Sierra Nevada (U.S.)
The Sierra Nevada is a mountain range in the Western United States, between the Central Valley of California and the Great Basin. The vast majority of the range lies in the state of California, although the Carson Range spur lies in Nevada; the Sierra Nevada is part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges that consists of an continuous sequence of such ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America and Antarctica. The Sierra runs 400 miles north-to-south, is 70 miles across east-to-west. Notable Sierra features include the largest alpine lake in North America; the Sierra is home to three national parks, twenty wilderness areas, two national monuments. These areas include Yosemite and Kings Canyon National Parks; the character of the range is shaped by its ecology. More than one hundred million years ago during the Nevadan orogeny, granite formed deep underground; the range started to uplift four million years ago, erosion by glaciers exposed the granite and formed the light-colored mountains and cliffs that make up the range.
The uplift caused a wide range of elevations and climates in the Sierra Nevada, which are reflected by the presence of five life zones. Uplift continues due to faulting caused by tectonic forces, creating spectacular fault block escarpments along the eastern edge of the southern Sierra; the Sierra Nevada has a significant history. The California Gold Rush occurred in the western foothills from 1848 through 1855. Due to inaccessibility, the range was not explored until 1912; the Sierra Nevada lies in Central and Eastern California, with a small but important spur extending into Nevada. West-to-east, the Sierra Nevada's elevation increases from 1,000 feet in the Central Valley to heights of about 14,000 feet at its crest 50–75 miles to the east; the east slope forms the steep Sierra Escarpment. Unlike its surroundings, the range receives a substantial amount of snowfall and precipitation due to orographic lift; the Sierra Nevada's irregular northern boundary stretches from the Susan River and Fredonyer Pass to the North Fork Feather River.
It represents where the granitic bedrock of the Sierra Nevada dives below the southern extent of Cenozoic igneous surface rock from the Cascade Range. It is bounded on the west by California's Central Valley and on the east by the Basin and Range Province; the southern boundary is at Tehachapi Pass. Physiographically, the Sierra is a section of the Cascade-Sierra Mountains province, which in turn is part of the larger Pacific Mountain System physiographic division; the California Geological Survey states that "the northern Sierra boundary is marked where bedrock disappears under the Cenozoic volcanic cover of the Cascade Range." The range is drained on its western slope by the Central Valley watershed, which discharges into the Pacific Ocean at San Francisco. The northern third of the western Sierra is part of the Sacramento River watershed, the middle third is drained by the San Joaquin River; the southern third of the range is drained by the Kings, Kaweah and Kern rivers, which flow into the endorheic basin of Tulare Lake, which overflows into the San Joaquin during wet years.
The eastern slope watershed of the Sierra is much narrower. From north to south, the Susan River flows into intermittent Honey Lake, the Truckee River flows from Lake Tahoe into Pyramid Lake, the Carson River runs into Carson Sink, the Walker River into Walker Lake. Although none of the eastern rivers reach the sea, many of the streams from Mono Lake southwards are diverted into the Los Angeles Aqueduct which provides water to Southern California; the height of the mountains in the Sierra Nevada increases from north to south. Between Fredonyer Pass and Lake Tahoe, the peaks range from 5,000 feet to more than 9,000 feet; the crest near Lake Tahoe is 9,000 feet high, with several peaks approaching the height of Freel Peak. Farther south, the highest peak in Yosemite National Park is Mount Lyell; the Sierra rises to 14,000 feet with Mount Humphreys near Bishop, California. Near Lone Pine, Mount Whitney is at 14,505 feet, the highest point in the contiguous United States. South of Mount Whitney, the elevation of the range dwindles.
