Christianity is a Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ, who serves as the focal point for the religion. It is the worlds largest religion, with over 2.4 billion followers, or 33% of the global population, Christians believe that Jesus is the Son of God and the savior of humanity whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Christian theology is summarized in creeds such as the Apostles Creed and his incarnation, earthly ministry and resurrection are often referred to as the gospel, meaning good news. The term gospel refers to accounts of Jesuss life and teaching, four of which—Matthew, Luke. Christianity is an Abrahamic religion that began as a Second Temple Judaic sect in the mid-1st century, following the Age of Discovery, Christianity spread to the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, and the rest of the world through missionary work and colonization. Christianity has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization, throughout its history, Christianity has weathered schisms and theological disputes that have resulted in many distinct churches and denominations.
Worldwide, the three largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the denominations of Protestantism. There are many important differences of interpretation and opinion of the Bible, concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds. They began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith, even agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. The Baptists have been non-creedal in that they have not sought to establish binding authoritative confessions of faith on one another. Also rejecting creeds are groups with roots in the Restoration Movement, such as the Christian Church, the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada, the Apostles Creed is the most widely accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists and this particular creed was developed between the 2nd and 9th centuries.
Its central doctrines are those of the Trinity and God the Creator, each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period. The creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Most Christians accept the use of creeds, and subscribe to at least one of the mentioned above. The central tenet of Christianity is the belief in Jesus as the Son of God, Christians believe that Jesus, as the Messiah, was anointed by God as savior of humanity, and hold that Jesus coming was the fulfillment of messianic prophecies of the Old Testament. The Christian concept of the Messiah differs significantly from the contemporary Jewish concept, having become fully human, suffered the pains and temptations of a mortal man, but did not sin
Immigration to Spain
As of 2016, there were over 4.418.898 million foreign-born people in Spain, over 10, 2% of the total population. In migration terms and after centuries of net emigration, Spain has recently experienced large-scale immigration for the first time in modern history, in 1998, immigrants accounted for 3 per cent of the population. By 2008, the share had jumped to 13 per cent — one of the highest in Europe, the two largest groups were Romanians and Moroccans, with a combined 1. 4m migrants, that is almost a third of the foreign population. The population of Spain doubled during the 20th century due to the demographic boom in the 1960s. The birth rate plunged by the 1980s, and Spains population became stagnant and this trend is far from being reversed at the present moment and, in 2005 alone, the immigrant population of Spain increased by 700,000 people. According to the Spanish government, there were 5.6 million foreign residents in Spain in 2010, independent estimates put the figure 14% of total population.
According to the official 2011 census data, almost 800,000 were Romanian,774,000 were Moroccan,317,000 were Ecuadorian,312,000 were British and 250,000 were Colombian. Other important foreign communities are Bolivian, Italian, Chinese, in 2005, a regularization programme increased the legal immigrant population by 700,000 people. Since 2000, Spain has experienced population growth as a result of immigration flows. This sudden and ongoing inflow of immigrants, particularly those arriving clandestinely by sea, has caused social tensions. According to Eurostat, in 2010, there were 6.4 million foreign-born residents in Spain, of these,4.1 million were born outside the EU and 2.3 million were born in another EU Member State. As of 2005 Spain had the second highest immigration rates within the EU, just after Cyprus, in fact, booming Spain was Europes largest absorber of migrants from 2002 to 2007, with its immigrant population more than doubling as 2.5 million people arrived. Over 920,000 immigrants arrived in Spain during 2007, on top of the 802,971 new arrivals in 2006,682,711 new arrivals in 2005, unlike other countries of the EU that do not do it.
It is for this reason that although the Latin American immigrants of origin are most numerous, in the same way the majority of children born in Spain between 2000 and 2010 are children of immigrants despite not counting as such. Considering these data, there are sectors of Spanish society who oppose immigration that affirm the real number of immigrants in Spain is 10–11 million, or about 25% of the total population. As for nationalities outside of category, in order to stay in Spain for more than 3 months. Immigrants from the European Union make up a proportion of immigrants in Spain. The main countries of origin are Romania, the United Kingdom, Italy, of these, according to the BBC and contrary to popular belief, only about 21. 5% are over the age of 65
Morocco, officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a sovereign country located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. Geographically, Morocco is characterized by a mountainous interior, large tracts of desert. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of 446,550 km2 and its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tetouan, Salé, Agadir, Oujda, Kenitra, a historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, the Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1666. In 1912 Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with a zone in Tangier. Moroccan culture is a blend of Arab, indigenous Berber, Sub-Saharan African, Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara as its Southern Provinces. Morocco annexed the territory in 1975, leading to a war with indigenous forces until a cease-fire in 1991.
Peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock, Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy, the king can issue decrees called dahirs which have the force of law. He can dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister, Moroccos predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Tamazight. The Moroccan dialect, referred to as Darija, and French are widely spoken, Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean, and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa, the full Arabic name al-Mamlakah al-Maghribiyyah translates to Kingdom of the West, although the West in Arabic is الغرب Al-Gharb. The basis of Moroccos English name is Marrakesh, its capital under the Almoravid dynasty, the origin of the name Marrakesh is disputed, but is most likely from the Berber words amur akush or Land of God.
The modern Berber name for Marrakesh is Mṛṛakc, in Turkish, Morocco is known as Fas, a name derived from its ancient capital of Fes. The English name Morocco is an anglicisation of the Spanish Marruecos, the area of present-day Morocco has been inhabited since Paleolithic times, sometime between 190,000 and 90,000 BC. During the Upper Paleolithic, the Maghreb was more fertile than it is today, twenty-two thousand years ago, the Aterian was succeeded by the Iberomaurusian culture, which shared similarities with Iberian cultures. Skeletal similarities have been suggested between the Iberomaurusian Mechta-Afalou burials and European Cro-Magnon remains, the Iberomaurusian was succeeded by the Beaker culture in Morocco
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Japanese people in Spain
Japanese people in Spain consist largely of expatriate managers in Japanese corporations, as well as international students. There are people of Japanese ancestry in Spain, including descendants of 17th-century migrants to Spain. According to Spains National Statistical Institute,4,898 Japanese citizens resided in the country as of 2009, the first Japanese people to settle in Spain were the members of an embassy led by Hasekura Tsunenaga. Instead of returning to Japan in 1617, six remained in Coria del Río. The surname Japón is conserved among approximately 700 inhabitants of Coria del Río, the first Japanese business established in Spain was SANYO España. S. A. in 1969. Since Catalonia became the point of Japanese business operations in Spain. Between the 1970s and 1980s, Nikkeis—people of Japanese ancestry from various countries of Latin America—settled in Spain, since the 1970s, many Japanese have come to Spain as businesspeople and students. In 1966, there were only about 280 Japanese nationals in Spain, as of 20015,167 Japanese citizens resided in Spain, with 1,189 of them in Barcelona and 87 of them in the remainder of Catalonia.
Most residing in Catalonia are employees of Japanese companies, the peak number of the Japanese population in Las Palmas registered with the Japanese consulate there was 365 people in 1977. The Barcelona Suiyokai is an association of Japanese companies that operates in Barcelona and it operates a Japanese new year festival. In 200457 companies were a part of the association, in addition to the Japanese consulate, in Las Palmas there was the Casa de Japan and a Japanese association. The Casa opened in 1967 in Monte Lentiscal and its annex opened in October 1973, the main building closed in June 1981 and the annex closed in December 1985. From 1971 to 1981 there were Japanese nurses sent to the Queen Victoria, Spain has two Japanese international schools, the Japanese School in Barcelona and the Colegio Japonés de Madrid. The two cities and Madrid, have weekend Japanese education programmes, the Las Palmas Japanese School previously existed. Located in Tafira Baja, it opened in October 1973, making it the first Japanese school in Spain, there is a Japanese library in Eixample, Barcelona that opened in 1992.
Most of the patrons are Japanese, though locals may use the facilities. The library is located inside a flat, avance del Padrón a 1 de enero de 2009. Datos provisionales, Instituto Nacional de Estadística,2009, retrieved 2009-06-13 Ávila Tàpies, Rosalía, the Canary Islands in the Japanese Imaginary, The Analysis of Three Contemporary Narratives
Judaism encompasses the religion, philosophy and way of life of the Jewish people. Judaism is an ancient monotheistic Abrahamic religion, with the Torah as its text, and supplemental oral tradition represented by texts such as the Midrash. Judaism is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the relationship that God established with the Children of Israel. With between 14.5 and 17.4 million adherents worldwide, Judaism is the tenth-largest religion in the world, Judaism includes a wide corpus of texts, theological positions, and forms of organization. Modern branches of Judaism such as Humanistic Judaism may be nontheistic, the largest Jewish religious movements are Orthodox Judaism, Conservative Judaism and Reform Judaism. Major sources of difference between groups are their approaches to Jewish law, the authority of the Rabbinic tradition. Orthodox Judaism maintains that the Torah and Jewish law are divine in origin and unalterable, Conservative and Reform Judaism are more liberal, with Conservative Judaism generally promoting a more traditional interpretation of Judaisms requirements than Reform Judaism.
