Onkaparinga Hills, South Australia
Onkaparinga Hills is a southern suburb of Adelaide, in the City of Onkaparinga. It covers an area of 22 square kilometres, it has a population of 2534 people. It is a leafy suburb. Nearly 60% of families in the area are couples with children, compared to an Australian average of 45.3%. The median rent in 2006 was $230; the current median cost of a home in the area is $390 000. 93.5% of people speak English only at home and 91% are Australian citizens compared to the Australian average of 86.1%. The Onkaparinga Hills are examples of folding. Prior to European colonisation, the area was inhabited by the Kaurna people; the name Onkaparinga is derived from the Kaurna word ngankiparrinnga, meaning ‘The Women’s River’. European settlement dates from the 1840s. Most of the settlers were farmers, with vineyards being established. After the war there was significant development and again in the early 1990s; the population is now stable. There are still sections of the area used for vineyards and grazing. ^ Bonzle.com ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics ^ City of Onkaparinga Council Website ^ Aboriginal Culture and History, City of Onkaparinga Council Website ^ History Overview, City of Onkaparinga Council Website ^ Domain Suburb Profile, Domain.com ^ History of the Population, City of Onkaparinga Council Website
South Australian Country Fire Service
The South Australian Country Fire Service is a volunteer based fire service in the state of South Australia in Australia. Many parts of Australia are sparsely populated whilst at the same time they are under significant risk of bushfire. Due to economics, it is prohibitively expensive for each Australian town or village to have a paid fire service; the compromise adopted is to have government funded equipment and training but volunteer fire-fighters to perform the duties of regular fire-fighters. In South Australia, the name for the volunteer service is the CFS. Other Australian States and Territories have their own service, such as the Country Fire Authority in the state of Victoria and the Rural Fire Service in the state of New South Wales. In the state capital Adelaide, a conventional paid service exists, the South Australian Metropolitan Fire Service. A handful of large towns in South Australia have retained their own metropolitan services, but the vast majority rely on the CFS. Several Adelaide suburbs that retain extensive scrubland have CFS stations whose area of operation overlaps that of the SAMFS with joint training exercises sometimes organised for major community facilities such as the Flinders Medical Centre.
For urban incidents, both services will attend with the Country Fire Service taking command. The SA Country Fire Service is a volunteer based organisation with responsibility as the Control Agency for firefighting and hazardous materials in the country region of South Australia, their official mission is "To protect life and the environment from fire and other emergencies whilst protecting and supporting our personnel and continuously improving." The Country Fire Service is different from most fire services worldwide, in that the fire appliances are painted white, rather than red. This has many benefits in visibility on road, in thick smoke, but has the disadvantage that they are sometimes not perceived by the public as fire trucks; the day/night striping down the sides of appliances is either the old silver and red standard, or a newer red and gold chequering. Appliances made after 2012 have bright yellow chequering; the red and bright yellow chequering provides much better visibility for crews working on roads.
Some appliances are trialling battenburg striping with bright chevrons on the rear of the appliances. Fire fighters wear yellow protective clothing, with a two-piece set being the standard. With the introduction of PBI Gold, all CFS volunteers who have completed BA training are now seen wearing yellow/brown coloured clothing. All turn out coats have "CFS" or "FIRE" on the back in reflective writing. More modern jackets have day/night striping around the sleeves and bottom of the jacket. Safety Vests are provided for work on the roads; these have "Rescue", or "CFS" on both front and back in reflective writing. Pictures of firefighters wearing newest uniforms: http://fire-brigade.asn.au/equipment/ppe/default.asp Fire fighters' helmets are white, with the fire fighters surname on the back of the helmet in reflective, glow in the dark writing. Lieutenants and Captains have yellow helmets, Deputy Group Officers and above have red helmets. Regional staff have a blue stripe on their helmet. In colonial times, the government attempted to control the outbreak of wildfires by legislating against the careless use of fire.
This began with the 1847 ordinance against reckless burn-offs of grass. The challenge of fire suppression was left to local residents who would band together to fight fires without any formal organisation or authority. In 1913, district councils were given the right to appoint fire control officers given the power to do anything'necessary or expedient and practicable' to prevent fires or to protect life and property; as firefighting technology advanced during World War II, a government-equipped volunteer Emergency Fire Service brigade was established in Adelaide followed by additional brigades in some country areas. After the war, equipment from these brigades was lent to district councils for rural firefighting work. To supervise the program, an Emergency Fire Services division was formed as a division of the police department. Throughout the mid-1950s, the EFS grew stronger and more organised, volunteers began to campaign for the establishment of the EFS as a statutory authority; this was achieved in 1976 with the passing of the Country Fires Act through the South Australian Government which retitled the EFS as the Country Fire Service.
