Troughton & Simms
Troughton & Simms was a British instrument-making firm, formed when Edward Troughton in his old age took on William Simms as a partner in 1826. It became a limited company in 1915 and in 1922 it merged with T. Cooke & Sons to form Cooke, Troughton & Simms; the firm produced hundreds of astronomical instruments such as mural circles, transit circles and other astronomical instruments for observatories around the world. Troughton had been a sole proprietor, before that he was in partnership with his brother John. John died and Edward took on Simms in 1826. Edward Troughton died in 1835. In 1876 they supplied the Imperial Standards Of Length gauges mounted at Trafalgar Square in London UK. Obituary of Edward Troughton: MNRAS 3 149 Obituary of William Simms, junior: MNRAS 67 237 Merger with T. Cooke & Sons: Obs 45 403
Central Methodist University
Central Methodist University is a private university in Fayette, Missouri. CMU is accredited to offer master's, bachelor's, associate degrees; the school is affiliated with the United Methodist Church. On April 13–14, 1853, Central Methodist University was founded by Nathan Scarritt and David Rice McAnally; the college was chartered by the Missouri General Assembly on March 15, 1855. It came about due to the diligent work of Nathan Scarritt and David Rice McAnally. Classes began on September 18, 1857, on a 1-acre campus with an enrollment of 114 students and a faculty of three. Samuel C. Major was the first graduate, in 1858. In about 100 years the school grew to a campus of 55 acres, enrollment of over 1,000 students and a faculty of 65. In 2004, it was changed its name accordingly; the battle occurred on September 24, 1864 when two bands of southern sympathizers attacked the Union troops stationed in Fayette. The guerrillas were led by William "Bloody Bill" Anderson and George Todd, included among their number Frank and Jesse James, of outlaw fame.
Somewhere between 30 and 50 Union fighters faced off against the 250 southern sympathizers, who had disguised themselves with uniforms taken from dead Federal soldiers. Only 75 members of the large guerrilla party charged the barricaded troops. Though Anderson and Todd lived on to terrorize northern troops across the state before their deaths, this ill-conceived attack had deadly consequences: after three charges, 13 of Anderson's men were dead and another 30 were wounded. Only 1 of the Union soldiers was killed, another five wounded. In years, Frank James said that the Fayette fight made him "the worst scared I was during the war." In his brief description of the fight, he said, "We charged up to a blockhouse made of railroad ties filled with portholes and charged back again. The blockhouse was filled with Federal troops and it was like charging a stone wall, only this stone wall belched forth lead."On October 14, 2007, the Missouri Department of Natural Resources commemorated the battle by placing a marker on the Central Methodist University campus.
Central Methodist's main campus is in Missouri. Notable features include Linn Memorial United Methodist Church, Swinney Conservatory, Brannock Hall, Little Theatre, Ashby-Hodge Gallery of American Art, Quadrangle; the college has the Morrison Observatory next to the president's home across the street from the Fayette city park. On-campus cultural attractions include Ashby-Hodge Gallery of American Art, Stephens Museum, concerts presented by the Swinney Conservatory of Music and productions hosted in the Little Theatre or on the Quad; the 2004 film Killer Diller was filmed on campus and in various other locations owned by the university. The Central Methodist College Campus Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980, it encompasses 11 contributing buildings. They are Classic Hall, Howard-Payne Hall, Givens Hall, Brannock Hall, Cupples Hall, Clingenpeel Physical Education Building, T. Berry Smith Hall, Swinney Conservatory of Music, Paul H. Linn Memorial Methodist Church and Cross Memorial Tower, Rice H. Cooper Parish House, Morrison Observatory.
Brannock HallBrannock Hall was built in 1856. It stood through the Civil War, functioned as Fayette's weather center. Brannock sat empty from 1911-1914, it was remolded into a boys dormitory. In 1928 it became the administrative building on campus. Howard-Payne HallHoward Payne Hall was built in 1851 boarding house for women by William T. Lucky and Nathan Scarritt; the north wing was added from the burnt bricks. The north wing was used to house classrooms. In 1959, Howard High School was chartered into Howard College. Central bought Howard College and it became a female dorm. Howard Payne Hall was closed for several years due to the use of soft bricks during its construction. In 1981, the building was reopened and used as a co-ed dorm, is still used this way in the present. GivensGivens is the oldest structure on the CMU campus built in 1848–50. In 1903 it was used as a resident building for Howard Payne College presidents. In 1928 it was turned into a residence hall for Howard Payne female faculty. Givens has served the campus in many different ways.
