San Bernardino County, California
San Bernardino County the County of San Bernardino, is a county located in the southern portion of the U. S. state of California, is located within the Greater Los Angeles area. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, the population was 2,035,210, making it the fifth-most populous county in California, the 12th-most populous in the United States; the county seat is San Bernardino. While included within the Greater Los Angeles area, San Bernardino County is included in the Riverside–San Bernardino–Ontario metropolitan statistical area, as well as the Los Angeles–Long Beach combined statistical area. With an area of 20,105 square miles, San Bernardino County is the largest county in the United States by area, although some of Alaska's boroughs and census areas are larger; the county is close to the size of West Virginia. It is larger than each of the nine smallest states, larger than the four smallest states combined, larger than 70 sovereign nations; this vast county stretches from where the bulk of the county population resides (in two Census County Divisions, holding 1,422,745 people as of the 2010 Census, covering the 450 square miles, across the thinly populated deserts and mountains.
It spans an area from south of the San Bernardino Mountains in San Bernardino Valley, to the Nevada border and the Colorado River. Spanish Missionaries from Mission San Gabriel Arcángel established a church at the village of Politania in 1810. Father Francisco Dumetz named the church San Bernardino on May 20, 1810, after the feast day of St. Bernardino of Siena; the Franciscans gave the name San Bernardino to the snowcapped peak in Southern California, in honor of the saint and it is from him that the county derives its name. In 1819, they established the San Bernardino de Sena Estancia, a mission farm in what is now Redlands. Following Mexican independence from Spain in 1821, Mexican citizens were granted land grants to establish ranchos in the area of the county. Rancho Jurupa in 1838, Rancho Cucamonga and El Rincon in 1839, Rancho Santa Ana del Chino in 1841, Rancho San Bernardino in 1842 and Rancho Muscupiabe in 1844. Agua Mansa was the first town in what became San Bernardino County, settled by immigrants from New Mexico on land donated from the Rancho Jurupa in 1841.
Following the purchase of Rancho San Bernardino, the establishment of the town of San Bernardino in 1851 by Mormon colonists, San Bernardino County was formed in 1853 from parts of Los Angeles County. Some of the southern parts of the county's territory were given to Riverside County in 1893. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 20,105 square miles, of which 20,057 square miles is land and 48 square miles is water, it is the largest county by the largest in the United States. It is larger than the states of New Jersey, Connecticut and Rhode Island combined, it borders both Arizona. The bulk of the population two million, live in the 480 square miles south of the San Bernardino Mountains adjacent to Riverside and in the San Bernardino Valley. Over 300,000 others live just north of the San Bernardino Mountains, agglomerating around Victorville covering 280 square miles in Victor Valley, adjacent to Los Angeles County. Another 100,000 people live scattered across the rest of the sprawling county.
The Mojave National Preserve covers some of the eastern desert between Interstate 15 and Interstate 40. The desert portion includes the cities of Needles next to the Colorado River and Barstow at the junction in Interstate 15 and Interstate 40. Trona is at the northwestern part of the county west of Death Valley; this national park within Inyo County has a small portion of land within the San Bernardino County. The largest metropolitan area in the Mojave Desert part of the county is Victor Valley, with the incorporated localities of Adelanto, Apple Valley and Victorville. Further south, a portion of Joshua Tree National Park overlaps the county near the High Desert area, in the vicinity of Twentynine Palms; the remaining towns make up the remainder of the High Desert: Pioneertown, Yucca Valley, Joshua Tree and Morongo Valley. The mountains are home to the San Bernardino National Forest, include the communities of Crestline, Lake Arrowhead, Running Springs, Big Bear City, Forest Falls, Big Bear Lake.
The San Bernardino Valley is at the eastern end of the San Gabriel Valley. The San Bernardino Valley includes the cities of Ontario, Chino Hills, Fontana, Colton, Grand Terrace, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino, Loma Linda, Highland and Yucaipa. Angeles National Forest Death Valley National Park Havasu National Wildlife Refuge Joshua Tree National Park Mojave National Preserve San Bernardino National Forest There are at least 35 official wilderness areas in the county that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System; this is the largest number of any county in the United States. The majority are managed by the Bureau of Land Management, but some are integral components of the above listed national protected areas. Most of these wilderness areas lie within the county, but a few are shared with neighboring counties. Except as noted, these wilderness areas are managed by the Bureau of Land Management and lie within San Bernardino County: The 2010 United States Census reported that San Bernardino County had a population of 2,035,210.