The Country Fires Act, 1989 pulled the control of the CFS away from district councils to the State Government, allowing for the development of a standardised service able to respond to emergencies across South Australia. In the late 1990s, as part of a drive to ensure that the CFS was properly equipped, another major change in funding was brought in, the administration of the Service was combined with the administration of several other emergency services. Today, the Emergency Services Levy Funding provides for the training and administration resources required to maintain the operation of the Service, but the CFS still stands fundamentally on the commitment and energy of its volunteers. In 2005 the South Australian Fire and Emergency Services Act was passed in South Australian Parliament; this act brings the Country Fire Service Metropolitan Fire Service and South Australian State Emergency Service together under one administration board, funding sou
Postcodes in Australia
Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the Australian postal system. Postcodes in Australia are placed at the end of the Australian address. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department and are now managed by Australia Post, are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website. Australian envelopes and postcards have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode; these are used. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department to replace earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbourne's letter and number codes and a similar system used in rural and regional New South Wales; the introduction of the postcodes coincided with the introduction of a large-scale mechanical mail sorting system in Australia, starting with the Sydney GPO. By 1968, 75% of mail was using postcodes, in the same year post office preferred-size envelopes were introduced, which came to be referred to as “standard envelopes”.
Postcode squares were introduced in June 1990 to enable Australia Post to use optical character recognition software in its mail sorting machines to automatically and more sort mail by postcodes. Australian postcodes consist of four digits, are written after the name of the city, suburb, or town, the state or territory: Mr John Smith 100 Flushcombe Road BLACKTOWN NSW 2148When writing an address by hand, a row of four boxes is pre-printed on the lower right hand corner of an envelope, the postcode may be written in the boxes. If addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before'Australia'. Australian postcodes are sorting information, they are linked with one area. Due to post code rationalisation, they can be quite complex in country areas; the south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with few people. This means that mail for these places is not sorted until it gets to Geelong; some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations in urban areas.
Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for street deliveries and another for post office boxes. For example, a street address in the Sydney suburb of Parramatta would be written like this: Mr John Smith 99 George Street PARRAMATTA NSW 2150But mail sent to a PO Box in Parramatta would be addressed: Mr John Smith PO Box 99 PARRAMATTA NSW 2124Many large businesses, government departments and other institutions receiving high volumes of mail had their own postcode as a Large Volume Receiver, e.g. the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200. More postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006; the first one or two numbers show the state or territory that the postcode belongs to Sometimes near the state and territory borders, Australia Post finds it easier to send mail through a nearby post office, across the border: Some of the postcodes above may cover two or more states.
For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Three locations straddle the NSW-Queensland border. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a separate territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW, it is just south of the towns of Huskisson, with which it shares a postcode. Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT; the numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the same number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e.g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria, etc. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years. Australia's external territories are included in Australia Post's postcode system. While these territories do not belong to any state, they are addressed as such for mail sorting: Three scientific bases in Antarctica operated by the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions share a postcode with the isolated sub-Antarctic island of Macquarie Island: Each state's capital city ends with three zeroes, while territorial capital cities end with two zeroes.
Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs and PO Boxes were made available. The last number can be changed from "0" to "1" to get the postcode for General Post Office boxes in any capital city: While the first number of a postcode shows the state or territory, the second number shows a region within the state. However, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other; as an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the southern suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast of New South Wales. Postcodes with a second number of "0" or "1" are always located within the metropolitan area of the state's capital city. Postcodes with higher secon
Aldinga, South Australia
Aldinga is a suburb of Adelaide in South Australia located about 45 kilometres south of the Adelaide city centre in the City of Onkaparinga. Aldinga started as a town in the 1850s in response to the development of farming on the Aldinga Plains; the layout of the town in circa 1857 is attributed to a local farmer. The town is reported as growing with the construction of a ‘hotel, blacksmith’s shop and a number of other shops and trades.’ In the 1870s, the combination of declining productivity of the land and opportunities such as the availability of land in South Australia’s mid-North resulted in a population decline. However, the town survived due to its location on the Old Coach Road which continues south to towns along the east coast of Gulf St Vincent as part of what is now called the Main South Road. Aldinga Post Office opened around 1851 and closed in 1992; the bands Another's Life, The Fall Of Troy, I Killed The Prom Queen and Spirit of Alondray come from Aldinga
Christies Beach, South Australia
Christies Beach is a seaside suburb in the southern Adelaide metropolitan area, within the City of Onkaparinga. The area is scenic and hence popular with photographers as Witton Bluff provides a natural vantage point over the entire suburb and beyond. Christies Beach boasts a unique commercial strip running the entire length of Beach Road and is identified as a primary coastal node in the Adelaide Metropolitan area. Christies Beach features one of the few remaining main road classified Esplanades in Metropolitan Adelaide, providing direct access to the beach on Gulf St Vincent. Christies Beach has its own postcode of 5165, is adjacent to the suburbs of Christie Downs and Noarlunga Centre to the east, Port Noarlunga to the south, O'Sullivan Beach to the north; the first development to occur along the coast of Christies Beach can be traced back to pre-colonization times 40,000 years ago. The indigenous Kaurna people used the coastal area of Christies Beach as a place for seasonal residence, they constructed structures known as a ‘Wodli’, which are small shelters made of branches and leaves.