The crest elevation is 10,000 feet near Lake Isabella, but south of the lake, the peaks reach to only a modest 8,000 feet. There are several notable geographical features in the Sierra Nevada: Lake Tahoe is a large, clear freshwater lake in the northern Sierra Nevada, with an elevation of 6,225 ft and an area of 191 sq mi. Lake Tahoe lies between a spur of the Sierra. Hetch Hetchy Valley, Yosemite Valley, Kings Canyon, Kern Canyon are examples of many glacially-scoured canyons on the west side of the Sierra. Yosemite National Park is filled with notable features such as waterfalls, granite domes, high mountains and meadows. Groves of Giant Sequoia
In mountaineering, a first ascent is the first successful, documented attainment of the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. First mountain ascents are notable because they entail genuine exploration, with greater risks and recognition than climbing a route pioneered by others; the person who performs the first ascent is called the first ascensionist. In free climbing, a first ascent of a climbing route is the first successful, documented climb of a route without using equipment such as anchors or ropes for aiding progression or resting; the details of the first ascents of many prominent mountains are scanty or unknown. Today, first ascents are carefully recorded and mentioned in guidebooks. Overwhelmingly, the idea of a "first ascent" is a modern one in places such as Africa and the Americas with a history of colonialism. There may be little or no physical evidence or documentation about the climbing activities of indigenous peoples living near the mountain.
For example, the volcano Llullaillaco on the border of Argentina and Chile is known to have been climbed in the prehistoric period due to the presence of Incan artifacts at the summit, yet credit for the first recorded ascent is given to Chilean climbers Bión González and Juan Harseim, who summited in 1952. The term is used when referring to ascents made using a specific technique or taking a specific route, such as via the North Face, without ropes or without oxygen. In rock climbing, some of the earlier first ascents for difficult routes, involved a mix of free and aid climbing; as a result, purist free climbers have developed the designation first free ascent to acknowledge ascents intentionally made more challenging by using equipment for protection only. Second ascents are noteworthy in climbing circles involving improving on a pioneering route through lessons learned from it, experience which may span from technical improvements to having a better understanding of how much gear and provisions to take.
Some other "first ascents" could be recorded for particular routes. One is the First Winter Ascent, which is, as the name suggests, the first ascent made during winter season; this is most important where the climate of winter is a factor in increasing the difficulty grade of the route. In the Northern Hemisphere conventional winter ascents are made between December 21 and March 21 and are not related to the conditions. In the Himalayan area, although Nepal and China's winter season permits start on December 1, the conventional winter ascents begin on December 21. Another is the First Solo Ascent, the first ascent made by a single climber; this is most important on high-level rock climbing, when the climber has to provide his own security or when climbing without any protection at all. Another type of ascent known as FFA is the first female ascent. While not considered as important, this designation remains significant on some difficult, limit-pushing climbs, where the first female ascent may not happen until well after the FA, due to possible difficulties encountered by female physicality.
The term last ascent has been used to refer to an ascent of a mountain or face that has subsequently changed to such an extent – because of rockfall – that the route no longer exists. It can be used facetiously to refer to a climb, so unpleasant or unaesthetic that no one would willingly repeat the first ascent party's ordeal. List of first ascents Notable first free ascents List of first ascents in the Alps List of first ascents in the Himalaya Glossary of climbing terms Alpinist Magazine – Peter Mortimer's First Ascent, Issue 17
Giant Forest Lodge Historic District
The Giant Forest Lodge Historic District in Sequoia National Park includes the remnants of what was once an extensive National Park Service Rustic style tourist development for park visitors. Known as Camp Sierra, the district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in May 1978. Situated in the Giant Forest grove of giant sequoias, the district is notable for its nearly total demolition by the National Park Service to eliminate the impact of development on the Big Trees; the first development in the Giant Forest took place in 1899, when a tent camp was set up in the grove. A road reached the site in 1903, more permanent development followed; the first lodge was built in 1915. In 1921 the Sequoia and General Grant National Parks Company erected the primary lodging area next to Round Meadow, the first area to be called "Giant Forest Lodge"; the same year, Camp Kaweah was established to provide additional capacity. By 1926, a study commissioned by the Park Service indicated that the development was adversely affecting the trees.
