Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade is a 1989 American action-adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg, from a story co-written by executive producer George Lucas. It is the third installment in the Indiana Jones franchise. Harrison Ford reprises the title role and Sean Connery plays Indiana's father, Henry Jones, Sr. Other cast members featured include Alison Doody, Denholm Elliott, Julian Glover, River Phoenix, John Rhys-Davies. In the film, set in 1938, Indiana searches for his father, a Holy Grail scholar, kidnapped by Nazis. After the mixed reaction to Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, Spielberg chose to tone down the gore in the next installment. During the five years between Temple of Doom and Last Crusade, he and executive producer Lucas reviewed several scripts before accepting Jeffrey Boam's. Filming locations included Spain, West Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States; the film was released in North America on May 24, 1989 to positive reviews and a financial success, earning $474.2 million at the worldwide box office totals.
It won an Academy Award for Best Sound Effects Editing. It is the first film in the franchise to receive a PG-13 rating, as the previous installments were rated PG, because the PG-13 rating did not exist at the time those films were released. In 1912, thirteen-year-old Henry "Indiana" Jones, Jr is horseback riding with his Boy Scout troop at Arches National Park in Utah. While scouting caves, Indy discovers a group of grave robbers who have found a golden crucifix belonging to Coronado and steals it from them, hoping to donate it to a museum; the men give chase through a passing circus train, leaving Indy with a bloody cut across his chin from a bullwhip and a new phobia of snakes. Indy escapes, but the local sheriff makes him return the cross to the robbers, who turn it over to a mysterious benefactor wearing a Panama Hat. Impressed with Indy's bravery, the leader of the robbers gives Indy his fedora, tells him that he may have lost this battle, but that he does not have to like it. In 1938, Indy battles "Panama Hat" and his henchmen on a ship off the coast of Portugal.
A violent gale ensues, Indy escapes overboard just before the ship explodes. He donates it to Marcus Brody's museum. Indy is introduced to Walter Donovan, who informs him that his father, Henry Jones, Sr. has vanished while searching for the Holy Grail, using an incomplete inscription from a stone tablet as his guide. Indy receives Henry's Grail diary via mail from Venice. Realizing that he would not have sent the diary unless he was in trouble and Marcus travel to Venice, where they meet Henry's Austrian colleague Dr. Elsa Schneider. Beneath the library where Henry was last seen and Elsa discover a set of half-flooded catacombs that house the tomb of a First Crusade knight, which contains a complete version of the inscription that Henry had used, revealing the location of the Grail, they flee when the petroleum-saturated waters of the catacombs are set aflame by the Brotherhood of the Cruciform Sword, a secret society that protects the Grail from evildoers. Indy and Elsa capture one of the Brotherhood, who tells Indy where Henry is being held after Indy explains that his only goal is to find Henry, not the Grail.
Marcus reveals a map drawn by Henry of the route to the Grail. Indy removes the map from the diary, gives it to Marcus for safekeeping, sends him to İskenderun, the city built on the ruins of Alexandretta, to rendezvous with their old friend Sallah. Indy and Elsa head to a Nazi-controlled castle. Indy finds Henry, but learns that both Elsa and Donovan are working with the Nazis and are using the Joneses to find the Grail for them. Meanwhile, Marcus is captured while waiting with Sallah. After escaping from the castle, Henry tells Indy that the Grail is guarded by three booby traps and his diary contains the clues needed to pass them safely, they recover the diary from Elsa at a book burning rally in Berlin coming face-to-face with Hitler. They board a Zeppelin to leave Germany, but the Nazis discover the Joneses are aboard and they escape in a parasite biplane, they crash. The two meet up with Sallah in Hatay; the Nazis are moving toward the Grail's location, using the map possessed by Marcus. In exchange for a Rolls-Royce, the Sultan of Hatay has given the Nazis full access to his equipment for the expedition, including a large tank.
