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Morphological derivation

Morphological derivation, in linguistics, is the process of forming a new word from an existing word by adding a prefix or suffix, such as un- or -ness. For example and happiness derive from the root word happy, it is differentiated from inflection, the modification of a word to form different grammatical categories without changing its core meaning: determines and determined are from the root determine. Derivational morphology involves the addition of a derivational suffix or other affix; such an affix applies to words of one lexical category and changes them into words of another such category. For example, the English derivational suffix -ly changes adjectives into adverbs. Here are examples of English derivational patterns and their suffixes: adjective-to-noun: -ness adjective-to-verb: -ise in British English or -ize in American English and Oxford spelling adjective-to-adjective: -ish adjective-to-adverb: -ly noun-to-adjective: -al noun-to-verb: -fy verb-to-adjective: -able verb-to-noun: -ance verb-to-noun: -er However, derivational affixes do not alter the lexical category.

A prefix changes the lexical category in English. The prefix un- applies to adjectives and some verbs but to nouns. A few exceptions are the derivational prefixes en- and be-. En- is a transitive marker on verbs, but it can be applied to adjectives and nouns to form transitive verbs: circle → encircle but rich → enrich, large → enlarge, rapture → enrapture, slave → enslave; when derivation occurs without any change to the word, such as in the conversion of the noun breakfast into the verb to breakfast, it's known as conversion, or zero derivation. Derivation that results in a noun may be called nominalization, it may involve the use of an affix. In contrast, a derivation resulting in a verb may be called verbalization. Derivation can be contrasted with inflection, in that derivation can produce a new word but isn't required to change this, whereas inflection produces grammatical variants of the same word. Speaking, inflection applies in more or less regular patterns to all members of a part of speech, while derivation follows less consistent patterns.

However, it is important to note that derivations and inflections can share homonyms, that being, morphemes that have the same sound, but not the same meaning. For example, when the affix -er, is added to an adjective, as in small-er, it acts as an inflection, but when added to a verb, as in cook-er, it acts as a derivation; as mentioned above, a derivation is not required to do so. For example, the derivation of the word "common" to "uncommon" is a derivational morpheme but doesn't change the part of speech. An important distinction between derivational and inflectional morphology lies in the content/function of a listeme. Derivational morphology changes both the meaning and the content of a listeme, while inflectional morphology doesn't change the meaning, but changes the function. A non-exhaustive list of derivational morphemes: -ful, -able, im-, un-, -ing, -er A non-exhaustive list of inflectional morphemes: -er, -est, -ing, -en, -ed, -s Derivation can be contrasted with other types of word formation such as compounding.

For full details see Word formation. Note that derivational affixes are bound morphemes – they are meaningful units, but can only occur when attached to another word. In that respect, derivation differs from compounding by, it differs from inflection in that inflection does not create new lexemes but new word forms. Derivational patterns differ in the degree. A productive pattern or affix is one, used to produce novel forms. For example, the negating prefix un- is more productive in English than the alternative in-; the same thing happens with suffixes. For example, if comparing two words Thatcherite and Thatcherist, the analysis shows that both suffixes -ite and -ist are productive and can be added to proper names, both derived adjectives are established and have the same meaning, but the suffix -ist is more productive and, can be found more in word formation not only from proper names. Agglutination Collocation Inflection Nominalization Word formation Word root Speech and Language Processing, Jurafsky, D. & Martin J.


Percy Ellingsen

Percy Ellingsen was an Australian rules footballer who played for Richmond and Geelong in the Victorian Football League. Ellingsen was just 16 when he made his league debut in 1912, having been recruited from East Geelong. A rover, he kicked five goals for Richmond, all of them in a win over Melbourne University Football Club, he spent the 1913 VFL season at Melbourne before crossing to Geelong, his final VFL club. His tally of 18 goals in 1917 included a bag of six at Corio Oval; that season, Ellingsen set a club record which still stands to this day by kicking the only two goals that Geelong managed in their match against Collingwood. Following his VFL career, Ellingsen moved to the Victorian Football Association, where over a three year period he represented North Melbourne and Geelong Association. In 1920 he was suspended for a season, a sentence overturned as an act of clemency during the visit of the Prince of Wales. In 1930, Ellingsen joined District Football League as a field umpire; the following year he was appointed to the VFL Senior List and, unusually for the period, did not umpire any country or Second Eighteen matches before being appointed to his first VFL senior match in Round 1 - St.

Kilda v. Essendon at the Junction Oval; this earned him Heritage Number 150 as the 150th field umpire in VFL history. He umpired the entire 1931 season in the VFL including the First Semi-final and finished the year appointed to the Goulburn Valley Football League finals series. From 1931-33 Ellingsen compiled a total of 53 VFL and 24 VCFL matches; the only Grand Finals he officiated were in the 1931 Wednesday Football League and the 1932 Corangamite Football League. In June 1932 he was appointed to the North v. South representative match in Launceston and so began a significant connection with Tasmanian umpiring. Offered two options for his umpiring career in early 1934 Ellingsen accepted a contract with the Tasmanian Australian National Football Football League in 1934 to act as the local umpire for the season, he had been approached by the Mildura league to act in a similar capacity. For the next five years he continued to umpire in Tasmania as follows: TANFL 1934-35 North-West Football Union 1936 Northern Tasmanian Football Association 1937 Tasmanian Amateur Football Association 1938Ellingsen retired from umpiring at the end of the 1938 season and returned to Melbourne where he worked, as he had when not umpiring, as a barman.

