Morphology (biology)

Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features. This includes aspects of the outward appearance, i.e. external morphology, as well as the form and structure of the internal parts like bones and organs, i.e. internal morphology. This is in contrast to physiology, which deals with function. Morphology is a branch of life science dealing with the study of gross structure of an organism or taxon and its component parts; the etymology of the word "morphology" is from the Ancient Greek μορφή, meaning "form", λόγος, meaning "word, research". While the concept of form in biology, opposed to function, dates back to Aristotle, the field of morphology was developed by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and independently by the German anatomist and physiologist Karl Friedrich Burdach. Among other important theorists of morphology are Lorenz Oken, Georges Cuvier, Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Richard Owen, Karl Gegenbaur and Ernst Haeckel.

In 1830, Cuvier and E. G. Saint-Hilaire engaged in a famous debate, said to exemplify the two major deviations in biological thinking at the time – whether animal structure was due to function or evolution. Comparative morphology is analysis of the patterns of the locus of structures within the body plan of an organism, forms the basis of taxonomical categorization. Functional morphology is the study of the relationship between the structure and function of morphological features. Experimental morphology is the study of the effects of external factors upon the morphology of organisms under experimental conditions, such as the effect of genetic mutation. "Anatomy" is a "branch of morphology that deals with the structure of organisms". Molecular Morphology is a term used in English-speaking countries for describing the structure of compound molecules, such as polymers and ribonucleic acid. Gross Morphology refers to the collective structures of an organism as a whole as a general description of the form and structure of an organism, taking into account all of its structures without specifying an individual structure.

Most taxa differ morphologically from other taxa. Related taxa differ much less than more distantly related ones, but there are exceptions to this. Cryptic species are species which look similar, or even outwardly identical, but are reproductively isolated. Conversely, sometimes unrelated taxa acquire a similar appearance as a result of convergent evolution or mimicry. In addition, there can be morphological differences within a species, such as in Apoica flavissima where queens are smaller than workers. A further problem with relying on morphological data is that what may appear, morphologically speaking, to be two distinct species, may in fact be shown by DNA analysis to be a single species; the significance of these differences can be examined through the use of allometric engineering in which one or both species are manipulated to phenocopy the other species. A step relevant to the evaluation of morphology between traits/features within species, includes an assessment of the terms: homology and homoplasy.

Homology between features indicate. Alternatively, homoplasy between features describes those that can resemble each other, but derive independently via parallel or convergent evolution. Invention and development of microscopy enable the observation of 3-D cell morphology with both high spatial and temporal resolution; the dynamic processes of these cell morphology which are controlled by a complex system play an important role in varied important biological process, such as immune and invasive responses. Comparative anatomy Computational anatomy Insect morphology Morphometrics Neuromorphology Phenetics Phenotype Phenotypic plasticity Plant morphology Media related to Morphology at Wikimedia Commons

St. Augustine Free Public Library

The St. Augustine Free Public Library is the oldest library in Florida. Located at 12 Aviles Street in St. Augustine, the building known as the Segui-Kirby Smith House still stands as a Research Library for the Saint Augustine Historical Society. Housed in one of the oldest standing colonial buildings in Florida, the St. Augustine Free Public Library was once the residence of British Captain, Henry Skinner in 1769 as well as Confederate General Edmund Kirby Smith in 1887. St. Francis Inn property owner John L. Wilson and his wife Francis contributed to the formation of the public library system in St. Augustine after they purchased the Segui-Kirby Smith building on Aviles Street, they helped form the St. Augustine Library Association and gave the building to a private organization to be used as a free public library, where it remained from 1874 until the 1980s; when the St. Augustine Library Association was first formed on April 25th, 1874, no books of sectarian or political nature were to be purchased, but would be accepted if they were donated.

Although there was no charge to borrow the books, library patrons gave money to help buy books for the library. Today, St. Augustine Historical Research Library is still open to the public at no cost, much of the material are one of a kind and rare and, must be used within the library

Donell Taylor

Quence Donell Taylor II is an American professional basketball player for Basket Agropoli of Italy's Serie A2 Basket. He is 6 ft 6 in tall, he can play as a point guard or as a swingman. Taylor was raised in Montgomery, Alabama. After leading Sidney Lanier High School of Montgomery, Alabama to the 2001 6A State Championship along with his identical twin brother, Donell Taylor attended and played college basketball at Okaloosa-Walton Community College from 2001 to 2003, before transferring to the University of Alabama at Birmingham to play for the UAB Blazers, he played alongside his twin brother Ronell Taylor at both Okaloosa-Walton Community College and at UAB. After the 2005 NBA Draft, Taylor signed with the NBA's Washington Wizards as an undrafted free agent in August 2005. In two seasons with the Wizards, Taylor played in a total of 98 NBA games, with one start per season. Taylor averaged 9.1 minutes per game, 2.7 points per game, 0.9 rebounds per game in his rookie season, 7.9 minutes per game, 2.7 points per game, 1.0 rebounds per game in the 2006–07 season.

The Wizards waived Taylor in October 2007, before the start of the regular season. After leaving the Charlotte Bobcats, Taylor signed with the Greek Basket League team Maroussi, played in 7 games with Maroussi, averaging 13.0 points per game, 3.1 rebounds per game, 1.7 assists per game, in 30 minutes played per game in the Greek League. In March 2008, Taylor signed with Telindus Oostende of the Basketball League Belgium Division I. In three games played in the Belgian League, he averaged 3.0 points and 0.7 rebounds, in 9.3 minutes per game. Returning to the NBA, Taylor played in the 2008–09 preseason with the Charlotte Bobcats, but he was released on October 14, 2008, before the regular season began, he signed with Egaleo of the Greek Basket League in November 2008, averaged 12.9 points per game, 4.2 rebounds per game, 2.1 assists per game, in 20 games played in the Greek League. Starting the 2009–10 NBA season with the NBA Development League team Erie BayHawks, Taylor was traded to the Idaho Stampede on December 31, 2009.

With Erie, Taylor averaged 18.7 points, 6.2 rebounds, 2.8 assists, 1.4 steals. On August 10, 2010, Taylor signed a contract with Fastweb Casale Monferrato of the Italian second-tier Legadue Basket. Taylor averaged 13.0 points per game, 4.0 rebounds per game, 2.1 assists per game in the 2010–11 season of the Italian 2nd Division. Casale won the Legadue championship for the season. On August 1, 2011, Taylor signed with Pallacanestro Reggiana of the Italian 2nd Division. In his first season with the club, Taylor played in 28 games and averaged 17.1 points per game, 4.5 rebounds per game, 1.8 assists per game in the Italian 2nd Division. The team moved up to Lega Basket Serie A, the first-tier Italian league, after winning the 2012 Legadue championship. In his second season with Reggio Emilia, Taylor averaged 18.6 points per game, 4.4 rebounds per game, 2.3 assists per game in the top tier Italian League. In the summer of 2013, Taylor signed with Umana Reyer Venezia of the Italian First Division. In the Italian League, he averaged 14.4 points per game, 3.6 rebounds per game, 2.2 assists per game.

On October 20, 2014 he returned to Reggio Emilia. On December 29, 2014 Taylor and Reggio Emilia parted ways. Taylor averaged 3.9 rebounds and 1.7 assists in 10 games. Profile Profile EuroCup Profile Profile Italian League Profile Greek Basket League Profile Profile Profile UAB Blazers College Bio