These structures were semi-permanent, only lasting the length of the summer period, after which they were disassembled. The first European development along the Christies Beach coastline was constructed in the 1830s. A whaling station was constructed along the coast, influenced by the rising price of whale bone overseas, the abundant Southern Right Whale population during the summer breeding season and the vantage point of Gulf St Vincent from Witton Bluff. By the 1840s the seasonal whale population dwindled down to unprofitable levels with the whales changing their migration route, the whalers left the area to pursue other activities. An area of surveyed land covering Glenelg to Witton Bluff known as District B, was made available for settlement in 1838. Many farmers took plots of land along the Anderson Creek. In 1895 Lambert Christie and his wife Rosa established a farm that covered the area where Christies Beach is now situated; the entire area remained a land of farming communities until 1923.
This is when Rosa Christie created the first subdivision in the area, it was named Christie Beach. With this subdivision and other such residential allocations in the area road and rail transportation was improved; the improvement in transportation south of Adelaide gave Christies Beach an increase in tourists and holiday makers who were looking for a coastal experience. Many tourists decided to build cottages and holiday shacks on Witton Bluff and down onto the beach itself. With the influx of visitors and new residents to the area the Christies Beach Progressive Association was formed to provide good foreshore amenities, such as beach access, showers, etc. Foreshore developments led to the creation of new shops and services on the Esplanade and nearby Gulfview and Beach Roads. By the late 1950s demand for residence in the area skyrocketed, this propelled commercial and industrial developments in the Lonsdale district with the opening of Port Stanvac Oil Refinery and Chrysler engine plant and in Noarlunga with the relocation of the railway line and the construction of Colonnades Shopping Centre.
Christie Beach Post Office opened on 3 April 1945 and was renamed Christies Beach around 1961. Christies Beach North office opened on 5 June 1962. Existing foreshore developments include toilet facilities, shelter, barbecue facilities, native vegetation plantations, informational signage, beach access stairs, & paved footpaths on both sides of the Esplanade. All overhead power lines along the Esplanade have been converted to underground power lines to improve the scenic value of the foreshore. Future development plans for the Christies Beach foreshore established under the Metropolitan Coast Park Plan include the allocation of parking areas to remove on the side of the road parking, continued planting of native vegetation and the creation of more open recreation grass spaces, & converting the footpath into a multi-recreational path that can be used by walkers and cyclists alike and is connected to similar coastal paths along coasts further north and south, & changing the flow of traffic along the coast so as to turn it into a recreational road, rather than a thoroughfare.
There are plans for a coastal trail from Christies Beach to Port Noarlunga, called The Witton Bluff Base Trail, with the application for funding being considered. The central sporting hub for the Christies Beach area is the John Bice Memorial Oval, home of the Christies Beach Football Club, Southern Districts Cricket Club and the Christies Beach Sports and Social Club; the Morrow Road bridge over Christies Creek, a Local Heritage place, was once the main road bridge linking Christies Beach to O'Sullivan Beach. The structure is thought to be the only remaining example of a wooden road bridge in the former Noarlunga Council area. Situated on Galloway Road between Gulf View Road and Carmichael Road, Lohmann Park is home to "The Rainmakers", a statue of bronze Aboriginal warriors; the sculpture was gifted to the people of Noarlunga City Council by Eugen Lohmann Esq. the Governing Director of Wender and Duerholt, a German building company which had built a number of South Australian Housing Trust homes in the area.
