Otokichi known as Yamamoto Otokichi and known as John Matthew Ottoson, was a Japanese castaway from the area of Onoura near modern-day Mihama, on the west coast of the Chita Peninsula in Aichi Prefecture. Otokichi was from Aichi Prefecture. In 1832, at age 14, he served as a crew member on a rice transport ship bound for Edo, the Hojunmaru, 15 metres in length with a cargo of 150 tons and a crew of 14; the ship left on October 11, 1832, but was caught in a storm and blown off-course far out in the Pacific Ocean. The ship, without a rudder, was carried across the northern Pacific Ocean by currents, it drifted for 14 months, during which the crew lived on desalinated seawater and on the rice of their cargo. Several crew members died of scurvy; the three survivors were Iwakichi, 29. The three castaways were looked after and enslaved by the Makah Indian tribe, they were handed over to John McLoughlin, the Chief Factor for the Columbia District at the Hudson's Bay Company. McLoughlin, envisioning an opportunity to use the castaways to open trade with Japan, sent the trio to London on the Eagle to try to convince the Crown of his plan.
They reached London in 1835 the first Japanese to do so since Christopher and Cosmas in the 16th century. The British Government denied interest in the enterprise, the castaways were instead dispatched to Macau on board the General Palmer, so that they could be returned to their home country. Once in Macau, Otokichi and Iwakichi were welcomed by Karl Gutzlaff, a German missionary and Chinese translator for the British Government. Gutzlaff, who had views on evangelizing Japan, enthusiastically learned the Japanese language from the trio, with their help managed to make a translation of the Gospel of John into Japanese; the trio was joined in Macau by four more castaways from Kumamoto Prefecture in Kyūshū, shipwrecked on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. An opportunity to return them to Japan appeared when the American trader Charles W. King offered to take them back to Japan, again with the hope of establishing trade relations with the country. In July 1837, the seven castaways left with Charles W. King on board the Morrison to Uraga at the entrance of Edo Bay.
There the ship was fired on and King was not able to accomplish his objective to establish diplomatic contact. He went to Kagoshima, but again met with cannon fire, decided to abandon his efforts and go back to Canton; the castaways resigned themselves to a life in exile. Returning to Japan was problematic, for this was during Japan's period of isolation when leaving the country was an offense, punishable by death. Unable to return to Japan, the castaways started a new life in Macau, they seem to have worked as translators for British missionaries. Otokichi is next recorded to have been working for the British trading company Dent & Co. in Shanghai in 1843. He also worked as a crewman on American ships, worked at helping Japanese castaways to return to Japan on board Chinese or Dutch ships, the only ones allowed to visit the country, he engaged in business on his own behalf. Otokichi married a Scotswoman in Macao who died of illness, his second wife, Louisa Belder, was half-German and half-Malay, living in Singapore, with whom he had a son and three daughters.
He became a naturalized British subject. "Ottoson" is said to have been a transliteration of "Oto-san", a respectful nickname used by his Japanese friends. Otokichi is known to have returned to Japan twice, first as a translator on board HMS Mariner, which entered Uraga Port in 1849 to conduct a topographical survey. To avoid problems with Japanese authorities, he disguised himself as Chinese, said that he had learned Japanese from his father a businessman who had worked in relation with Nagasaki; the second time, Otokichi went to Japan under his British name "Ottoson", in September 1854. He was a member of the British fleet under Admiral James Stirling; the fleet docked at Nagasaki and negotiated and signed the Anglo-Japanese Friendship Treaty on October 14. On that occasion, Otokichi met including Fukuzawa Yukichi, he was offered permission to live in Japan, but he chose to return to his family in Shanghai. Toward the end of his life, Otokichi moved from Shanghai to Singapore, his wife's native island, where he became the first known Japanese resident of Singapore.
The British had compensated him generously for his contribution to the treaty with Japan, had done well in business deals in Shanghai. He rented a luxurious colonial house on Orchard Road, where he died at the age of 49, in 1867. Otokichi was buried at the Japanese Cemetery of Singapore. Half of his remains were returned to his hometown of Mihama in Japan on February 20, 2005; the story of the Hojunmaru castaways was adapted as the feature film Kairei in 1983. Despite starring country singer Johnny Cash as John McLoughlin, having a reported budget of US$4,000,000, the film was not a commercial success. Nakahama Manjirō, another castaway, who went to America 10 years later. Hasekura Tsunenaga, who went to Europe through Mexico on a diplomatic mission in 1614, on the Japanese galleon San Juan Bautista. Tanaka Shōsuke visited the Americas 1610 William Adams, English pilot of Dutch fleet who settled in Japan 1600. Christopher and Cosmas, first Japanese to visit England in 1591 Ranald MacDonald, first native-English speaker to tea
Macau or Macao the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is a special administrative region on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With a population of 653,100 in an area of 32.9 km2, it is the most densely populated region in the world. Macau was a colony of the Portuguese Empire, after Ming China leased the territory as a trading post in 1557. Governing under Chinese authority and sovereignty, Portugal was given perpetual occupation rights for Macau in 1887; the colony remained under Portuguese control until 1999. As a special administrative region, Macau's system of government is separate from that of mainland China. A sparsely populated collection of coastal islands, the territory has become a major resort city and the top destination for gambling tourism, it is the ninth-highest recipient of tourism revenue and its gaming industry is seven times larger than that of Las Vegas. Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, it has severe income inequality.
Macau has a high Human Development Index and the fourth-highest life expectancy in the world. The territory is urbanised and most development is built on reclaimed land; the first known written record of the name "Macau", rendered as "Ya/A Ma Gang", is in a letter dated 20 November 1555. The local inhabitants believed that the sea goddess Mazu had blessed and protected the harbour and called the waters around A-Ma Temple using her name; when Portuguese explorers first arrived in the area and asked for the place name, the locals thought they were asking about the temple and told them it was "Ma Kok". The earliest Portuguese spelling for this was Amaquão. Multiple variations were used until Amacão / Amacao and Macão / Macao became common during the 17th century standardising as Macao, Macau today. Macau Peninsula had many names in Chinese, including Jingao and Haojingao; the islands Taipa and Hengqin were collectively called Shizimen. These names would become Aomen, Oumún in Cantonese and translating as "bay gate" or "port gate", to refer to the whole territory.
The region is first known to have been settled during the Han dynasty. However, Macau did not develop as a major settlement until the Portuguese arrived in the 16th century; the first European visitor to reach China by sea was the explorer Jorge Álvares, who arrived in 1513. Merchants first established a trading post in Hong Kong waters at Tamão, beginning regular trade with nearby settlements in southern China. Military clashes between the Ming and Portuguese navies followed the expulsion of the Tamão traders in 1521. Despite the trade ban, Portuguese merchants continued to attempt settling on other parts of the Pearl River estuary settling on Macau. Luso-Chinese trade relations were formally reestablished in 1554 and Portugal soon after acquired a permanent lease for Macau in 1557; the small population of Portuguese merchants became a growing city. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Macau was created in 1576, by 1583, the Senate had been established to handle municipal affairs for the growing settlement.
Macau was at the peak of its prosperity as a major entrepôt during the late 16th century, providing a crucial connection in exporting Chinese silk to Japan during the Nanban trade period. Although the Portuguese were prohibited from fortifying Macau or stockpiling weapons, the Fortaleza do Monte was constructed in response to frequent Dutch naval incursions; the Dutch attempted to take the city in the 1622 Battle of Macau, but were repelled by the Portuguese. Macau entered a period of decline in the 1640s following a series of catastrophic events for the burgeoning colony: Portuguese access to trade routes was irreparably severed when Japan halted trade in 1639, Portugal revolted against Spain in 1640, Malacca fell to the Dutch in 1641. Maritime trade with China was banned in 1644 following the Qing conquest under the Haijin policies and limited only to Macau on a lesser scale while the new dynasty focused on eliminating surviving Ming loyalists. While the Kangxi Emperor lifted the prohibition in 1684, China again restricted trade under the Canton System in 1757.
Foreign ships were required to first stop at Macau before further proceeding to Canton. Qing authorities exercised a much greater role in governing the territory during this period; as the opium trade became more lucrative during the eighteenth century, Macau again became an important stopping point en route to China. Following the First Opium War and establishment of Hong Kong, Macau lost its role as a major port. Firecracker and incense production, as well as tea and tobacco processing, were vital industries in the colony during this time. Portugal was able to assert its sovereignty. Portugal occupied nearby Lapa and Montanha, but these would be returned to China by 1887, when perpetual occupation rights over Macau were formalised in the Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking; this agreement obligated Portugal from ceding Macau without Chinese approval. Despite occasional conflict between Cantonese authorities and the colonial government, Macau's status remained unchanged through the republican revolutions of b
The SS Home was a steam packet ship built in 1836 and sunk in 1837 and commanded by Captain Carleton White. The Home was built for Mr. James B. Allaire, of New York City, a ship of 537 tons, 220 feet long and with a beam of 22 feet, propelled by two side paddle-wheels mounted amidships. Like other ships of her day, Home had masts and rigging as well; the Home had been converted into a passenger liner. Her interior was paneled in deep mahogany and cherry wood with skylights and luxurious passenger quarters. A total of $115,000 had been spent converting the Home for ocean voyages but it was equipped with only three lifeboats and two life preservers; the Home was insured for only $35,000. On Saturday, 7 October 1837 the Home left New York City for Charleston, South Carolina with about 90 passengers and 40 crew aboard. Home had made only two previous voyages to Charleston. Home struck a sandbar off New Jersey. Unaware of the extent of the damage, her captain proceeded on schedule to Charleston when she encountered the 1837 Racer's Storm and started taking on water as she rounded Cape Hatteras.