Indy and Sallah find the Nazi expedition, ambushed by the Brotherhood. During the battle, Henry is captured by SS Colonel Ernst Vogel while attempting to rescue Marcus from the tank. Indy pursues the tank on horseback and, with the aid of Sallah, saves Marcus, he is caught up in a fight with Vogel, escapes before the tank goes over a cliff, sending Vogel to his death. Indy, Henry and Sallah catch up with the surviving Nazis, led by Donovan and Elsa, who have found the temple where the Holy Grail is kept but are unable to pass through the three protective booby traps. Donovan shoots and mortally wounds Henry in order to force Indy to risk his life in the traps to find the Grail and use its healing power to save him. Using the information in the diary and followed by Donovan and Elsa, Indy safely overcomes the traps and reaches the Grail's chamber, guarded by a knight, he has been kept alive for 700 years by the power of the Grail, hidden among dozens of false grails. Elsa selects a golden chalice studded with emeralds for Donovan, who ages into dust after drinking from it, pr
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences is a professional honorary organization with the stated goal of advancing the arts and sciences of motion pictures. The Academy's corporate management and general policies are overseen by a Board of Governors, which includes representatives from each of the craft branches; the roster of the Academy's 6,000 motion picture professionals is a "closely guarded secret". While the great majority of its members are based in the United States, membership is open to qualified filmmakers around the world; the Academy is known around the world for its annual Academy Awards and popularly known as "The Oscars". In addition, the Academy holds the Governors Awards annually for lifetime achievement in film; the Academy plans to open the Academy Museum of Motion Pictures in Los Angeles in 2019. The notion of the Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences began with Louis B. Mayer, head of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, he said he wanted to create an organization that would mediate labor disputes without unions and improve the industry's image.
He met with actor Conrad Nagel, director Fred Niblo, the head of the Association of Motion Picture Producers, Fred Beetson to discuss these matters. The idea of this elite club having an annual banquet was discussed, but no mention of awards at that time, they established that membership into the organization would only be open to people involved in one of the five branches of the industry: actors, writers and producers. After their brief meeting, Mayer gathered up a group of thirty-six people involved in the film industry and invited them to a formal banquet at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles on January 11, 1927; that evening Mayer presented to those guests what he called the International Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Everyone in the room that evening became a founder of the Academy. Between that evening and when the official Articles of Incorporation for the organization were filed on May 4, 1927, the "International" was dropped from the name, becoming the "Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences".
Several organizational meetings were held prior to the first official meeting held on May 6, 1927. Their first organizational meeting was held on May 11. At that meeting Douglas Fairbanks, Sr. was elected as the first president of the Academy, while Fred Niblo was the first vice-president, their first roster, composed of 230 members, was printed. That night, the Academy bestowed its first honorary membership, to Thomas Edison; the Academy was broken down into five main groups, or branches, although this number of branches has grown over the years. The original five were: Producers, Directors and Technicians; the initial concerns of the group had to do with labor." However, as time went on, the organization moved "further away from involvement in labor-management arbitrations and negotiations." One of several committees formed in those initial days was for "Awards of Merit," but it was not until May 1928 that the committee began to have serious discussions about the structure of the awards and the presentation ceremony.
By July 1928 the board of directors had approved a list of 12 awards to be presented. During July the voting system for the Awards was established, the nomination and selection process began; this "award of merit for distinctive achievement" is. The initial location of the organization was 6912 Hollywood Boulevard. In November 1927, the Academy moved to the Roosevelt Hotel at 7010 Hollywood Boulevard, the month the Academy's library began compiling a complete collection of books and periodicals dealing with the industry from around the world. In May 1928, the Academy authorized the construction of a state of the art screening room, to be located in the Club lounge of the hotel; the screening room was not completed until April 1929. With the publication of Report on Incandescent Illumination in 1928, the Academy began a long history of publishing books to assist its members. Another early initiative concerned training Army Signal Corps officers. In 1929, Academy members in a joint venture with the University of Southern California created America's first film school to further the art and science of moving pictures.