The statue was unveiled by Premier of South Australia, Frank Walsh, on 21 May 1965. Located in the park is a memorial to former City of Onkaparinga councillor Alan Oakes. Citations ReferencesAustralian Bureau of Statistics.. People occupying high or medium density housing - Christies B
Hackham, South Australia
Hackham is an outer metropolitan suburb of Adelaide, South Australia. It lies within the City of Onkaparinga; the Coast to Vines rail trail passes through the suburb. The post code within the Hackham suburb is "5163"; the township of Hackham was surveyed for Edward Castle on Section 25 Hundred of Noarlunga in 1856. Castle had arrived in South Australia in 1839 and it is thought named the new settlement after his former home in Gloucestershire. Another version of the naming of the place states that J. B. Hack, an early colonist, lent his name to it and yet another has it that James Kingdon, the first owner of the section prior to Castle, named it. One contemporary account stated that town of Hackham was ‘peculiarly adapted for its purpose, being in the centre of a large agricultural district; the land is sloping and dry in winter’. By 1866, Hackham was linked by a daily coach to Adelaide and it contained a post office, licensed school, a hotel, the Golden Pheasant; the town did not flourish however and during the 1880s dwindled to nothing more than gardens and wattle plantations.
One of those gardens, a plant nursery maintained by F. W. Hutchinson, became well known for its seed production; the Craig, Hutchinson, Humphris and Sparrow families were just some of those that pioneered the place. It was predominately a farming region, specialising in cereal production until the 1960s and 1970s when the encroachment of suburban subdivisions changed land use; the Coast to Vines rail trail passes through the suburb. Heading north the trail finishes at Marino and heading south the trail finishes at Willunga. Huntfield Heights Primary School C. P. C - 7 Primary School Hackham West R-7 School Home Child Care, Family Day Care Provider, Alexander Street, Hackham Mick O'Shea Hotel Holly reserve Forsyth reserve Hackham East Jnr & Pmy School ^ Hackham - European History and Heritage
Panalatinga Road, Adelaide
Panalatinga Road is a north-south minor arterial road in the southern suburbs of Adelaide. It runs from the junction of Main South Road and the Southern Expressway in Reynella, heads south past Wheatsheaf Road where it terminates soon after, continuing as Coxs Hill Road into the Onkaparinga Hills; the road is a four lane dual carriageway for the 4.6 km length north of Wheatsheaf Road, a two lane single carriageway for the 1 km to the south. The entire road has a speed limit of 80 km/h, is used as an alternative to South Road and local road States Road; the majority of southbound traffic exits at Wheatsheaf Road, where the road reduces to a single lane, the right southbound and left northbound lane are made for access to/from Wheatsheaf Road. The Panalatinga Creek runs under the road in the northern section, it is derived from the Kaurna name Pandlotinga, with the'inga' suffix meaning'path of water', mispronounced as Panatalinga. Panalatinga Road was once a more rural-style road, being like the southern-most extent of the current road, being only a two lane road, with no median strip or kerbs.
There were no traffic lights along the road, with the exception of the junction with South Road at the north, but not at Kenihans Road, the Southern Expressway did not exist at the time, making these intersections much simpler than in the current day. There was a roundabout at the intersection with Reynell Road, which has since been upgraded to a signalised intersection; the intersections at Pimpala Road and Bains Road had no traffic management system, as the eastern lengths of these roads were undeveloped still, occupied by farming land, these intersections did not have a high level of danger associated with them at the time. In the'70s and'80s, Panalatinga Road did extend further to the south, heading past Cox's Hill Road and to Spriggs Road continuing as what's known as Kimbley Road, on to Penney's Hill Road; the road continued as a dirt trail to Piggott Range Road. The terrain in this now closed southern extent is far from flat, with a large number of crests, making it unsafe to convert into a main thoroughfare when the road was upgraded in the 90's.
Since the upgrade of Panalatinga Road, the termination of the road south of Cox's Hill Road, there has been an open area adjacent to Taylors Road which heads towards the roundabout of States and Doctors Road, that the South Australian Government has owned the land with the intention of extending Panalatinga Road down to this point. This proposed road is listed as Margaret Road. Local power lines have been moved underground in preparation of this change, but the project has never been given the'OK' to go ahead. For years, community members have requested this extension, but the government refuse to take action, claiming the Southern Expressway provides an adequate diversion for traffic off of Panalatinga Road, despite being to the west, not benefiting most drivers with destinations east of South Road; the current alternative to the extension, Wheatsheaf road and States road are quite congested before and after school, with a number of schools within the vicinity. With the extension, through traffic could avoid this traffic.
The Hackham CFS would majorly benefit from the extension, as it would reduce travel times to the Onkaparinga Hills and Reynella, would save them trying to fight the States Road traffic. Panalatinga Creek Extend Panalatinga Road A Facebook group aimed towards making the Panalatinga Road extension a reality