One way being that it was used in World War II as the a Navy sick bay, has been used as residence building for female students. It is now used to house guests. Cupples HallBuilt in 1896 by Samuel Cupples as a dormitory for men. In 1927 Cupples became a library to house the George M. Smiley collection. In 1969-70 it was renovated, new addition was added that doubled the size of the library and allowed for the placement of The Little Theatre below. Classic HallClassic Hall was built in 1911 and was considered to be the great learning center on campus, it was constructed to help keep Howard Payne College a self-contained college for women. This allowed for Howard Payne to become a dormitory. Classic Hall used to house classrooms, a women's literary society. In 1981, it was shut down due to weakening structure. Classic Hall was reopened in 2012 as a home for Fine Arts. T. Berry Smith HallT. Berry Smith Hall was built in 1894-5, it was designed in an Italianate fashion. In the beginning of the building's history all the departments of college.
The Aristotelian and the Phi Alpha Literary Societies used
Harvard College Observatory
The Harvard College Observatory is an institution managing a complex of buildings and multiple instruments used for astronomical research by the Harvard University Department of Astronomy. It is located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, was founded in 1839. With the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, it forms part of the Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. HCO houses a collection of 500,000 astronomical plates taken between the mid-1880s and 1989; this 100-year coverage is a unique resource for studying temporal variations in the universe. The Digital Access to a Sky Century @ Harvard project is digitally scanning and archiving these photographic plates. In 1839, the Harvard Corporation voted to appoint William Cranch Bond, a prominent Boston clockmaker, as "Astronomical Observer to the University"; this marked the founding of the Harvard College Observatory. HCO's first telescope, the 15-inch Great Refractor, was installed in 1847; that telescope was the largest in the United States from installation until 1867.
Between 1847 and 1852 Bond and pioneer photographer John Adams Whipple used the Great Refractor telescope to produce images of the moon that are remarkable in their clarity of detail and aesthetic power. This was the largest telescope in North America at that time, their images of the moon took the prize for technical excellence in photography at the 1851 Great Exhibition at The Crystal Palace in London. On the night of July 16–17, 1850, Whipple and Bond made the first daguerreotype of a star. Harvard College Observatory is important to astronomy, as many women including Annie Jump Cannon, Henrietta Swan Leavitt, Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin, Williamina Fleming performed pivotal stellar classification research. Cannon and Leavitt were hired as "computers" to perform calculations and examine stellar photographs, but made insightful connections in their research. From 1898 to 1926, a series of Bulletins were issued containing many of the major discoveries of the period; these were replaced by Announcement Cards which continued to be issued until 1952.
In 1908, the observatory published the Harvard Revised Photometry Catalogue, which gave rise to the HR star catalogue, now maintained by the Yale University Observatory as the Bright Star Catalogue. William Cranch Bond 1839–1859 George Phillips Bond 1859–1865 Joseph Winlock 1866–1875 Edward Charles Pickering 1877–1919 Solon Irving Bailey 1919–1921 Harlow Shapley 1921–1952 Donald H. Menzel 1952–1953. Field 1971–1972 Harvard Computers Sears Tower – Harvard Observatory The Minor Planet Center credits many asteroid discoveries to "Harvard Observatory." See List of largest optical refracting telescopes, for other'great refractors' Dava Sobel. The Glass Universe:. Viking. ISBN 978-0670016952. HCO home page Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Harvard College Observatory Bulletins Harvard College Announcement Cards
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States. With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union; the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia; the state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation; the Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center of the state into the Mississippi River, which makes up Missouri's eastern border. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years; the Mississippian culture built mounds, before declining in the 14th century. When European explorers arrived in the 17th century they encountered the Osage and Missouria nations; the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764. After a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory.
Missouri was admitted as a slave state as part of the Missouri Compromise. Many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland. Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch; the Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, California Trail all began in Missouri. As a border state, Missouri's role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business. Today, the state is divided into the independent city of St. Louis. Missouri's culture blends elements from Southern United States; the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, St. Louis Blues developed in Missouri; the well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, lesser-known St. Louis-style barbecue, can be found across the state and beyond. Missouri is a major center of beer brewing.
Missouri wine is produced in Ozarks. Missouri's alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the state's major cities, popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, Table Rock Lake, Branson. Well-known Missourians include U. S. President Harry S. Truman, Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, Nelly; some of the largest companies based in the state include Cerner, Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, H&R Block, Wells Fargo Advisors, O'Reilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the "Mother of the West" and the "Cave State"; the state is named for the Missouri River, named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe. It is said that they were called the ouemessourita, meaning "those who have dugout canoes", by the Miami-Illinois language speakers; this appears to be folk etymology—the Illinois spoke an Algonquian language and the closest approximation that can be made in that of their close neighbors, the Ojibwe, is "You Ought to Go Downriver & Visit Those People."