Remaining in the hotel trade he returned to Ulverstone, Tasmania in 1945, where he became publican of the Commercial Hotel. Maintaining his interest in local football he became president and non-playing coach of Ulverstone Football Club in 1946, he was the club's delegate to, a selector for, the NWFU that same year. Furthermore, he gave weekly lectures at the new umpires' class for the Western Division of the NWFU run by O. H. Hind, making it a busy year. After a short illness Percy Ellingsen died on 7 May 1947, his body was returned to Geelong. In 1947 Geelong visited Burnie and played a representative NWFU team. Ellingsen had umpired a similar match in 1937. At the conclusion of the 1947 match the Cats Kevin Brown was presented with a gold medal for being best afield; the medal was named in honour of Percy Ellingsen, presented by his second wife Dorothy and commemorated his connection with Geelong and Tasmania. Percy Ellingsen's playing statistics from AFL Tables Holmesby and Main, Jim; the Encyclopedia of AFL Footballers.

7th ed. Melbourne: Bas Publishing

Sidney Clarke

Sidney Clarke was a U. S. Representative from Kansas, a Kansas state speaker of the house, an Oklahoma territorial legislator, he was a part of the Oklahoma statehood movement. Born in Southbridge, Clarke attended the public schools, he was publisher of the Southbridge Press in 1854, settled in Lawrence, Kansas, in 1859. Clarke enlisted as a volunteer during the Civil War, was appointed assistant adjutant general of Volunteers by President Lincoln February 9, 1863, he served as captain and assistant provost marshal general for Kansas, Nebraska and Dakota. Clarke was elected as a Republican to the Thirty-ninth and Forty-first Congresses, he served as chairman of the Committee on Indian Affairs. He was an unsuccessful candidate in 1870 for reelection to the Forty-second Congress. Clarke served in the Kansas state house of representatives in 1879 as an independent and was elected speaker, he engaged in railroad building. He served as chairman of the statehood executive committee in 1891, as member of the Territorial council from 1898 to 1902.

He served on the Oklahoma City Council and as the second provisional mayor. He died in Oklahoma City, was interred in Fairlawn Cemetery. United States Congress. "Sidney Clarke". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture - Clarke, Sidney This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website

David Ryan (footballer)

David Peter Ryan is an English former football goalkeeper who played his first league game for Port Vale in 1976, on loan from Manchester United. He played football for Southport, Northwich Victoria, Chorley. Ryan started his career with Manchester United. Whilst with the "Red Devils" he was sent on loan to Port Vale in January 1976, as cover for John Connaughton, he made his debut in a 2–1 defeat by Swindon Town at the County Ground on 17 January, but returned to Old Trafford that month. Ryan was never handed his competitive debut by Tommy Docherty and left United to play for Southport, Northwich Victoria, Chorley, he went on to become Head Goalkeeping Coach in the at Manchester United Academy and served as Head of Football & Community Development from 1992 to 2013. He did charity work on behalf of Manchester United. Source


Vohemar is a coastal city and commune in northern Madagascar. It belongs to the district of Iharana, a part of Sava Region; the population of the commune was estimated to be 15,000 in 2001 commune census. Iharana is served by a local maritime harbour. In addition to primary schooling the town offers secondary education at both junior and senior levels; the town provides access to hospital services to its citizens. From the late medieval period, Northern Madagascar had a number of small and large trading towns ruled by Swahili merchants. Vohemar, one such town, was founded around the 13th Century as a Swahili trading port. Farming and raising livestock provides employment for 20% and 5% of the working population; the most important crop is cassava, while other important products are peanut and rice. Industry and services provide employment for 20% and 45% of the population, respectively. Additionally fishing employs 10% of the population

Two-Storeyed Caravanserai

Two-storeyed or Gasim bey caravanserai is a historic monument of the XV century. It located on Hagigat Rzayeva street, in the city of Baku, in Azerbaijan; the building was registered as a national architectural monument by the decision of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Azerbaijan dated August 2, 2001, No. 132. The caravanserai was constructed in the XV century. According to the sources, it was built by Shirvan Khalilullah I and was used by Gasim bey and his followers. There are two-sided open entries of the caravanserai placed on the same axis. Entrance to the caravanserai is possible with offshore streets related with sea trade and with a part where trade highway located, it is in square form by its interior structure plan. Internal area of the caravanserai is octahedral and it consists of a yard, surrounded by balconies, where several rooms are located. Covers of rooms and domes of balconies are in pointed form; the rooms in the corner are completed with little domes. Entrances to the monument are finished with portals bulging at height of the caravanserai and with deep niches at the level of the first floor.

The caravanserai is protected from southeast side with whole corner towers. It shows its defensive characteristics in the system of city walls. Different views of the caravanserai Small Caravanserai