The racial makeup of San Bernardino County was 1,153,16
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker that has its main headquarter in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903; the company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and most luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. Ford owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer Troller, an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom and a 32% stake in Jiangling Motors, it has joint-ventures in China, Thailand and Russia. The company is controlled by the Ford family. Ford introduced methods for large-scale manufacturing of cars and large-scale management of an industrial workforce using elaborately engineered manufacturing sequences typified by moving assembly lines. Ford's former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 were sold to Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010. In 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States, Canada and the Middle East since 1938.
Ford is the second-largest U. S.-based automaker and the fifth-largest in the world based on 2015 vehicle production. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe; the company went public in 1956 but the Ford family, through special Class B shares, still retain 40 percent voting rights. During the financial crisis at the beginning of the 21st century, it was close to bankruptcy, but it has since returned to profitability. Ford was the eleventh-ranked overall American-based company in the 2018 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2017 of $156.7 billion. In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants and facilities worldwide. Henry Ford's first attempt at a car company under his own name was the Henry Ford Company on November 3, 1901, which became the Cadillac Motor Company on August 22, 1902, after Ford left with the rights to his name; the Ford Motor Company was launched in a converted factory in 1903 with $28,000 in cash from twelve investors, most notably John and Horace Dodge.
The first president was not Ford, but local banker John S. Gray, chosen to assuage investors' fears that Ford would leave the new company the way he had left its predecessor. During its early years, the company produced just a few cars a day at its factory on Mack Avenue and its factory on Piquette Avenue in Detroit, Michigan. Groups of two or three men worked on each car, assembling it from parts made by supplier companies contracting for Ford. Within a decade, the company would lead the world in the expansion and refinement of the assembly line concept, Ford soon brought much of the part production in-house in a vertical integration that seemed a better path for the era. Henry Ford was 39 years old when he founded the Ford Motor Company, which would go on to become one of the world's largest and most profitable companies, it has been in continuous family control for over 100 years and is one of the largest family-controlled companies in the world. The first gasoline powered automobile had been created in 1885 by the German inventor Carl Benz.
More efficient production methods were needed to make automobiles affordable for the middle class, to which Ford contributed by, for instance, introducing the first moving assembly line in 1913 at the Ford factory in Highland Park. Between 1903 and 1908, Ford produced the Models A, B, C, F, K, N, R, S. Hundreds or a few thousand of most of these were sold per year. In 1908, Ford introduced the mass-produced Model T, which totalled millions sold over nearly 20 years. In 1927, Ford replaced the T with the first car with safety glass in the windshield. Ford launched the first low-priced car with a V8 engine in 1932. In an attempt to compete with General Motors' mid-priced Pontiac and Buick, Ford created the Mercury in 1939 as a higher-priced companion car to Ford. Henry Ford purchased the Lincoln Motor Company in 1922, in order to compete with such brands as Cadillac and Packard for the luxury segment of the automobile market. In 1929, Ford was contracted by the government of the Soviet Union to set up the Gorky Automobile Plant in Russia producing Ford Model A and AAs thereby playing an important role in the industrialisation of that country.