She was put aground to ride out the developing storm. Before rescue operations could be effected the next day, the Home was torn to pieces by the surf and 90 lives were lost; the Hardy Croom family of Tallahassee, Florida. Hardy Croom established. Oliver H. Prince and wife Mary Prince. Oliver was on the Board of Trustees of the University of Georgia and had been a United States Senator from Georgia as well as Georgia State Senator. Hurricanes from the Handbook of Texas Online biography of the SS Home's owner, James Peter Allaire North Carolina Hurricane History Flagpole Magazine, p. 10. Contemporary Newspaper accounts of the loss of the "Home" 1837-1843
HMS Pembroke (1812)
HMS Pembroke was a 74-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 27 June 1812 at Blackwall Yard. As a part of a squadron under the command of Sir James Brisbane the Pembroke in company with Alcmene and Aigle on 11 April 1814 captured Fortune, Notre Dame de Leusainte, a settee of unknown name, at Fort Maurigio, in the Gulf of Genoa, near Monaco; the squadron silenced the fort's guns, attacked 20 vessels. In 1836 she formed part of an experimental squadron, which were groups of ships sent out in the 1830s and 1840s to test new techniques of ship design, armament and propulsion, she was fitted with screw propulsion in 1855, transferred to the Coastguard in 1858, used as a base ship from 1887. She was renamed HMS Forte as a receiving hulk in 1890, was sold out of the Navy in 1905
A castaway is a person, cast adrift or ashore. While the situation happens after a shipwreck, some people voluntarily stay behind on a deserted island, either to evade captors or the world in general. A person may be left ashore as punishment; the provisions and resources available to castaways may allow them to live on the island until other people arrive to take them off the island. However, such rescue missions may never happen if the person is not known to still be alive, if the fact that they are missing is unknown or if the island is not mapped; these scenarios have given rise to the plots of numerous stories in the form of novels and film. Icelander Thorgisl set out to travel to Greenland, he and his party were first driven into a remote sound on the east coast of Greenland. Thorgisl, his infant son and several others were abandoned there by their thralls. Thorgisl and his party traveled along the coast to the Eystribyggð settlement of Erik the Red on the southwest coast of Greenland. Along the way they met an outlaw who had escaped to East Greenland.
This history is told in Flóamanna saga and Origines Islandicae and occurred during the early years of Viking Greenland, while Leif Ericson was still alive. Icelander Grettir Ásmundarson was outlawed by the assembly in Iceland. After many years on the run he and two companions went to the forbidden island of Drangey, where he lived several more years before his pursuers managed to kill him in 1031; the Portuguese soldier Fernão Lopes was marooned on the island of Saint Helena in 1513. He had lost his right hand, the thumb of his left hand, his nose and his ears as punishment for mutiny and apostasy for converting to Islam. For the rest of his life – he died about 1545 – Lopes stayed on the island, except for two years around 1530, when the Portuguese king helped him travel to Rome, where the Pope granted him absolution for his sin of apostasy. In April 1520, a mutiny broke out in Magellan's fleet while at the Patagonian seashore. Magellan executed some of the ringleaders, he punished two others: the King of Spain's delegate, Juan de Cartagena and the priest, Pedro Sánchez Reina, by marooning them in that desolate place.
They were never heard from again. Gonzalo de Vigo was a Spanish sailor who deserted from Gonzalo Gomez de Espinosa's Trinidad, part of the Spanish expedition of Ferdinand Magellan, when being in the Maug Islands in August 1522, he lived with the Chamorros for four years and visited thirteen main islands in the Marianas until he was unexpectedly found in Guam in 1526 by the flagship of the Loaísa Expedition, on its way to the Spice Islands and the second circumnavigation of the globe. Gonzalo de Vigo was the first recorded European castaway in the history of the Pacific Ocean. A French noblewoman, Marguerite de la Rocque was marooned in 1542 on an island in the Gulf of St Lawrence, off the coast of Quebec, she was left by her near relative Jean-François de La Rocque de Roberval, a nobleman privateer, as punishment for her affair with a young man on board ship. The young man joined her, as did a servant woman, both of whom died, as did the baby de la Rocque bore. Marguerite survived by hunting wild animals and was rescued by fishermen.