A typical Reform position is that Jewish law should be viewed as a set of guidelines rather than as a set of restrictions and obligations whose observance is required of all Jews. Historically, special courts enforced Jewish law, these still exist. Authority on theological and legal matters is not vested in any one person or organization, the history of Judaism spans more than 3,000 years. Judaism has its roots as a religion in the Middle East during the Bronze Age. Judaism is considered one of the oldest monotheistic religions, the Hebrews and Israelites were already referred to as Jews in books of the Tanakh such as the Book of Esther, with the term Jews replacing the title Children of Israel. Judaisms texts and values strongly influenced Abrahamic religions, including Christianity, many aspects of Judaism have directly or indirectly influenced secular Western ethics and civil law. Jews are a group and include those born Jewish and converts to Judaism. In 2015, the world Jewish population was estimated at about 14.3 million, Judaism thus begins with ethical monotheism, the belief that God is one and is concerned with the actions of humankind.
According to the Tanakh, God promised Abraham to make of his offspring a great nation, many generations later, he commanded the nation of Israel to love and worship only one God, that is, the Jewish nation is to reciprocate Gods concern for the world. He commanded the Jewish people to one another, that is. These commandments are but two of a corpus of commandments and laws that constitute this covenant, which is the substance of Judaism
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that was first spoken in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. Arabic is the language of 1.7 billion Muslims. It is one of six languages of the United Nations. The modern written language is derived from the language of the Quran and it is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, which is the language of 26 states. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the standards of Quranic Arabic. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-Quranic era, Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics. As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Many words of Arabic origin are found in ancient languages like Latin.
Balkan languages, including Greek, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has borrowed words from languages including Greek and Persian in medieval times. Arabic is a Central Semitic language, closely related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages, particularly in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include, The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense, the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense. The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms, the development of an internal passive. These features are evidence of descent from a hypothetical ancestor. In the southwest, various Central Semitic languages both belonging to and outside of the Ancient South Arabian family were spoken and it is believed that the ancestors of the Modern South Arabian languages were spoken in southern Arabia at this time.
To the north, in the oases of northern Hijaz and Taymanitic held some prestige as inscriptional languages, in Najd and parts of western Arabia, a language known to scholars as Thamudic C is attested
In Spain it is mostly known simply as the Peninsula. It has land frontiers with France and Andorra to the north, Portugal to the west, many inhabitants of peninsular Spain tend to conflate that region with Spain as a whole, disregarding the other territories mentioned above. Peninsular Spain is the largest part of the country in area -492,175 km² - and it contains 15 of the autonomous communities of Spain. Occupying the central part of Spain, it possesses much greater resources, to redress this imbalance, Spanish residents outside the peninsula receive a State subsidy for transport to and from the peninsula
North African communities of Paris
The Paris metropolitan area has a large North African/Maghrebian population. As of 2012 the majority of those of African origin living in Paris come from the Maghreb, including Algeria and Tunisia. There were 30,000 people with Algerian nationality,21,000 persons with Moroccan nationality, in addition, there were thousands of Maghrebian Jews who fled the Maghreb as a consequence of the post-World War II Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries. According to French police records, there have been Algerian and other North African residents of the 18th, 19th, many North Africans settled in the city in the 1920s, making up the largest immigrant group to the city during that period. Even though the Algerians were French citizens, they perceived as not being French due to racial, many North African residents took a more negative view of France after the Rif War occurred. The areas in Paris settled by North Africans in the 1920s and 1930s were rue des Anglais, Les Halles, in addition a Moroccan community appeared in Gennevilliers and Clichy, Hauts-de-Seine received North Africans.
In 1945 French authorities counted 60,000 North Africans, of them, they included 50,000 Kabyles,5,000 to 6,000 Chleuh, Algerian Moroccan Arabs, and small Tunisian population. The numbers of students had decreased from the period between the World Wars, and only a number of the north Africans included intellectuals, doctors. Hussey stated that initially North Africans settled the same communities as they did before. The police chief of Paris, Maurice Papon, enacted a policy against Algerians in Paris during the years 1958 through 1962. The height of violence against Algerians occurred in September and October 1961, the Paris massacre of 1961 affected the Algerian community. In 2005, young male Maghrebians made up the majority of those involved in the rioting in the Paris region, researcher Nabil Echchaibi reported that the riots were primarily orchestrated by minorities of North and West African descent, mostly in their teens. Almost all the rioters were French second-generation migrants and only about 7 percent of those arrested were foreigners.
Davidson wrote that Goutte dOr in Paris in 1948 appears to have had 5,720 North Africans and it had been perceived to have become North African in the post-World War II period. As of 200818. 1% of the population of the northern Parisian commune of Saint-Denis was Maghrebian, melissa K. Brynes, author of French Like Us. In the 1950s and 1960s Maghrebians began to arrive in Sarcelles, political organization came in subsequent decades. Originally the Muslims worshipped in converted makeshift areas, but purpose-built mosques appeared, in the 1990s Maghrebians were first elected to the commune council. Maxwell wrote that Maghrebians began obtaining key positions only in the recent vicinity of 2012 due to low turnout, Sarcelles gained a large population of Sephardic Jews as a consequence of the post-World War II Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries