Renaissance Revival architecture
Renaissance Revival architecture is a group of 19th century architectural revival styles which were neither Greek Revival nor Gothic Revival but which instead drew inspiration from a wide range of classicizing Italian modes. Under the broad designation "Renaissance architecture" nineteenth-century architects and critics went beyond the architectural style which began in Florence and central Italy in the early 15th century as an expression of Humanism. Self-applied style designations were rife in the mid- and nineteenth century: "Neo-Renaissance" might be applied by contemporaries to structures that others called "Italianate", or when many French Baroque features are present; the divergent forms of Renaissance architecture in different parts of Europe in France and Italy, has added to the difficulty of defining and recognizing Neo-Renaissance architecture. A comparison between the breadth of its source material, such as the English Wollaton Hall, Italian Palazzo Pitti, the French Château de Chambord, the Russian Palace of Facets—all deemed "Renaissance"—illustrates the variety of appearances the same architectural label can take.
The origin of Renaissance architecture is accredited to Filippo Brunelleschi Brunelleschi and his contemporaries wished to bring greater "order" to architecture, resulting in strong symmetry and careful proportion. The movement grew in particular human anatomy. Neo-Renaissance architecture is formed by not only the original Italian architecture but by the form in which Renaissance architecture developed in France during the 16th century. During the early years of the 16th century the French were involved in wars in northern Italy, bringing back to France not just the Renaissance art treasures as their war booty, but stylistic ideas. In the Loire valley a wave of chateau building was carried out using traditional French Gothic styles but with ornament in the forms of pediments, shallow pilasters and entablatures from the Italian Renaissance. In England the Renaissance tended to manifest itself in large square tall houses such as Longleat House; these buildings had symmetrical towers which hint at the evolution from medieval fortified architecture.
This is evident at Hatfield House built between 1607 and 1611, where medieval towers jostle with a large Italian cupola. This is why so many buildings of the early English Neo-Renaissance style have more of a "castle air" than their European contemporaries, which can add again to the confusion with the Gothic revival style; when in the 19th century Renaissance style architecture came into vogue, it materialized not just in its original form according to geography, but as a hybrid of all its earlier forms according to the whims of architects and patrons rather than geography and culture. If this were not confusing enough, the new Neo-Renaissance frequently borrowed architectural elements from the succeeding Mannerist period, in many cases the later Baroque period. Mannerism and Baroque being two opposing styles of architecture. Mannerism was exemplified by Baroque by the Wurzburg Residenz, thus Italian and Flemish Renaissance coupled with the amount of borrowing from these periods can cause great difficulty and argument in identifying various forms of 19th-century architecture.
Differentiating some forms of French Neo-Renaissance buildings from those of the Gothic revival can at times be tricky, as both styles were popular during the 19th century. John Ruskin's panegyrics to architectural wonders of Venice and Florence contributed to shifting "the attention of scholars and designers, with their awareness heightened by debate and restoration work" from Late Neoclassicism and Gothic Revival to the Italian Renaissance; as a consequence, a self-consciously "Neo-Renaissance" manner first began to appear circa 1840. By 1890 this movement was in decline; the Hague's Peace Palace completed in 1913, in a heavy French Neo-Renaissance manner was one of the last notable buildings in this style. Charles Barry introduced the Neo-Renaissance to England with his design of the Travellers Club, Pall Mall. Other early but typical, domestic examples of the Neo-Renaissance include Mentmore Towers and the Château de Ferrières, both designed in the 1850s by Joseph Paxton for members of the Rothschild banking family.
The style is characterized by original Renaissance motifs, taken from such Quattrocento architects as Alberti. These motifs included rusticated masonry and quoins, windows framed by architraves and doors crowned by pediments and entablatures. If a building were of several floors, the uppermost floor had small square windows representing the minor mezzanine floor of the original Renaissance designs. However, the Neo-renaissance style came to incorporate Romanesque and Baroque features not found in the original Renaissance architecture, more severe in its design. Like all architectural styles, the Neo-Renaissance did not appear overnight formed but evolved slowly. One of the first signs of its emergence was the Würzburg Women's Prison, erected in 1809 designed by Peter Speeth, it included a rusticated ground floor, alleviated by one semicircular arch, with a curious Egyptian style miniature portico above, high above this were a sequence of six tall arched windows and above these just beneath the projecting roof were the small windows of the upper floor.
This building foreshadows similar effects in the work of the American architect Henry Hobson Richardson whose work in the Neo-Renaissance style was popu
Cornell University Library
The Cornell University Library is the library system of Cornell University. As of 2014, it holds over a million ebooks. More than 90 percent of its current 120,000 periodical titles are available online, it has 8.5 million microfilms and microfiches, more than 71,000 cubic feet of manuscripts, close to 500,000 other materials, including motion pictures, DVDs, sound recordings, computer files in its collections, in addition to extensive digital resources and the University Archives. It is the sixteenth largest library in North America, ranked by number of volumes held; the library is administered as an academic division. The holdings are managed by the Library's subdivisions, which include 16 physical and virtual libraries on the main campus in Ithaca, New York; the John M. Olin Library is the primary research library for the social sciences and humanities, the Harold D. Uris Library has extensive holdings in the humanities and social sciences; the Albert R. Mann Library specializes in agriculture, the life sciences, human ecology.
The Carl M. Kroch Library includes the university's Rare & Manuscript Collections as well as its extensive Asia Collections; the Southeast Asia Collection at the Kroch Library, named in honor of John M. Echols, has been a joint undertaking of the university, the library, the Southeast Asia Program with the goal of acquiring a copy of every publication of research value produced in the countries of Southeast Asia and publications about the region published in other parts of the world; the system was a collection of 18,000 volumes stored in Morrill Hall. Daniel Willard Fiske, Cornell's first librarian, donated his entire estate to the university upon his death, as did President Andrew Dickson White. Under Fiske's direction, Cornell's library introduced a number of innovations, including allowing undergraduate students to browse through the books and check them out. By 1885, the library had installed electric lights and stayed open 12 hours per day, which allowed students to use it as a reference library.
The library plays an active role in furthering online archiving of scientific and historical documents. It provides stewardship and partial funding for arXiv.org e-print archive, created at Los Alamos National Laboratory by Paul Ginsparg. ArXiv has changed the way many physicists and mathematicians communicate, making the eprint a viable and popular form for announcing new research; the "Project Euclid" initiative creates one resource joining commercial journals with low-cost independent journals in mathematics and statistics. The project is aimed at enabling affordable scholarly communication through the Internet. Besides archival purposes, primary goals of the project is to facilitate journal searches and interoperatibility between different publishers; the Cornell Library Digital Collections are online collections of historical documents. Featured collections include the Database of African-American Poetry, the Historic Math Book Collection, the Samuel May Anti-Slavery Collection, the Witchcraft Collection, the Donovan Nuremberg Trials Collection.
The library houses several rare manuscripts. It houses one of the five copies of Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address —the only such to be owned and the only one accompanied both by a letter from Lincoln transmitting the manuscript and by the original envelope addressed and franked by Lincoln; the library houses cuneiform tablets. It holds a copy of The Birds of America, considered the most expensive book in the world; the library has first editions of Darwin's "Origin of Species", the Book of Mormon, of Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice. Rose Goldsen Archive of New Media Art is a research repository for new media art, it was founded in 2002 by Timothy Murray, Professor of Comparative Literature and English and Director of the Society for the Humanities. It is located in the Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections at Cornell University Library and it is named in the honor of the late Prof. Rose Goldsen, a Sociology Professor at Cornell University and an avant-garde critic of pop culture, mass media and communication.