The following year the park superintendent, Colonel John White, first proposed the removal of the development. However, the concessioner was able to intervene with the director of the Park Service, White was overruled, he was, able to impose limits on guest accommodations, the first such limits in the National Park system. In 1962 and 1965 two reports indicated that the hydrology of the area had been affected by development, that the fire suppression made necessary by the proximity of buildings had created an unfavorable environment for new sequoia growth. Additionally, the influential Leopold Report on national park development, written by nature conservationist A. Starker Leopold criticized the Giant Forest development. By 1971 the park's master plan called for the reduction of human impact in the Giant Forest. By 1980 a consensus had developed for the relocation of the recreational facilities. By the 1990s the Park Service had resolved to remove the development, demolition began in 1997, it was completed in 2000 for the Giant Forest Lodge area with the removal of all buildings and infrastructure.
New development was centered around the Gilbert Stanley Underwood Giant Forest Village Market building at nearby Camp Kaweah, which became the Giant Forest Museum in 2001. The facility is connected to the Giant Forest by shuttle bus; the visitor accommodations were replaced by Wuksachi Village, located about five miles to the north and well away from the sequoia grove. The demolition of the Giant Forest infrastructure is noteworthy as the most visible clash between the Park Service's role as a guardian of natural resources and its role as custodian of the National Register of Historic Places, when it had to determine which interest was more crucial. Giant Forest Village-Camp Kaweah Historic District, includes the Giant Forest Museum Wilsonia Historic District Giant Forest restoration at Sequoia National ParkAll of the following Historic American Buildings Survey documentation is filed under Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA: HABS No. CA-193-A, "Giant Forest Lodge Historic District, Registration Building", 7 photos, 2 data pages, 1 photo caption page HABS No.
CA-193-B, "Giant Forest Lodge Historic District, Amphitheater", 2 photos, 1 photo caption page HABS No. CA-193-C, "Giant Forest Lodge Historic District, General Office Building", 4 photos, 2 data pages, 1 photo caption page HABS No. CA-193-D, "Giant Forest Lodge Historic District, Cabin A", 6 photos, 2 data pages, 1 photo caption page HABS No. CA-193-E, "Giant Forest Lodge Historic District, Cabin B", 3 photos, 2 data pages, 1 photo caption page HABS No. CA-193-F, "Giant Forest Lodge Historic District, Cabin H", 3 photos, 2 data pages, 1 photo caption page HABS No. CA-193-G, "Giant Forest Lodge Historic District, Cabin No. 5", 1 photo, 1 photo caption page HABS No. CA-193-H, "Giant Forest Lodge Historic District, Cabin No. 6", 1 photo, 1 photo caption page HABS No. CA-193-I, "Giant Forest Lodge Historic District, Cabin No. 7", 1 photo, 1 photo caption page HABS No. CA-193-J, "Giant Forest Lodge Historic District, Cabin No. 8", 2 photos, 1 photo caption page HABS No. CA-193-K, "Giant Forest Lodge Historic District, Cabin No. 22", 5 photos, 1 photo caption page HABS No.
CA-193-L, "Giant Forest Lodge Historic District, Cabin No. 27-28", 4 photos, 1 photo caption page
Franklin is a giant sequoia in Giant Forest, a sequoia grove where the largest tree in the world lives - the General Sherman. The Franklin tree is the eighth largest giant sequoia in the world, it was named by Wendell Flint after Benjamin Franklin. Nearby trees include the Washington Tree, once the second largest tree in the world, but since it lost half its trunk in 2005 many sequoias are now larger. Giant Forest, famed for its giant sequoia trees, is within Sequoia National Park; the forest, at over 6,000 feet in elevation, is located in the western Sierra Nevada of California. Four out of the ten largest trees by volume on the planet are said to be within the Giant Forest; the largest, the General Sherman tree, measures 36.5 feet across the base. List of largest giant sequoias List of trees
Great Western Divide
The Great Western Divide is a Sierra Nevada mountain range that forms part of the border between the Kings Canyon and Sequoia National Parks. Some of the summits of the Great Western Divide reach well over 13,000 feet; the High Sierra Trail crosses the range at Kaweah Gap from Sequoia National Park. The divide separates the watersheds of the Kaweah and Kings rivers; the divide includes the Kings -- the Kaweah Peaks Ridge. Black Kaweah Mount Brewer Mount Farquhar Mount Kaweah Red Kaweah Kaweah Queen Milestone Mountain Triple Divide Peak
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
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In topography, prominence measures the height of a mountain or hill's summit relative to the lowest contour line encircling it but containing no higher summit within it. It is a measure of the independence of a summit. A peak's key col is a unique point on this contour line and the parent peak is some higher mountain, selected according to various objective criteria. There are at least two definitions of prominence: The prominence of a peak is the minimum height necessary to descend to get from the summit to any higher terrain, which can be calculated for a given peak in the following way: for every path connecting the peak to higher terrain, find the lowest point on the path. See Figure 1; the prominence of a peak is the height of the peak’s summit above the lowest contour line encircling it but containing no higher summit within it. This allows the prominence of points like Everest to be calculated, as long as a lowest point can be defined; the following mental exercise may illustrate the meaning of topographic prominence.