The school's founding faculty included Fairbanks, D. W. Griffith, William C. deMille, Ernst Lubitsch, Irving Thalberg, Darryl F. Zanuck.1930 saw another move, to 7046 Hollywood Boulevard, in order to accommodate the enlarging staff, by December of that year the library was acknowledged as "having one of the most complete collections of information on the motion picture industry anywhere in existence." They would remain at that location until 1935, when further growth would cause them to move once again. This time, the administrative offices would move to one location, to the Taft Building at the corner of Hollywood and Vine, while the library would move to 1455 North Gordon Street. In 1934, the Academy began publication of the Screen Achievement Records Bulletin, which today is known as the Motion Picture Credits Database; this is a list of film credits up for an Academy Award, as well as other films released in Los Angeles County, using research materials from the Academy's Margaret Her
"'VisionArt Design & Animation'" was a motion picture and television visual effects company, founded in the 1980s by David Rose and Todd Hess. Though a small Orange County company working on cable TV advertisements and flying logos, VisionArt moved to Santa Monica in 1992, winning its first major effects work with "Star Trek: Deep Space Nine." The studio originated in Santa Ana, California moved to Santa Monica and closed its doors in 2000. The first CGI ship used in the Star Trek franchise was created by Dennis Blakey and Dorene Haver, it was 3D computer model of the "Runabout" shuttle for Star Trek: The Next Generation. Star Trek had used physical models, which at the time were composited by Adam Howard and Steve Scott at Digital Magic. VisionArt's 3D model of the Runabout was used for the stretching effect when it jumped to warp. Dennis Blakey, who headed the initial development and effects work for the shape-shifting character Odo, brought VisionArt its first prime-time Emmy Award for the pilot and initial episodes.
Beginning with season 1, episode 11 "Vortex," Odo morphs were animated by Ted Fay, with Blakey generating the intermediate blobular "goo" state of the shape-shifting character, Dorene Haver providing the compositing. After Blakey's departure, Odo's "goo" was animated by Carl Hooper and Daniel Kramer, with Odo morphs animated by Richard Cook; the USS Defiant was the first full-fledged starship in the Star Trek franchise to have a CGI model used in regular production. It was first animated by Daniel Kramer and Carl Hooper; the CGI Defiant was featured in the Season 4 episode "Starship Down", where it battled a CGI Jem'Hadar ship, designed by Robert Tom and built by Hooper, in a CGI gas giant's atmosphere. The probe in Starship Down was built by Vinh Le, with Ben Hawkins providing animation; the gas giant atmosphere was created by Rob Bredow and Pete Shinners using Sparky, a proprietary particle system developed by VisionArt. A further contribution came in season five, with the addition of 3D model of the Jem'Hadar battle cruiser built by Tony Sansalone.
VisionArt won another Emmy Award for Best Individual Achievement in Effects for their work on "Caretaker," the pilot episode of Star Trek: Voyager. Barry Safley created 3D animation for the episode's alien creature, revealed to have been hiding in the form of a young girl; the reveal was animated with compositing by Bethany Berndt-Shackelford. VisionArt created a 3D Vulcan starship for Star Trek: First Contact; the craft was and animated built by a team led by Daniel Kramer and Carl Hooper, with textures by Robert Tom, composting by Bethany Berndt-Shackelford. The team included Todd Boyce, Rick Cook, Celine Jackson, Jeff Pierce and others. VisionArt pioneered the use of full-body human 3D animation for pilot of Lois & Clark: The New Adventures of Superman for which Rob Bredow, Ted Fay, Carl Hooper, Daniel Kramer, Pete Shinners, demonstrated the seamless morphing between a human actor and a photorealistic CGI model of the actor. In 1993, Ted Fay created the first photorealistic talking dog for Northern Exposure, a technology, further advanced for the film version of Dr. Dolittle.