The Rose Goldsen Archive provides access to detailed archival material that mirrors the historical changes which have happened in new media art in terms of its technological development and experimentation, throughout the years. The archive's collections include multimedia artworks that reflect the transformation of new media art practices from analog to disc-based and from there to networked and web-based application during the past decades; the collections combine artworks produced on CD/ DVD-Rom, VHS/digital video and internet as well as supporting materials, such as unpublished manuscripts and designs and photographic documentation of installations and performances, digital ephemera, photographs, catalogues and resource guides to new media art. The general collection consists of various material about audi
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, object, site, or structure, recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance. Of over 90,000 places listed on the country's National Register of Historic Places, only some 2,500 are recognized as National Historic Landmarks. A National Historic Landmark District may include contributing properties that are buildings, sites or objects, it may include non-contributing properties. Contributing properties may or may not be separately listed. Prior to 1935, efforts to preserve cultural heritage of national importance were made by piecemeal efforts of the United States Congress. In 1935, Congress passed the Historic Sites Act, which authorized the Interior Secretary authority to formally record and organize historic properties, to designate properties as having "national historical significance", gave the National Park Service authority to administer significant federally owned properties. Over the following decades, surveys such as the Historic American Buildings Survey amassed information about culturally and architecturally significant properties in a program known as the Historic Sites Survey.
Most of the designations made under this legislation became National Historic Sites, although the first designation, made December 20, 1935, was for a National Memorial, the Gateway Arch National Park in St. Louis, Missouri; the first National Historic Site designation was made for the Salem Maritime National Historic Site on March 17, 1938. In 1960, the National Park Service took on the administration of the survey data gathered under this legislation, the National Historic Landmark program began to take more formal shape; when the National Register of Historic Places was established in 1966, the National Historic Landmark program was encompassed within it, rules and procedures for inclusion and designation were formalized. Because listings triggered local preservation laws, legislation in 1980 amended the listing procedures to require owner agreement to the designations. On October 9, 1960, 92 properties were announced as designated NHLs by Secretary of the Interior Fred A. Seaton; the first of these was a political nomination: the Sergeant Floyd Monument in Sioux City, Iowa was designated on June 30 of that year, but for various reasons, the public announcement of the first several NHLs was delayed.
NHLs are designated by the United States Secretary of the Interior because they are: Sites where events of national historical significance occurred. More than 2,500 NHLs have been designated. Most, but not all, are in the United States. There are the District of Columbia. Three states account for nearly 25 percent of the nation's NHLs. Three cities within these states all separately have more NHLs than 40 of the 50 states. In fact, New York City alone has more NHLs than all but five states: Virginia, Pennsylvania and New York. There are 74 NHLs in the District of Columbia; some NHLs are in U. S. commonwealths and territories, associated states, foreign states. There are 15 in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, other U. S. territories. S.-associated states such as Micronesia. Over 100 ships or shipwrecks have been designated as NHLs. About half of the National Historic Landmarks are owned; the National Historic Landmarks Program relies on suggestions for new designations from the National Park Service, which assists in maintaining the landmarks.
A friends' group of owners and managers, the National Historic Landmark Stewards Association, works to preserve and promote National Historic Landmarks. If not listed on the National Register of Historic Places, an NHL is automatically added to the Register upon designation. About three percent of Register listings are NHLs. American Water Landmark List of U. S. National Historic Landmarks by state List of churches that are National Historic Landmarks in the United States Listed building, a similar designation in the UK National Historic Sites and Persons, similar designations in Canada National Natural Landmark United States Memorials United States National Register of Historic Places listings Official National Historic Landmarks Program website A History of the NHL Program List of National Historic Landmarks National Historic Landmarks: Archaeological Properties Historical Landmarks - United States Lighthouses
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind. Psychology includes the study of conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought, it is an academic discipline of immense scope. Psychologists seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, all the variety of phenomena linked to those emergent properties; as a social science it aims to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors. Psychologists explore behavior and mental processes, including perception, attention, intelligence, motivation, brain functioning, personality; this extends to interaction between people, such as interpersonal relationships, including psychological resilience, family resilience, other areas.
Psychologists of diverse orientations consider the unconscious mind. Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques. Psychology has been described as a "hub science" in that medicine tends to draw psychological research via neurology and psychiatry, whereas social sciences most draws directly from sub-disciplines within psychology. While psychological knowledge is applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is directed towards understanding and solving problems in several spheres of human activity. By many accounts psychology aims to benefit society; the majority of psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing in clinical, counseling, or school settings. Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior, work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings.