Imagine a peak and imagine that an imaginary sea level rises to the peak. Now lower the imaginary sea level and an imaginary island appears beneath your feet; the island will merge with other islands that emerge. The island will touch an island with a higher peak than the initial island The summit of that island is the parent peak of the summit, the point at which the two islands touch is the key col of the summit, the elevation rise from the key col to the summit is the topographic prominence of the summit; the parent peak may be either far from the subject peak. The summit of Mount Everest is the parent peak of Aconcagua at a distance of 17,755 km, as well as the parent of the South Summit of Mount Everest at a distance of 360 m; the key col may be close to the subject peak or far from it. The key col for Aconcagua, if sea level is disregarded, is the Bering Strait at a distance of 13,655 km; the key col for the South Summit of Mount Everest is about 100 m distant. Prominence is interesting to many mountaineers because it is an objective measurement, correlated with the subjective significance of a summit.
Peaks with low prominence are either subsidiary tops of some higher summit or insignificant independent summits. Peaks with high prominence tend to be the highest points around and are to have extraordinary views. Only summits with a sufficient degree of prominence are regarded as independent mountains. For example, the world's second-highest mountain is K2. While Mount Everest's South Summit is taller than K2, it is not considered an independent mountain because it is a sub-summit of the main summit. Many lists of mountains take topographic prominence as cutoff. John and Anne Nuttall's The Mountains of England and Wales uses a cutoff of 15 m, Alan Dawson's list of Marilyns uses 150 m.. In the contiguous United States, the famous list of "fourteeners" uses a cutoff of 300 ft / 91 m. In the U. S. 2000 ft of prominence has become an informal threshold that signifies that a peak has major stature. Lists with a high topographic prominence cutoff tend to favor isolated peaks or those that are the highest point of their massif.
While the use of prominence as a cutoff to form a list of peaks ranked by elevation is standard and is the most common use of the concept, it is possible to use prominence as a mountain measure in itself. This generates lists of peaks ranked by prominence, which are qualitatively different from lists ranked by elevation; such lists tend to emphasize isolated high peaks, such as range or island high points and stratovolcanoes. One advantage of a prominence-ranked list is that it needs no cutoff since a peak with high prominence is automatically an independent peak, it is common to define a peak's parent as a particular peak in the higher terrain connected to the peak by the key col. If there are many higher peaks there are various ways of defining which one is the parent, not based on geological or geomorphological factors; the "parent" relationship defines a hierarchy. For example, in Figure 1, the middle peak is a subpeak of the right peak, in turn a subpeak of the left peak, the highest point on its landmass.
In that example, there is no controversy over the hierarchy. These different definitions follow. A special case occurs for the highest point on an oceanic continent; some sources define no parent in this case. Called prominence island parentage, this is defined as follows. In figure 2 the key col of peak A is at the meeting place of two closed contours, one encircling A and the other containing at least one higher peak; the encirclement parent of A is the highest peak, inside this other contour. In terms of the