The talking dog was created for season 5, episode 12 entitled "Mr. Sandman", which aired January 10, 1994. "The CBS hit series is known for its offbeat scripts and quirky guests, next week's episode is no exception," observed E! News Daily's Bianca Ferrare, adding "The dog talking here in fluent French-Canadian is a figment of the character's imagination, but the process of giving the dog life is the brainstorm of animators at VisionArt" "Talking animals are nothing new, by'Mr. Ed' this isn't," added Ferrare. "With'Mr. Ed' you have the horse that you fed the peanut butter," noted animator Ted Fay, "which they did with the dog, but it wasn't at all convincing." "Recent CGI attempts, on the other hand, have offered the believability of being able to sync the mouth positions with dialogue, but at the expense of the photorealism." VisionArt had developed a reputation for "pushing the envelope" with CGI and morphing techniques, the produces of Northern Exposure were "ecstatic" with the results. The 2D animation approach used a specially customized version of Elastic Reality, a morphing software which VisionArt had agreed to co-develop with ASDG in exchange for not developing their own system in-house, having a site-license in perpetuity, with a six-month exclusive on features contributed by VisionArt.
Paul Miller, the lead developer for the Silicon Graphics version of Elastic Reality, provided Fay with new features on the afternoon that he requested them, allowing for rapid innovation of a first-of-a-kind approach on an episodic television schedule. Elastic Reality was sold to Avid Technology. VisionArt's claim to fame on the big screen was arguably its creation of the majority of the dogfight sequences for Independence Day, which won the Academy Award for Best Visual Effects. Sparky, a dynamics/simulation software developed by Rob Bredow, director of research and development, along with Pete Shinners, was expanded to provide for near-real-time animation of large groups of F-18 jet fighters, alien attackers, smoke trailers, etc. While previous shots of similar complexity animated by other means had taken about one month each, Sparky was able to render the frames in hardware anti-aliased at film resolution at just one minute per frame, allowing the delivery of two shots per day. While traditional animation was effective when a handful of aircraft were involved, digital effects supervisor Tricia Ashford noted that the technique would be "too laborious for
Maurice Tourneur was a French film director and screenwriter. Born Maurice Thomas in the Épinettes district, his father was a wholesaler; as a young man, Maurice Thomas first trained as a graphic designer and a magazine illustrator but was soon drawn to the theater. In 1904, he married Fernande Petit, they had a son, who would follow his father into the film industry. Using the stage name Maurice Tourneur, he began his show business career performing in secondary roles on stage and toured England and South America as part of the theater company for the great star Gabrielle Réjane. Drawn to the new art of filmmaking, in 1911 he began working as an assistant director for the Éclair company. A quick learner and an innovator, within a short time he was directing films on his own using major French stars of the day such as Polaire. In 1914, with the expansion of the giant French film companies into the United States market, Tourneur moved to New York City to direct silent films for Éclair's American branch studio in Fort Lee, New Jersey before moving to William A. Brady's World Film Corporation, where he directed important early American feature-length films such as The Wishing Ring, Alias Jimmy Valentine, The Cub and Trilby, the last starring Clara Kimball Young and noted stage actor Wilton Lackaye as Svengali.
Before long, Maurice Tourneur was a major and respected force in American film and a founding member of the East Coast chapter of the Motion Picture Directors Association. As the feature film evolved in the mid 1910s, he and his team coupled exceptional technological skill with unique pictorial and architectural sensibilities in their productions, giving their films a visual distinctiveness that met with critical acclaim. Tourneur admired D. W. Griffith and considered the skill level of American actors at the time ahead of their counterparts in Europe. Of the actresses he worked with, he called Mary Pickford the finest screen actress in the world and believed that stage actress Elsie Ferguson was a brilliant artist. However, Tourneur opposed the evolving star system that Carl Laemmle had begun with his advertising campaign for actress Florence Lawrence. After directing several innovative films for Adolph Zukor's Artcraft Pictures Corporation in 1917 and 1918, Tourneur launched his own production company with the film Sporting Life.