Some are employed in industrial and organizational settings, or in other areas such as human development and aging, sports and the media, as well as in forensic investigation and other aspects of law. The word psychology derives from Greek roots meaning study of soul; the Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Marulić in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae in the late 15th century or early 16th century. The earliest known reference to the word psychology in English was by Steven Blankaart in 1694 in The Physical Dictionary which refers to "Anatomy, which treats the Body, Psychology, which treats of the Soul."In 1890, William James defined psychology as "the science of mental life, both of its phenomena and their conditions". This definition enjoyed widespread currency for decades. However, this meaning was contested, notably by radical behaviorists such as John B. Watson, who in his 1913 manifesto defined the discipline of psychology as the acquisition of information useful to the control of behavior.
Since James defined it, the term more connotes techniques of scientific experimentation. Folk psychology refers to the understanding of ordinary people, as contrasted with that of psychology professionals; the ancient civilizations of Egypt, China and Persia all engaged in the philosophical study of psychology. In Ancient Egypt the Ebers Papyrus mentioned thought disorders. Historians note that Greek philosophers, including Thales and Aristotle, addressed the workings of the mind; as early as the 4th century BC, Greek physician Hippocrates theorized that mental disorders had physical rather than supernatural causes. In China, psychological understanding grew from the philosophical works of Laozi and Confucius, from the doctrines of Buddhism; this body of knowledge involves insights drawn from introspection and observation, as well as techniques for focused thinking and acting. It frames the universe as a division of, interaction between, physical reality and mental reality, with an emphasis on purifying the mind in order to increase virtue and power.
An ancient text known as The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine identifies the brain as the nexus of wisdom and sensation, includes theories of personality based on yin–yang balance, analyzes mental disorder in terms of physiological and social disequilibria. Chinese scholarship focused on the brain advanced in the Qing Dynasty with the work of Western-educated Fang Yizhi, Liu Zhi, Wang Qingren. Wang Qingren emphasized the importance of the brain as the center of the nervous system, linked mental disorder with brain diseases, investigated the causes of dreams and insomnia, advanced a theory of hemispheric lateralization in brain function. Distinctions in types of awareness appear in the ancient thought of India, influenced by Hinduism. A central idea of the Upanishads is the distinction between a person's transient mundane self and their eternal unchanging soul. Divergent Hindu doctrines, Buddhism, have challenged this hierarchy of selves, but have all emphasized the importance of reaching higher
Justin Smith Morrill
Justin Smith Morrill was a Representative and a Senator from Vermont, most remembered today for the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act that established federal funding for establishing many of the United States' public colleges and universities. He was one of the founders of the Republican Party. Born in Strafford, Morrill attended the common schools, Thetford Academy and Randolph Academy, he was trained for a business career by working as a merchant's clerk in Strafford and Portland, Maine. He was a merchant in Strafford, the partnership in which he participated with Judge Jedediah H. Harris grew to own and operate four stores throughout the state. Morrill served in local offices including Town Auditor and Justice of the Peace. One of Judge Harris's daughters married Portus Baxter, who served in Congress. Baxter and Morrill became close friends as a result of the connection to Judge Harris, with Morrill referring to Baxter as "one of nature's noblemen" and Baxter consciously patterning his business and political career on Morrill's.
Morrill invested in several successful ventures, including banks and real estate. By the late 1840s he was financially secure enough to retire, he became a gentleman farmer. In addition to farming, Morrill became active in the Whig Party, including serving as Chairman of the Orange County Whig Committee, a member of the Vermont State Whig Committee, a Delegate to the 1852 Whig National Convention. In 1854 Morrill was elected to the Thirty-fourth Congress as a Whig, he was a founder of the Republican Party, won reelection five times as a Republican, serving from March 4, 1855 to March 3, 1867. He served as chairman of the Committee on Means in the Thirty-ninth Congress, he served on the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, which drafted the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. In 1866 Morrill was elected to the U. S. Senate as a Union Republican, he was reelected as a Republican in 1872, 1878, 1884, 1890, 1896, served from March 4, 1867, until his death thirty-one years. He served as chairman of the Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds where he played a vital role in obtaining the current Library of Congress main building through his work on the Joint Select Committee on Additional Accommodations for the Library.