She returned to France and became well known when her story was recorded by the Queen of Navarre in her work Heptaméron. In 1629 Jan Pelgrom de Bye van Bemel, a cabin boy, Wouter Loos, a 24-year-old soldier, had been on board the Dutch ship Batavia; the ship was famous because it was wrecked on Morning Reef of the Wallabi Group of the Houtman Abrolhos, leading to the infamous Batavia Mutiny and mass killings. When all culprits were arrested on the islets, most of them were either hanged or sent to court in the town of Batavia. However, Jan Pelgrom and Wouter Loos were marooned on the Australian mainland at or near the mouth of Hutt River in Western Australia, on 16 November 1629, they were the first Europeans to reside in Australia. Abel Tasman was subsequently ordered to search for the castaways on his voyage along the coasts of northern Australia in 1643–44 but did not sail that far south, they were not seen again by Europeans. It has been argued by Rupert Gerritsen in And Their Ghosts May Be Heard and subsequent publications that they survived and had a profound influence on local Aboriginal groups such as the Nhanda and Amangu.
In the early hours of 28 April 1656 a Dutch vessel belonging to the Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, Vergulde Draeck, struck a reef off Ledge Point on the central west coast of Western Australia, about 5 kilometres from shore, 90 kilometres north of where Perth now stands. At least 75 individuals made it to shore. Seven men departed in a boat, making at the western end of Java, they raised the alarm. A number of ships were dispatched over the following two years to search for the survivors who had remained behind, but an incorrect latitude meant the searches focused on the wrong area; the original campsite, by abandoned, was not found until 26 February 1658, by a shore party led by Upper Steersman Abraham Leeman. There has been much speculation as to the fate of the 68, who may have ended up east of Geraldton 350 kilometres to the north integrating with the local Aboriginal population. Two stone arrangements, the Ring of Stones, found to the north in modern times may have been markers left by the 68 survivors.
Archaeological investigations are continuing in an endeavour to locate the original campsite. On 28 March 1658, while searching for the 68 survivors of the wreck of Vergulde Draeck along the lower central wes
Samuel Wells Williams
Samuel Wells Williams was a linguist, official and Sinologist from the United States in the early 19th century. Williams was born in Utica, New York, son of publisher William Williams and wife Sophia, an elder of the First Presbyterian Church. At age 8 he was impressed by the departure to Ceylon as a printing missionary of a James Garrett, associated with his father's printing business, he studied at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in New York. There he assisted in the writing of a botanical manual by Senior Professor and co-founder Amos Eaton, published 1833. On graduation he was elected as a professor of the institute. After a year's preparation, on 15 June 1833, just 21, he sailed for China to take charge of the printing press of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions at Guangdong, China, he arrived at Whampoa, aboard the Morrison on 25 October 1833. With the death of the pioneering missionary Robert Morrison the next year, he and Elijah Bridgman, who had arrived only three years ahead of Williams, were the only missionaries in the whole of China.
He assisted Bridgman in the latter's Chinese Chrestomathy in the Canton Dialect, published in 1842, Walter Medhurst in completing his English-Chinese Dictionary of 1848, two early works of Chinese lexicography. In 1837 he sailed on the Morrison to Japan; this trip was to return some stranded Japanese sailors, but it was an unsuccessful attempt to open Japan to American trade. On November 20, 1845 Williams married Sarah Walworth. From 1848 to 1851 Williams was the editor of The Chinese Repository, a leading Western journal published in China. In 1853 he was attached to Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry's expedition to Japan as an official interpreter. In 1855, Williams was appointed Secretary of the United States Legation to China. During his stay in China, he wrote A Tonic Dictionary Of The Chinese Language In The Canton Dialect in 1856. After years of opposition from the Chinese government, Williams was instrumental in the negotiation of the Treaty of Tientsin, which provided for the toleration of both Chinese and foreign Christians.