In 1921 he became a naturalized citizen of the United States. By 1922 he believed that the future of the film industry lay in Hollywood and the following year he was hired by Samuel Goldwyn to go to the West Coast and make a film version of the Hall Caine novel The Christian. However, Tourneur's career in the United States faltered in the 1920s as his pictorialism sometimes hampered the narrative drive of his films, he separated from his wife Fernande in 1923, he was removed from production on Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's version of Jules Verne's The Mysterious Island in 1928, this marked the end of his American career. After his trouble with MGM, Tourneur decided to move back to his native France. There, he continued to make films both at home and in Germany making the change to talkies. In 1933 he met his second wife, actress Louise Lagrange, while shooting his film, L'Homme mystérieux. Tourneur went on to direct another two dozen films, several of which were crime thrillers, until a 1949 automobile accident in which he was injured and lost a leg.
Health and age prevented him from directing more films, but a voracious reader and a skilled hobby artist, he kept busy painting and translating detective novels from English into French. After his death in 1961, Maurice Tourneur was interred in the Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris. Maurice Tourneur was honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6243 Hollywood Blvd, his 1917 film, The Poor Little Rich Girl, his 1918 film The Blue Bird and his 1920 film The Last of the Mohicans have since been deemed "culturally significant" by the United States Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the National Film Registry. The American Film Institute's Center for Film and Video Preservation and the National Archives of Canada have been cooperating on the restoration of Tourneur's 1915 film, The Cub. Maurice Tourneur on IMDb Some contemporary interviews with, articles by, Maurice Tourneur Maurice Tourneur
Multiple master fonts
Multiple master fonts are an extension to Adobe Systems' Type 1 PostScript fonts, now superseded by the advent of OpenType and, in particular, the introduction of OpenType Font Variations in OpenType 1.8 called variable fonts. Multiple master fonts contain two or more "masters" — that is, original font styles — and enable a user to interpolate between these masters along a continuous range of "axes." With proper application support, these axes could be adjusted on demand. The intention was that using multiple master fonts, a designer can generate a style of the exact width and optical size wanted, without losing the integrity or readability of the character glyphs; the effect is similar to morphing, as a designer can choose an intermediate between two styles, for example generating a semibold font by compromising between a bold and regular style, or extend a trend to create an ultra-light or ultra-bold. This idea was not new, having been used by companies such as URW++, but Adobe hoped to develop the technology to a greater extent.
Adobe's goal in multiple master font technology was to allow end-users of fonts to create the exact font they needed for a situation, by adjusting parameters such as boldness or width. However, multiple master fonts proved unpopular in consumer-facing use due to the difficulty of writing consumer desktop publishing applications to support them, because font designers have preferred to release fonts in specific weights and styles, as font files that have been individually fine-tuned. However, the multiple master concept remains used at font design studios, allowing designers to generate a range of weights and styles and optimise them individually.'Multiple master' may therefore be seen as a generic term describing interpolated font design not using Adobe technology. In 2016, Google and Microsoft announced a new update to the OpenType specification, allowing variable fonts. Similar to the multiple master concept, this will allow custom styles to be generated from a single font file programatically.
Where available, most MM fonts support one or two of the following variables: Weight allows the character weight to be modified from light, through regular, to extra bold. Width allows the character width to be compressed. Although any font can be compressed or expanded by software, the results from a multiple master font are superior; when a font is artificially expanded, all the features are expanded, including the line weight. This means that vertical strokes will be proportionally thicker than the horizontal strokes, giving an uneven appearance. Multiple master fonts with a width axis are designed to scale appropriately. Optical size allows the character shape to be modified based on how large it will appear to the reader. At small sizes, small details such as serifs and thin lines such as stems are bolder; the "x-height" is a larger proportion of the total font height, the characters may be extended slightly. These changes are designed to make small type easier to read. At larger sizes, these details can be finer and the lines more delicate.