This would be an odd occurrence, as the French who first explored and attempted to settle the Mississippi River got their translations during that time accurate giving things French names that were exact translations of the native tongue. Assuming Missouri were deriving from the Siouan language, it would translate as "It connects to the side of it," in reference to the river itself; this is not likely either, as this would be coming out as "Maya Sunni" Most though, the name Missouri comes from Chiwere, a Siouan language spoken by people who resided in the modern day states of Wisconsin, South Dakota, Missouri & Nebraska. The name "Missouri" has several different pronunciations among its present-day natives, the two most common being and. Further pronunciations exist in Missouri or elsewhere in the United States, involving the realization of the first syllable as either or. Any combination of these phonetic realizations may be observed coming from speakers of American English; the linguistic history was treated definitively by Donald M. Lance, who acknowledged that the question is sociologically complex, but that no pronunciation could be declared "correct", nor could any be defined as native or outsider, rural or urban, southern or northern, educated or otherwise.
Politicians employ multiple pronunciations during a single speech, to appeal to a greater number of listeners. Informal respellings of the state's name, such as "Missour-ee" or "Missour-uh", are used informally to phonetically distinguish pronunciations. There is no official state nickname. However, Missouri's unofficial nickname is the "Show Me State"; this phrase has several origins. One is popularly ascribed to a speech by Congressman Willard Vandiver in 1899, who declared that "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton and Democrats, frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, you have got to show me." This is in keeping with the saying "I'm from Missouri" which means "I'm skeptical of the matter and not convinced." However, according to researchers, the phrase "show me" was in use
Kansas City, Missouri
Kansas City is the largest city in the U. S. state of Missouri. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city had an estimated population of 488,943 in 2017, making it the 37th most-populous city in the United States, it is the central city of the Kansas City metropolitan area, which straddles the Kansas–Missouri state line. Kansas City was founded in the 1830s as a Missouri River port at its confluence with the Kansas River coming in from the west. On June 1, 1850 the town of Kansas was incorporated. Confusion between the two ensued and the name Kansas City was assigned to distinguish them soon after. Sitting on Missouri's western boundary, with Downtown near the confluence of the Kansas and Missouri Rivers, the modern city encompasses some 319.03 square miles, making it the 23rd largest city by total area in the United States. Most of the city lies within Jackson County, but portions spill into Clay and Platte counties. Along with Independence, one of its major suburbs, it serves as one of the two county seats of Jackson County.
Other major suburbs include the Missouri cities of Blue Springs and Lee's Summit and the Kansas cities of Overland Park and Kansas City. The city is composed of several neighborhoods, including the River Market District in the north, the 18th and Vine District in the east, the Country Club Plaza in the south. Kansas City is known for its long tradition of jazz music and culture, for its cuisine, its craft breweries. Kansas City, Missouri was incorporated as a town on June 1, 1850, as a city on March 28, 1853; the territory straddling the border between Missouri and Kansas at the confluence of the Kansas and Missouri rivers was considered a good place to build settlements. The Antioch Christian Church, Dr. James Compton House, Woodneath are listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the first documented European visitor to Kansas City was Étienne de Veniard, Sieur de Bourgmont, the first European to explore the lower Missouri River. Criticized for his response to the Native American attack on Fort Détroit, he had deserted his post as fort commander and was avoiding French authorities.
Bourgmont lived with a Native American wife in a village about 90 miles east near Brunswick, where he illegally traded furs. To clear his name, he wrote Exact Description of Louisiana, of Its Harbors and Rivers, Names of the Indian Tribes That Occupy It, the Commerce and Advantages to Be Derived Therefrom for the Establishment of a Colony in 1713 followed in 1714 by The Route to Be Taken to Ascend the Missouri River. In the documents, he describes the junction of the "Grande Riv des Cansez" and Missouri River, making him the first to adopt those names. French cartographer Guillaume Delisle used the descriptions to make the area's first reasonably accurate map; the Spanish took over the region in the Treaty of Paris in 1763, but were not to play a major role other than taxing and licensing Missouri River ship traffic. The French continued their fur trade under Spanish license; the Chouteau family operated under Spanish license at St. Louis in the lower Missouri Valley as early as 1765 and in 1821 the Chouteaus reached Kansas City, where François Chouteau established Chouteau's Landing.
After the 1804 Louisiana Purchase and Clark visited the confluence of the Kansas and Missouri rivers, noting it was a good place to build a fort. In 1831, a group of Mormons from New York settled in, they built the first school within Kansas City's current boundaries, but were forced out by mob violence in 1833 and their settlement remained vacant. In 1833 John McCoy, son of missionary Isaac McCoy, established West Port along the Santa Fe Trail, 3 miles away from the river. In 1834 McCoy established Westport Landing on a bend in the Missouri to serve as a landing point for West Port. Soon after, the Kansas Town Company, a group of investors, began to settle the area, taking their name from an English spelling of "Cansez." In 1850, the landing area was incorporated as the Town of Kansas. By that time, the Town of Kansas and nearby Independence, had become critical points in the United States' westward expansion. Three major trails – the Santa Fe, Oregon – all passed through Jackson County. On February 22, 1853, the City of Kansas was created with a newly elected mayor.
It had an area of 0.70 square miles and a population of 2,500. The boundary lines at that time extended from the middle of the Missouri River south to what is now Ninth Street, from Bluff Street on the west to a point between Holmes Road and Charlotte Street on the east; the Kansas City area was rife with animosity just prior to the U. S. Civil War. Kansas petitioned the U. S. to enter the Union as a free state that did not allow slavery under the new doctrine of popular sovereignty. Missouri had many slaves, slavery sympathizers crossed into Kansas to sway the state towards allowing slavery, at first by ballot box and by bloodshed. During the Civil War, the city and its immediate surroundings were the focus of intense military activity. Although the First Battle of Independence in August 1862 resulted in a Confederate States Army victory, the Confederates were unable to leverage their win in any significant fashion, as Kansas City was occupied by Union troops and proved too fortified to assault.
The Second Battle of Independence, which occurred on October 21–22, 1864 as part of Sterling Price's Missouri expedition of 1864 resulted in a Confederate triumph. Once again their victory proved hollow, as Price was decisively defeated in the pivotal Battle of Westport the next day ending Confederate e
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Glasgow is a city in Chariton and Howard counties in the U. S. state of Missouri. The population was 1,103 at the 2010 census; the Howard County portion of Glasgow is part of the Columbia, Missouri Metropolitan Statistical Area. Glasgow was laid out and platted in 1836 from land acquired from former Missouri State Treasurer James Earickson The city was named for James Glasgow, a local merchant. A post office called Glasgow has been in operation since 1837; the Battle of Glasgow was fought on October 15, 1864, in and near Glasgow as part of Price's Missouri Expedition during the American Civil War. Although the battle resulted in a Confederate victory and the capture of significant war material, it had little long-term benefit as Price was defeated at Westport a week bringing his campaign in Missouri to an end. There is a historical record of extrajudicial violence. On January 20, 1891, an African American man, Olli Truxton, was killed by a white lynch mob in Glasgow. On August 3, 1891, an African American man, Harrison Mickey, was killed by a black lynch mob in Glasgow.
The Campbell Chapel African Methodist Episcopal Church, Glasgow Commercial Historic District, Glasgow Presbyterian Church, Glasgow Public Library, Inglewood are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.42 square miles, of which 1.30 square miles is land and 0.12 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,103 people, 458 households, 277 families residing in the city; the population density was 848.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 533 housing units at an average density of 410.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.8% White, 7.9% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 2.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.5% of the population. There were 458 households of which 29.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.7% were married couples living together, 9.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 39.5% were non-families.
35.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 15% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 3.00. The median age in the city was 41.9 years. 25.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.2% male and 52.8% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,263 people, 495 households, 317 families residing in the city; the population density was 946.1 people per square mile. There were 562 housing units at an average density of 421.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.87% White, 8.47% African American, 0.16% Native American, 0.08% Asian, 0.63% from other races, 0.79% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.79% of the population. There were 495 households out of which 33.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.1% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.8% were non-families.
33.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.14. In the city the population was spread out with 27.2% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 25.7% from 25 to 44, 20.0% from 45 to 64, 19.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,242, the median income for a family was $36,806. Males had a median income of $24,188 versus $17,130 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,544. About 7.1% of families and 10.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.6% of those under age 18 and 11.2% of those age 65 or over. Glasgow is mentioned in the novel Boone's Lick by Larry McMurtry; the Cecil family stops journeys from Boone's Lick by wagon to meet a flatboat at Glasgow that will take them upriver.
John Wesley Donaldson, born in Glasgow, was an American baseball pitcher, whose career spanned over 30 years and included many different Negro league baseball teams. Harry H. Vaughan, military aide to Harry S Truman City of Glasgow Historic maps of Glasgow in the Sanborn Maps of Missouri Collection at the University of Missouri