In 1860, he was appointed chargé d'affaires for the United States in Beijing. He resigned his position on October 25, 1876, 43 years to the day that he first landed at Guangzhou in 1833. Around 1875, he completed a translation of the Book of Genesis and the Gospel of Matthew into Japanese, but the manuscripts were lost in a fire before they could be published, he returned to the United States in 1877 and became the first Professor of Chinese language and literature in the United States at Yale University. Williams was nominated as president of the American Bible Society on February 3, 1881, he died on February 16, 1884. Elijah Coleman Bridgman, Samuel Wells Williams, ed.. The Chinese Repository. Canton: Printed for the proprietors. Retrieved 3 July 2016. "Narrative of a Voyage of the ship Morrison, Captain David Ingersoll, to Lewchew and Japan, in July and August, 1837". The Calcutta Christian Observer. 7: 37. 1838. Retrieved 2 July 2016. Samuel Wells Williams. Easy lessons in Chinese: or progressive exercises to facilitate the study of that language.
MACAO: Chinese Repository. Samuel Wells Williams. English & Chinese vocabulary in the court dialect. Macao: Office of the Chinese Repository. P. 440. Williams, Samuel Wells; the Middle Kingdom: a survey of the geography, education, social life, religion, etc. of the Chinese Empire and its inhabitants. New York: Wiley and Putnam. Retrieved 8 May 2011. Account of a Japanese romance Retrieved 1 August 2017. S Wells Williams. Ying Wá Fan Wan Tsüt Iú: A Tonic Dictionary of the Chinese Language in the Canton Dialect. Canton: The Chinese Repository. P. 792. The Chinese commercial guide Samuel Wells Williams. A syllabic dictionary of the Chinese language: arranged according to the Wu-fang Yuen Yin, with the pronunciation of the characters as heard in Peking, Canton and Shanghai. Shanghai: American Presbyterian Mission Press. P. 1254. Retrieved 2011-07-06. Chinese Immigration Samuel Wells Williams. F W Williams, ed. A journal of the Perry expedition to Japan. Retrieved 11 January 2016. Reports of missionary society hospitals at Amoy, Chinkiang, Hankow, Swatow, Tientsin.
1848-49 "God's China: The Middle Kingdom of Samuel Wells Williams," Ch 6 in John Rogers Haddad. The Romance of China: Excursions to China in U. S. Culture, 1776-1876.. ISBN 9780231130943 ISBN 9780231504041. Frederick Wells Williams, The Life and Letters of Samuel Wells Williams, Ll. D. Missionary, Sinologue. Vi, 490p. at Internet Archive. James Muhlenberg Bailey, "Obituary Samuel Wells Williams," Journal of the American Geographical Society of New York 16: 186-93. Biography of Samuel Wells Williams in The Far East, New Series, Volume 1, December 1876, pages 140-2. Biography with photo
Charles W. King
Charles W. King was an American merchant in Canton, famous for having tried to open trade with Japan on the pretext of repatriating seven Japanese castaways, among them Otokichi, to their homeland in 1837 in the Morrison Incident. In July 1837, Charles W. King set off with the seven Japanese aboard an American merchant ship called the SS Morrison, on which he sailed to Uraga at the entrance of Edo Bay; the ship had been disarmed to signify its peaceful intentions. Cannon were fired from the hilltops of the Miura Peninsula as soon as the ship approached Uraga, in compliance with the 1825–42 shogunal order that any approaching Western ships, apart from Dutch ones, should be fired upon. King anchored at a safe distance, out of range of the shore batteries. Men from several small fishing ships boarded the SS Morrison, sake and cookies were shared until late in the night. By daybreak, cannons had been brought closer to the seaside, they were again fired at the ship. Hundreds of small boats, each with a small cannon at the front started to surround and attack the ship.
The Morrison sailed away, with little damage. King sailed to Kagoshima in Kyūshū; the first day he met some officials there. The following day, a fisherman warned the sailors to leave immediately; as the ship was setting its sails, the Japanese opened fire from cannons they had moved to the proximity of the ship during the night. King returned to Canton with the remaining castaways. King was outraged by the Japanese response, upon his return to the United States in 1839 wrote a book about his adventure. In the book he explained that the American flag had been fired upon by a foreign government and that the next contacts with Japan "had better be left to the stronger and wiser action of the American Government". In 1845, a resolution was introduced to the United States Congress to open Japan to trade. Although the resolution was never passed, the United States government sent an expedition under James Biddle with two armed ships, to induce Japan to negotiate. King's visit to Japan was depicted during the opening episode of the 2008 NHK Taiga drama Atsuhime.
Cullen, L. M.. A History of Japan, 1582–1941: Internal and External Worlds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-82155-X; the Logbook of the Captain's Clerk: Adventures in the China Seas, Maine: Chas H. Glass & Co. ISBN 0-548-20912-X