Note that the optical size is independent from the actual size of the type. It is up to the user to pick the appropriate optical size for the application and viewing environment. Style, the least used of the multiple master axes, allows any other font property to be continuously modified. One such example is changing the serif style from wedge to slab. For example, the Myriad multiple master font had two axes: "weight" and "width." This font therefore included four separate "master designs" of each character: light compressed, light extended, bold compressed, bold extended. Any weight or width font in between these endpoints could be produced by interpolating between the character outlines of these master designs; the addition of italics requires another four master designs. Another example is Adobe Jenson, which supports "optical size" axes; this font uses three masters to represent the optical-size axis, designed for 6, 12, 72 point type, respectively. This allows the common size of 12 points to be optimized, but requires 6 master designs for roman, another 6 for italic.
Current application support for these fonts is sparse, if not absent. However, font design tools such as FontLab and FontForge can edit MM fonts, can export into other font formats as needed. Adobe Type Manager is required for MM support on Windows and the "Classic" Mac OS. Describing why the technology failed, a retrospective by Tamye Riggs, written for Adobe, noted: "Users were forced to generate instances for each variation of a font they wanted to try, resulting in a hard drive littered with font files bearing such arcane names as MinioMM_578 BD 465 CN 11 OP." Prominent Adobe font designer Carol Twombly cited the frustrations of the failed project as one of several reasons behind her decision to leave font design around 1999, Adobe's Christopher Slye would relate that he had been concerned that Adobe's principal type designer Robert Slimbach had damaged his health struggling to apply multiple master technology to Adobe Jenson in the late 1990s. Free-software support for multiple master fonts is offered by the program mminstance, which generates standard PostScript fonts from multiple master fonts.
These can be used in any application, compatible with standard PostScript type 1 fonts. The FreeType font rendering engine provides rendering support for multiple master fonts; the multiple master font format has be
George W. Bush
George Walker Bush is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He had served as the 46th governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000. Bush was born in New Haven and grew up in Texas. After graduating from Yale University in 1968 and Harvard Business School in 1975, he worked in the oil industry. Bush married Laura Welch in 1977 and unsuccessfully ran for the U. S. House of Representatives shortly thereafter, he co-owned the Texas Rangers baseball team before defeating Ann Richards in the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election. Bush was elected President of the United States in 2000 when he defeated Democratic incumbent Vice President Al Gore after a close and controversial win that involved a stopped recount in Florida, he became the fourth person to be elected president while receiving fewer popular votes than his opponent. Bush is a member of a prominent political family and is the eldest son of Barbara and George H. W. Bush, the 41st president of the United States.
He is only the second president to assume the nation's highest office after his father, following the footsteps of John Adams and his son, John Quincy Adams. His brother Jeb Bush, a former Governor of Florida, was a candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in the 2016 presidential election, his paternal grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut; the September 11 terrorist attacks occurred eight months into Bush's first term. Bush responded with what became known as the Bush Doctrine: launching a "War on Terror", an international military campaign that included the war in Afghanistan in 2001 and the Iraq War in 2003, he signed into law broad tax cuts, the Patriot Act, the No Child Left Behind Act, the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, Medicare prescription drug benefits for seniors, funding for the AIDS relief program known as PEPFAR. His tenure included national debates on immigration, Social Security, electronic surveillance, torture. In the 2004 presidential race, Bush defeated Democratic Senator John Kerry in another close election.
After his re-election, Bush received heated criticism from across the political spectrum for his handling of the Iraq War, Hurricane Katrina, other challenges. Amid this criticism, the Democratic Party regained control of Congress in the 2006 elections. In December 2007, the United States entered its longest post-World War II recession referred to as the "Great Recession", prompting the Bush administration to obtain congressional passage of multiple economic programs intended to preserve the country's financial system. Nationally, Bush was both one of the most popular and unpopular U. S. presidents in history, having received the highest recorded presidential approval ratings in the wake of the 9/11 attacks, as well as one of the lowest approval ratings during the 2008 financial crisis. Bush finished his term in office in 2009 and returned to Texas, where he had purchased a home in Dallas. In 2010, he published Decision Points, his presidential library was opened in 2013. His presidency has been ranked among the worst in historians' polls that were published in the late 2000s and 2010s.