The creation of a scientific laboratory in Dearborn, Michigan in 1951, doing unfettered basic research, led to Ford's unlikely involvement in superconductivity research. In 1964, Ford Research Labs made a key breakthrough with the invention of a superconducting quantum interference device or SQUID. Ford offered the Lifeguard safety package from 1956, which included such innovations as a standard deep-dish steering wheel, optional front, for the first time in a car, rear seatbelts, an optional padded dash. Ford introduced child-proof door locks into its products in 1957, and, in the same year, offered the first retractable hardtop on a mass-produced six-seater car. In late 1955, Ford established the Continental division as a separate luxury car division; this division was responsible for the manufacture and sale of the famous Continental Mark II. At the same time, the Edsel division was created to design and market that car starting with the 1958 model year. Due to limited sales of the Continental and the Edsel disaster, Ford merged Lincoln and Edsel into "M
Montebello Bus Lines
Montebello Bus Lines is a municipal bus operator in Montebello, USA serving East Los Angeles and Montebello. Montebello Bus Lines began on 28 July 1931, with a small lot on the corner of Greenwood Avenue and Olympic Boulevard, where the four buses the agency operated were housed; the conception of Montebello Bus Lines came after several other transport services had served the area. Two years after the City of Montebello was incorporated in 1920, the City launched its first attempt at operating a municipal bus route, but the City decided to sell its bus operation to the Motor Transport Company in 1928. Three years in 1931, the City purchased the route back from the Motor Transport Company, Montebello Bus Lines was born. In the agency’s early days, passengers paid a nickel to ride the bus and bus operators earned $120 per month. Montebello Bus Lines has grown to be the third largest municipal transport agency in Los Angeles County, operating seven local routes, an express route, a semi-fixed-route feeder service and a Dial-a-Ride service.
Montebello Bus Lines serves 15 communities, providing transport to 8 million passengers on an annual basis. As of September 2013, Montebello Bus Lines has 7 Compressed natural gas buses, 44 hybrid buses and plans to replace its 15 remaining Diesel fuel buses with CNG in next few years, it own a CNG fueling station to service the Montebello Bus Lines. The American Public Transportation Association has recognised Montebello Bus Line’s service. Montebello Bus Lines is the recipient of APTA's Outstanding Transport System Award and APTA's top Silver Safety Award in 1999, as well as the Achievement Award in 1997, 1998, 2000 and 2002. Within its service area of 67 square kilometres, Montebello Bus Lines serving the communities of: Montebello Bus Lines consists of 8 routes in the San Gabriel Valley Central and West. Montebello Bus Lines fixed route services can broadly be divided into three types: Major Local Services, Minor Local Services, Peak Express Service. Routes 10, 20, 40 are the major service routes.
Routes 30, 50, 60, 70 are the minor service routes. Route 90 is the express route. Former Route. Departs Gage Avenue and Telegraph Road to Downtown LA at 06:20 and 06:50. Departs from Downtown Los Angeles to Gage Avenue and Telegraph Road at 17:20 and 17:50. In the early days of the Montebello Bus Lines, there was a route that had a bus stop in the middle of the 700 block of Bradshawe Street; the buses used to be blue, student riders of the bus affectionately called the Montebello Bus, "the big blue limousine." Montebello Link begins operations in 1997. Montebello Bus Lines contracts five Metrolink feeder routes offers a kerb-to-kerb shuttle to and from the Montebello/Commerce Metrolink station during the peak hours; this reservation based service utilises shuttles meet the Metrolink's arriving schedule in the morning and takes passengers to major employment centres. The feeder routes carry commuters back to the station in the afternoon; the City of Montebello operates Montebello Dial-A-Taxi since 2007, a programme which offers transport for elderly residents and qualified handicapped persons of any age and their attendants.
15,000 residents utilise this service. Official website
Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority
The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority is the public agency responsible for operating most public transportation services in Greater Boston, Massachusetts. Earlier modes of public transportation in Boston were independently operated; the MTA was replaced in 1964 with the present-day MBTA, established as an individual department within the Commonwealth of Massachusetts before becoming a division of the Massachusetts Department of Transportation in 2009. The MBTA and Philadelphia's Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority are the only U. S. transit agencies that operate all five major types of terrestrial mass transit vehicles: light rail vehicles. In 2016, the system averaged 1,277,200 passengers per weekday, of which heavy rail averaged 552,500 and the light-rail lines 226,500, making it the fourth-busiest subway system and the busiest light rail system in the United States; the MBTA is the largest consumer of electricity in Massachusetts, the second-largest land owner. In 2007, its CNG bus fleet was the largest consumer of alternative fuels in the state.
