegal interest rates.
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
Ai Takahashi is a Japanese pop singer and actress associated with Hello! Project and best known as leader of Morning Musume and Hello! Project until 2011, former member of its popular subgroup Mini Moni. Ai Takahashi joined Japanese idol group Morning Musume in 2001 as part of the group's fifth generation, along with Makoto Ogawa, Asami Konno, Risa Niigaki, her audition involved a training camp of three days and two nights, in which participants were expected to learn a new song, a dance routine and a script. Out of 25,000 applicants, nine were selected for the camp, her debut with the group was on their single "Mr. Moonlight: Ai no Big Band", her first appearance on a Morning Musume full-length release was their fourth studio album, 4th Ikimasshoi!. Her first appearance within a Hello! Project shuffle unit release was on the 2002 single "Shiawase Beam! Suki Suki Beam!" under the group name Happy 7. In 2003, Takahashi replaced Mari Yaguchi in the Morning Musume spinoff group Mini Moni, first appearing in the group's movie Mini Moni ja Movie: Okashi na Daibōken! and its accompanying soundtrack.
Her best-known nickname amongst non-Japanese fans, "Takitty", was derived from the cat suit which she wears in the movie. In 2003, she was part of the Morning Musume splinter group Morning Musume Sakuragumi, which performed slower numbers on the group's two EPs, "Hare Ame Nochi Suki" and "Sakura Mankai", the shuffle group 7Air, an R&B-inspired septet. Takahashi's vocals became more prominent on the second and final Mini Moni album, Mini Moni Songs 2, as well as on Morning Musume's singles from their Spring 2004 release "Roman: My Dear Boy" onward, she had a duet with Tsunku on the cover version of Tsunku and Ayumi Hamasaki's duet "Love: Since 1999" on his solo album Take1. In 2005, Morning Musume's first single release of the year, "The Manpower!!!", featured Takahashi in a prominent co-lead-vocal role, a role she has retained on subsequent singles since. In the summer of that year, she became part of the 2005 shuffle Group Elegies. In 2006, Takahashi played the lead role, Sapphire, in the musical "Ribbon no Kishi The Musical", a collaboration work of Takarazuka Revue and Hello!
Project. The musical was based on Tezuka Osamu's manga and starred v-u-den, Nozomi Tsuji, Aya Matsuura, Natsumi Abe, as well as Marcia and Kaoru Ebira of the Takarazuka Revue. Soon thereafter, Takahashi released her first and only solo single to date, "Yume Kara Samete". Following then-leader Hitomi Yoshizawa's graduation from Morning Musume on May 6, 2007, the current sub-leader, Miki Fujimoto ascended to the leader position, with Takahashi becoming the new sub-leader of the group. However, on June 1, 2007, after Fujimoto's resignation, Takahashi took over as the new leader. Takahashi was captain of the Hello! Project kickball team, Metro Rabbits H. P.. In 2008, Takahashi became a member of Hello Project's new unit High-King, a group created to promote Morning Musume's upcoming Cinderella the Musical, in which Takahashi played the title character. Takahashi is musicals such as Phantom of the Opera and Chicago, she harbors an ambition to one day perform in a New York production. She is a fan of Destiny's Child.
It was announced in July 2008, that Takahashi and fellow Morning Musume member Risa Niigaki would play the 80s J-Pop duo Pink Lady in the TV Drama Hitmaker Aku Yuu Monogatari. As of January 2009, she and Risa Niigaki had the longest tenures of any member, she was one of only seven members to remain in the group for seven years or more and one of two to remain in the group for eight or nine years. On February 1, 2009, during the "Hello Pro Award'09 ~Elder Club Sotsugyō Kinen Special~" concert held at Yokohama Arena, Yuko Nakazawa passed on her leadership position in Hello! Project to Takahashi. In December 2009, Takahashi was one of many celebrities to advertise for the release of Final Fantasy XIII in Japan. In September 2010, she became the second Morning Musume member to be at least 24 years old and the first to reach that age while in the group. On January 9, 2011 it was announced that Takahashi would graduate from Morning Musume at the end of the Fall tour that year. Takahashi's last single with Morning Musume, the double A-side "Kono Chikyuu no Heiwa wo Honki de Negatterun dayo!/ Kare to Issho ni Omise ga Shitai", included a B-side solo by Takahashi, "Jishin Motte Yume o Motte Tobitatsu Kara", was released on her birthday, September 14.
On September 30, 2011, on the last day of Morning Musume's'Ai Believe' tour, Takahashi graduated from Morning Musume and Hello! Project at the Nippon Budokan, passing the role of leader to Risa Niigaki. 2011 Her first role after graduation was the lead role of Sarah in the musical Dance of the Vampires at the Imperial Garden Theater. On November 25, it was announced that Takahashi would be part of the cast for a stage play titled La Patisserie; the play ran from March 3 to March 11 in Tokyo, March 20 in Osaka, March 22 in Ishikawa.2012 On May 6, Takahashi announced that she would had been cast in the Taiga drama Taira no Kiyomori. She played the wife of Kiyomori's eldest son. From September 12 to September 23, Takahashi starred in a stage play titled High School Uta Gekidan☆Otoko-gumi, it was announced that Takahashi would voice a character in the hit anime series Detective Conan, with her episodes airing in early 2013.2013 On February 12, Hello! Project Fanclub News announced that Takahashi
Manatsu no Kōsen
"Manatsu no Kōsen" is the fifth single of the J-pop idol group Morning Musume, released on May 12, 1999 as an 8 cm CD. It sold a total of 235,010 copies, reached number three on the Oricon Charts. In 2004, it was re-released as part of the Early Single Box and again in 2005, as a 12 cm CD; the lead vocalist of this single was Natsumi Abe. It was first single without Asuka Fukuda Manatsu no Kōsen – 5:07 Koi no Shihatsu Ressha – 4:20 Manatsu no Kōsen – 5:06 Manatsu no Kōsen – 5:09 Koi no Shihatsu Ressha – 4:22 Manatsu no Kōsen – 5:11 Manatsu no Kōsen – 5:00 1st generation: Yuko Nakazawa, Aya Ishiguro, Kaori Iida, Natsumi Abe 2nd generation: Kei Yasuda, Mari Yaguchi, Sayaka Ichii Manatsu no Kōsen entry on the Up-Front Works official website
Morning Coffee (song)
"Morning Coffee" is a song by J-pop idol group Morning Musume, released as their first official single on January 28, 1998 as an 8 cm CD. It sold a total of 200,790 copies. In 2004, it was re-released as part of the Early Single Box and again in 2005 as a 12 cm CD; the lead vocalist of the single was Natsumi Abe. Early on, Tsunku had decided. Before the recording on the second day, Tsunku changed his mind and told the group that he was going to change the lead vocals to Abe instead. A re-arranged and re-recorded version of this song was featured as the B-side for Morning Musume's 14th single, "Souda! We're Alive", it is the group's only major-label single to feature the original members, as the second generation would join before the release of "Summer Night Town". It is their first and only single to be released by the defunct Up-Front Works label One Up Music and distributed through Warner Music Japan, as One Up Music would end its distribution deal with Warner and change its name to Zetima before the release of the group's next single.
Distribution rights for Zetima would be given to Sony Music Japan's sub label Epic Records for "Summer Night Town", Morning Musume's first album "First Time" and all of Zetima's subsequent releases. The "Ai no Tane" tracks were composed by Tetsutarō Sakurai. All other tracks were composed by Tsunku. Morning Coffee – 4:32 Ai no Tane – 4:11 Morning Coffee – 4:32 Morning Coffee – 4:32 Ai no Tane – 4:11 Morning Coffee – 4:32 Morning Coffee – 1st generation: Yuko Nakazawa, Aya Ishiguro, Kaori Iida, Natsumi Abe, Asuka Fukuda 1998-02-09 – Hey! Hey! Hey! Music Champ 2000-10-08 – Hello! Morning - Episode 027 Hello! First Live at Shibuya Kohkaido Morning Musume Memory Seishun no Hikari Morning Musume First Live at Budokan ~Dancing Love Site 2000 Haru~ Morning Musume Live Revolution 21 Haru Morning Musume Concert Tour 2002 Haru "Love Is Alive!" Morning Musume Concert Tour 2003 "15nin de Non Stop!" Morning Musume Sakuragumi Hatsukouen ~Sakura Saku~ Hello! Project 2005 Winter All-Stars Dairanbu ~A Happy New Power!
Iida Kaori Sotsugyo Special~ Morning Musume Concert Tour 2005 Haru ~Dai 6 kan Hit Mankai~ Nochiura Natsumi Concert Tour 2005 Haru "Triangle Energy" Morning Coffee entry on the Up-Front Works official website
A CD single is a music single in the form of a compact disc. The standard in the Red Book for the term CD single is an 8cm CD, it now refers to any single recorded onto a CD of any size the CD5, or 5-inch CD single. The format was introduced in the mid-1980s but did not gain its place in the market until the early 1990s. With the rise in digital downloads in the early 2010s, sales of CD singles have decreased. Commercially released CD singles can vary in length from two songs up to six songs like an EP; some contain multiple mixes of one or more songs, in the tradition of 12" vinyl singles, in some cases, they may contain a music video for the single itself as well as a collectible poster. Depending on the nation, there may be limits on the number of songs and total length for sales to count in singles charts. Dire Straits' "Brothers in Arms" is reported to have been the world's first CD single, issued in the UK in two separate singles as a promotional item, one distinguished with a logo for the tour, Live in'85, a second to commemorate the Australian leg of the tour marked Live in'86.
Containing four tracks, it had a limited print run. The first commercially released CD Single was Angeline by John Martyn released on 1 February 1986. CD singles were first made eligible for the UK Singles Chart in 1987, the first number 1 available on the format in that country was "I Wanna Dance with Somebody" by Whitney Houston in May 1987; the Mini CD single CD3 format was created for use for singles in the late 1980s, but met with limited success in the US. The smaller CDs were more successful in Japan and had a resurgence in Europe early this century, marketed as "Pock it" CDs, being small enough to fit in a shirt pocket. By 1989, the CD3 was in decline in the US, it was common in the 1990s for US record companies to release both a two-track CD and a multi-track maxi CD. In the UK, record companies would release two CDs but these consisted of three tracks or more each. During the 1990s, CD single releases became less common in certain countries and were released in smaller editions, as the major record labels feared they were cannibalizing the sales of higher-profit-margin CD albums.
Pressure from record labels made singles charts in some countries become song charts, allowing album cuts to chart based only on airplay, without a single being released. In the US, the Billboard Hot 100 made this change in December 1998, after which few songs were released in the CD single format in the US, but they remained popular in the UK and other countries, where charts were still based on single sales and not radio airplay. At the end of the 1990s, the CD was the biggest-selling single format in the UK, but in the US, the dominant single format was airplay. With the advent of digital music sales, the CD single has been replaced as a distribution format in most countries, most charts now include digital download counts as well as physical single sales. In Australia, the Herald Sun reported the CD single is "set to become extinct". In early July 2009, leading music store JB Hi-Fi ceased stocking CD singles because of declining sales, with copies of the week's No. 1 single selling as few as only 350 copies across all their stores nationwide.
While CD singles no longer maintain their own section of the store, copies are still distributed but placed with the artist's albums. That is predominantly the case for popular Australian artists such as Jessica Mauboy, Kylie Minogue and, most Delta Goodrem, whose then-recent singles were released on CD in limited quantities; the ARIA Singles Chart is now "predominantly compiled from legal downloads", ARIA stopped compiling their physical singles sales chart. "On a Mission" by Gabriella Cilmi was the last CD single to be stocked in Kmart and Big W, who concluded stocking newly released singles. Sanity Entertainment, having resisted the decline for longer than the other major outlets, has ceased selling CD singles. In China and South Korea, CD single releases have been rare since the format was introduced, due of the amount of infringement and illegal file sharing over the internet, most of the time singles have been album cuts chart based only on airplay, but with the advent of digital music the charts have occasionally included digital download counts.
In Greece and Cyprus, the term "CD single" is used to describe an extended play in which there may be anywhere from three to six different tracks. These releases charted on the Greek Singles Chart with songs released as singles; the original CD single is a music single released on a mini Compact Disc that measures 8 cm in diameter, rather than the standard 12 cm. They are manufactured using the same methods as standard full-size CDs, can be played in most standard audio CD players and CD-ROM disc drives; the format was first released in the United States, United Kingdom, France, West Germany, Hong Kong in 1987 as the replacement for the 7-inch single. While mini CDs have fallen out of popularity among most major record labels, they remain a popular, low cost way for independent musicians and groups to release music. Capable of holding up to 20 minutes of music, most mini CD singles contain at least two tracks, ofte