He served as chairman of the Committee on Finance. In addition, Morrill was a regent of the Smithsonian Institution from 1883 to 1898 and a trustee of the University of Vermont from 1865 to 1898; the Morrill Tariff of 1861 was a protective tariff law adopted on March 2, 1861. Passed after anti-tariff southerners had left Congress during the process of secession, Morrill designed it with the advice of Pennsylvania economist Henry C. Carey, it was one of the last acts signed into law by James Buchanan, replaced the Tariff of 1857. Additional tariffs Morrill sponsored were passed to raise revenue during the American Civil War. Morrill is best known for sponsoring the Morrill Act known as the Land Grant College Act; this act was signed into law by Abraham Lincoln in 1862, established federal funding for higher education in every state of the country. In his own words: This bill proposes to establish at least one college in every State upon a sure and perpetual foundation, accessible to all, but to the sons of toil, where all of needful science for the practical avocations of life shall be taught, where neither the higher graces of classical studies nor that military drill our country now so appreciates will be ignored, where agriculture, the foundation of all present and future prosperity, may look for troops of earnest friends, studying its familiar and recondite economies, at last elevating it to that higher level where it may fearlessly invoke comparison with the most advanced standards of the world.
He authored the Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act of 1862, which targeted The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, based on the then-existing practice of plural marriage. It imposed a five-hundred dollar fine and up to five years imprisonment for the crime of polygamy. On January 6, 1879, in Reynolds v. United States the Supreme Court, upheld the Anti-Bigamy Act's ban on plural marriage. A second Land Grant College Act in 1890 targeted the former Confederate states and led to the creation of several black colleges and universities; the Land Grant College Acts led to the founding of 106 colleges including many state universities, polytechnic colleges, agricultural and mechanical colleges. In 1851, Morrill married Ruth Barrell Swan of Massachusetts, they had two children. Justin Harris Morrill died in childhood. James Swan Morrill graduated from the University of Vermont in 1880 and Columbian College Law School in 1882, he was a lawyer and farmer and served in a variety of offices including as a member of the Vermont House of Representatives.
He wrote Self-Consciousness of Noted Persons, published in 1886. Morrill died in Washington, D. C. on December 28, 1898. He was buried at Strafford Cemetery. At the time of Morrill's death his 43 years and 299 days of continuous Congressional service was the longest in U. S. history. He has since been surpassed, but still ranks 18th as of March 2014; the Justin Smith Morrill Homestead in Strafford is a National Historic Landmark. Many colleges established under the Morill Act created a'Morrill Hall' in his honor. Morrill was initiated into the Delta Upsilon fraternity as an honorary member in 1864, he received honorary degrees from the University of Vermont, University of
National Register of Historic Places listings in Arkansas
This is a list of properties and historic districts in Arkansas that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. There are more than 2,600 listings in the state, including at least 8 listings in each of Arkansas's 75 counties; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. The following are tallies of current listings in Arkansas on the National Register of Historic Places; these counts are based on entries in the National Register Information Database as of April 24, 2008 and new weekly listings posted since on the National Register of Historic Places web site. There are frequent additions to the listings and occasional delistings and the counts here are not official; the counts in this table exclude boundary increase and decrease listings which modify the area covered by an existing property or district and which carry a separate National Register reference number. List of National Historic Landmarks in Arkansas List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Arkansas
National Register of Historic Places listings in Georgia
This is a list of the more than 2,000 properties and historic districts in the U. S. state of Georgia that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Listings are distributed across all of Georgia's 159 counties. Listings for the city of Atlanta are in Fulton County's list but spill over into DeKalb County's list; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. The following are tallies of current listings by county. List of National Historic Landmarks in Georgia List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Georgia