The MBTA operates an independent law enforcement agency, the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Police. Mass transportation in Boston was provided by private companies granted charters by the state legislature for limited monopolies, with powers of eminent domain to establish a right-of-way, until the creation of the MTA in 1947. Development of mass transportation both shaped economic and population patterns. Shortly after the steam locomotive became practical for mass transportation, the private Boston and Lowell Railroad was chartered in 1830, connecting Boston to Lowell, a major northerly mill town in northeast Massachusetts' Merrimack Valley, via one of the oldest railroads in North America; this marked the beginning of the development of American intercity railroads, which in Massachusetts would become the MBTA Commuter Rail system and the Green Line "D" Branch. Starting with the opening of the Cambridge Railroad on March 26, 1856, a profusion of streetcar lines appeared in Boston under chartered companies.
Despite the change of companies, Boston is the city with the oldest continuously working streetcar system in the world. Many of these companies consolidated, animal-drawn vehicles were converted to electric propulsion. Streetcar congestion in downtown Boston led to the subways in 1897 and elevated rail in 1901; the Tremont Street subway was the first rapid transit tunnel in the United States. Grade-separation avoided delays caused by cross streets; the first elevated railway and the first rapid transit line in Boston were built three years before the first underground line of the New York City Subway, but 34 years after the first London Underground lines, long after the first elevated railway in New York City, its Ninth Avenue El started operations on July 1, 1868 in Manhattan as an elevated cable car line. Various extensions and branches were added at both ends; as grade-separated lines were extended, street-running lines were cut back for faster downtown service. The last elevated heavy rail or "El" segments in Boston were at the extremities of the Orange Line: its northern end was relocated in 1975 from Everett to Malden, MA, its southern end was relocated into the Southwest Corridor in 1987.
However, the Green Line's Causeway Street Elevated remained in service until 2004, when it was relocated into a tunnel with an incline to reconnect to the Lechmere Viaduct. The Lechmere Viaduct and a short section of steel-framed elevated at its northern end remain in service, though the elevated section will be cut back and connected to a northwards viaduct extension in 2017 as part of the Green Line Extension; the old elevated railways proved to be an eyesore and required several sharp curves in Boston's twisty streets. The Atlantic Avenue Elevated was closed in 1938 amidst declining ridership and was demolished in 1942; as rail passenger service became unprofitable due to rising automobile ownership, government takeover prevented abandonment and dismantlement. The MTA purchased and took over subway, elevated and bus operations from the Boston Elevated Railway in 1947. In the 1950s, the MTA ran new subway extensions, while the last two streetcar lines running into the Pleasant Street Portal of the Tremont Street Subway were substituted with buses in 1953 and 1962.
In 1958 the MTA purchased the Highland Branch from the Boston and Albany Railroad, reopening a year as rapid transit line. While the operations of the MTA were stable by the early 1960s, the operated commuter rail lines were in freefall; the New Haven Railroad, New York Central Railroad, Boston and Maine Railroad were all financially struggling. The 1945 Coolidge Commission plan assumed that most of the commuter rail lines would be replaced by shorter rapid transit extensions, or feed into them at reduced service levels. Passenger service on the entire Old Colony Railroad system serving the southeastern part of the state was abandoned by the New Haven Railroad in 1959, triggering calls for state intervention. Between January 1963 and March 1964, the Mass Transportation Commission tested differe
Joshua Tree, California
Joshua Tree is a census-designated place in San Bernardino County, United States. The population was 7,414 at the 2010 census. At 2,700 feet above sea level, Joshua Tree and its surrounding communities are located in the High Desert of California; the center of the business district in Joshua Tree is on California State Route 62. Joshua Tree is located in the Mojave Desert at 34°8′N 116°19′W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total all land area of 95.9 km². Joshua Tree, California is home to Joshua Tree National Park. Joshua Tree shares the border to its east with Twentynine Palms, its western border with Yucca Valley, its northwestern border with Landers and its southern border is Coachella Valley, California; the 2010 United States Census reported that Joshua Tree had a population of 7,414. The population density was 200.1 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Joshua Tree was 6,176 White, 234 African American, 84 Native American, 104 Asian, 18 Pacific Islander, 368 from other races, 430 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1,308 persons. The Census reported that 7,263 people lived in households, 30 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 121 were institutionalized. There were 3,088 households, out of which 862 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 1,209 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 431 had a female householder with no husband present, 162 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 237 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 30 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 1,018 households were made up of individuals and 358 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35. There were 1,802 families; the population was spread out with 1,626 people under the age of 18, 813 people aged 18 to 24, 1,756 people aged 25 to 44, 2,056 people aged 45 to 64, 1,163 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.8 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.3 males.