However, his favorability ratings with the public have improved after leaving office. George Walker Bush was born on July 6, 1946, at Yale–New Haven Hospital in New Haven, while his father was a student at Yale, he was his wife, Barbara Pierce. He was raised in Midland and Houston, with four siblings, Neil and Dorothy. Another younger sister, died from leukemia at the age of three in 1953, his grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut, his father was Ronald Reagan's vice president from 1981 to 1989 and the 41st U. S. president from 1989 to 1993. Bush has English and some German ancestry, along with more distant Dutch, Irish and Scottish roots. Bush attended public schools in Midland, until the family moved to Houston after he had completed seventh grade, he spent two years at The Kinkaid School, a prep school in Piney Point Village in the Houston area. Bush attended high school at Phillips Academy, a boarding school in Andover, where he played baseball and was the head cheerleader during his senior year.
He attended Yale University from 1964 to 1968. During this time, he was a cheerleader and a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon, serving as the president of the fraternity during his senior year. Bush became a member of the Skull and Bones society as a senior. Bush was a rugby union player and was on Yale's 1st XV, he characterized himself as an average student. His GPA during his first three years at Yale was 77, he had a similar average under a nonnumeric rating system in his final year. In the fall of 1973, Bush entered Harvard Business School, he graduated in 1975 with an MBA degree. He is the only U. S. president to have earned an MBA. Bush was engaged to Cathryn Lee Wolfman in 1967, but the engagement fizzled out. Bush and Wolfman remained on good terms after the end of the relationship. While Bush was at a backyard barbecue in 1977, friends introduced him to Laura Welch, a schoolteacher and librarian. After a three-month courtship, she accepted his marriage proposal and they wed on November 5 of that year.
The couple settled in Texas. Bush left his family's Episcopal Church to join his wife's United Methodist Church. On November 25, 1981, Laura Bush gave birth to fraternal twin daughters and Jenna. Prior to getting married, Bush struggled with multiple episodes of alcohol abuse. In one instance on September 4, 1976, he was pulled over near his fami
Morph target animation
Morph target animation, per-vertex animation, shape interpolation, shape keys, or blend shapes is a method of 3D computer animation used together with techniques such as skeletal animation. In a morph target animation, a "deformed" version of a mesh is stored as a series of vertex positions. In each key frame of an animation, the vertices are interpolated between these stored positions; the "morph target" is a deformed version of a shape. When applied to a human face, for example, the head is first modelled with a neutral expression and a "target deformation" is created for each other expression; when the face is being animated, the animator can smoothly morph between the base shape and one or several morph targets. Typical examples of morph targets used in facial animation is a smiling mouth, a closed eye, a raised eyebrow, but the technique can be used to morph between, for example, Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. Early 3D videogames, such as Quake and Crash Bandicoot use per-vertex animation for all character animations.
When used for facial animation, these morph target are referred to as "key poses". The interpolations between key poses when an animation is being rendered, are small and simple transformations of movement and scale performed by the 3D software. Not all morph target animation has to be done by editing vertex positions, it is possible to take vertex positions found in skeletal animation and use those rendered as morph target animation. An animation composed in one 3D application suite sometimes needs to be transferred to another, as for rendering; because different 3D applications tend to implement bones and other special effects differently, the morph target technique is sometimes used to transfer animations between 3D applications to avoid export issues. There are advantages to using morph target animation over skeletal animation; the artist has more control over the movements because they can define the individual positions of the vertices within a keyframe, rather than being constrained by skeletons.
This can be useful for animating cloth and facial expressions because it can be difficult to conform those things to the bones that are required for skeletal animation. However, there are disadvantages. Vertex animation is a lot more labour-intensive than skeletal animation because every vertex position must be manually manipulated and, for this reason, the number of pre-made target morphs is limited. In methods of rendering where vertices move from position to position during in-between frames, a distortion is created that does not happen when using skeletal animation; this is described by critics of the technique as looking "shaky". On the other hand, this distortion may be part of the desired "look". Morphing Skeletal animation Machinima 3D computer graphics