There were 3,808 housing units at an average density of 102.8 per square mile, of which 1,872 were owner-occupied, 1,216 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 3.9%. 4,178 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 3,085 people lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census, Joshua Tree had a median household income of $39,492, with 21.8% of the population living below the federal poverty line. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,207 people, 1,765 households, 1,057 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 265.4/km². There were 2,112 housing units at an average density of 133.2/km². The racial makeup of the CDP was 86.38% White, 1.76% African American, 1.57% Native American, 1.12% Asian, 0.62% Pacific Islander, 4.61% from other races, 3.95% from two or more races. 12.36% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,765 households out of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.8% were married couples living together, 16.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.1% were non-families.
33.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.98. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 27.5% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 26.4% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, 18.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.8 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $26,535, the median income for a family was $33,333. Males had a median income of $27,465 versus $29,375 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $13,856. 21.2% of the population and 18.0% of families were below the poverty line. 31.5% of those under the age of 18 and 5.4% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. In the California State Legislature, Joshua Tree is in the 16th Senate District, represented by Republican Shannon Grove, in the 42nd Assembly District, represented by Republican Chad Mayes.
In the United States House of Representatives, Joshua Tree is located in California's 8th congressional district, which has a Cook PVI of R+10 and is represented by Republican Paul Cook. Joshua Tree is represented by San Bernardino County 3rd District Supervisor James Ramos – 2012; the Joshua Tree Visitor Center is located at the junction of Highway 62 and Park Boulevard in "downtown" Joshua Tree and the parks West Entrance is located 5 mi south. The community of Joshua Tree is not an incorporated city. Joshua Tree community is represented by the Joshua Tree Municipal Advisory Counsel as the official liaison between the community and the San Bernardino County government. Joshua Tree Chamber of Commerce Joshua Tree: The Complete Guide The Joshua Tree Visitors Guide
Omnitrans is a public transportation agency in San Bernardino County, United States. The largest transit operator within San Bernardino County, it serves the San Bernardino Valley; the agency was established in 1976 through a joint powers agreement and today includes 15 cities and portions of the unincorporated areas of San Bernardino County. In addition to the southwestern corner of San Bernardino County, Omnitrans provides service to parts of Riverside and Los Angeles Counties. Omnitrans carries about 11 million passengers per year. Omnitrans operates fixed route bus service, bus rapid transit and a paratransit service for the disabled, “Access.” Omnitrans operates throughout the urbanized area of southwestern San Bernardino County: south of the San Bernardino Mountains, from Upland and Chino in the west to Redlands and Yucaipa in the east. The Omnitrans service area covers 480 square miles; the fixed-route services consist of 28 local fixed routes including one peak-hour only service, two peak-hour trippers, one regional express route.
Routes are operated with 40-foot buses running along major east-west and north-south corridors. Headways vary from 15-minute to hourly service, with 18 hours of service on weekdays, 13 hours on Saturdays, 12 hours on Sundays. Omnitrans had major changes in the West Valley by adjusting routes to run more North to South and East to West. Omnitrans developed a bus rapid transit route titled sbX that traverses the San Bernardino Valley from north to south. OmniGo is a general-public circular fixed route service for the low density/low demand cities of Chino Hills and Grand Terrace. Access provides public transportation services for persons who are physically or cognitively unable to use regular bus service. Access operates curb to- curb service with minibuses or vans, complementing the Omnitrans fixed-route bus system; the Access service area is defined as up to 3/4 mile on either side of an existing fixed route. Service is available at the same times that fixed-route services operate. Omnitrans operated OmniLink, a demand-response service that operated in Yucaipa and Chino Hills.
OmniLink ceased operation 29 August 2014. Omnitrans will operate the Redlands Passenger Rail Project line between San Redlands. Official website
Public transport is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, that charge a posted fee for each trip. Examples of public transport include city buses, trolleybuses and passenger trains, rapid transit and ferries. Public transport between cities is dominated by airlines and intercity rail. High-speed rail networks are being developed in many parts of the world. Most public transport systems run along fixed routes with set embarkation/disembarkation points to a prearranged timetable, with the most frequent services running to a headway. However, most public transport trips include other modes of travel, such as passengers walking or catching bus services to access train stations. Share taxis offer on-demand services in many parts of the world, which may compete with fixed public transport lines, or compliment them, by bringing passengers to interchanges. Paratransit is sometimes used for people who need a door-to-door service.
Urban public transit differs distinctly among Asia, North America, Europe. In Asia, profit-driven, privately-owned and publicly traded mass transit and real estate conglomerates predominantly operate public transit systems In North America, municipal transit authorities most run mass transit operations. In Europe, both state-owned and private companies predominantly operate mass transit systems, Public transport services can be profit-driven by use of pay-by-the-distance fares or funded by government subsidies in which flat rate fares are charged to each passenger. Services can be profitable through high usership numbers and high farebox recovery ratios, or can be regulated and subsidised from local or national tax revenue. Subsidised, free of charge services operate in some towns and cities. For geographical and economic reasons, differences exist internationally regarding use and extent of public transport. While countries in the Old World tend to have extensive and frequent systems serving their old and dense cities, many cities of the New World have more sprawl and much less comprehensive public transport.
The International Association of Public Transport is the international network for public transport authorities and operators, policy decision-makers, scientific institutes and the public transport supply and service industry. It has 3,400 members from 92 countries from all over the globe. Conveyances designed for public hire are as old as the first ferries, the earliest public transport was water transport: on land people walked or rode an animal. Ferries appear in Greek mythology—corpses in ancient Greece were buried with a coin underneath their tongue to pay the ferryman Charon to take them to Hades; some historical forms of public transport include the stagecoach, traveling a fixed route between coaching inns, the horse-drawn boat carrying paying passengers, a feature of European canals from their 17th-century origins. The canal itself as a form of infrastructure dates back to antiquity – ancient Egyptians used a canal for freight transportation to bypass the Aswan cataract – and the Chinese built canals for water transportation as far back as the Warring States period which began in the 5th century BCE.
Whether or not those canals were used for for-hire public transport remains unknown. The omnibus, the first organized public transit system within a city, appears to have originated in Paris, France, in 1662, although the service in question failed a few months after its founder, Blaise Pascal, died in August 1662; the omnibus was introduced to London in July 1829. The first passenger horse-drawn railway opened in 1806: it ran between Swansea and Mumbles in southwest Wales in the United Kingdom. In 1825 George Stephenson built the Locomotion for the Stockton and Darlington Railway in northeast England, the first public steam railway in the world; the first successful electric streetcar was built for 12 miles of track for the Union Passenger Railway in Richmond, Virginia in 1888. Electric streetcars could carry heavier passenger loads than predecessors, which reduced fares and stimulated greater transit use. Two years after the Richmond success, over thirty two thousand electric streetcars were operating in America.
Electric streetcars paved the way for the first subway system in America. Before electric streetcars, steam powered subways were considered. However, most people believed that riders would avoid the smoke filled subway tunnels from the steam engines. In 1894, Boston built the first subway in the United States, an electric streetcar line in a 1.5 mile tunnel under Tremont Street’s retail district. Other cities such as New York followed, constructing hundreds of miles of subway in the following decades. Aerial lift Aerial tramway Funifor Chairlift Detachable chairlift Funitel Gondola lift Maritime transport Ferry Cable ferry Reaction ferry Water taxi Land transport Personal public transport Bicycle-sharing system Carsharing Personal rapid transit Rail transport Inter-city rail High-speed rail Maglev Urban rail transit Airport rail link Atmospheric railway Automated guideway transit Cable car Cable railway Commuter rail Elevated railway Funicular Inclined elevator Light rail Medium-capacity rail system Mono