The Cistercians the Order of Cistercians, are a Catholic religious order of monks and nuns that branched off from the Benedictines and follow the Rule of Saint Benedict. They are known as Bernardines, after the influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux; the term Cistercian, derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more the Rule of Saint Benedict; the best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, who were the first three abbots. Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order. By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Scotland, Spain, Italy and Eastern Europe; the keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict.
Rejecting the developments the Benedictines had undergone, the monks tried to replicate monastic life as it had been in Saint Benedict's time. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour agricultural work in the fields, a special characteristic of Cistercian life; the Cistercians made major contributions to culture and technology in medieval Europe: Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of many monasteries. A reform movement seeking a simpler lifestyle began in 17th-century France at La Trappe Abbey, became known as the Trappists; the Trappists were consolidated in 1892 into a new order called the Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance, abbreviated as OCSO.
The Cistercians who did not observe these reforms and remained within the Order of Cistercians and are sometimes called the Cistercians of the Common Observance when distinguishing them from the Trappists. In 1098, a Benedictine abbot, Robert of Molesme, left his monastery in Burgundy with around 20 supporters, who felt that the Cluniac communities had abandoned the rigours and simplicity of the Rule of St. Benedict; the monastery church of Cluny Abbey, the largest in Europe, had become wealthy from rents, feudal rights and pilgrims who passed through Cluniac houses on the Way of St. James; the massive endowments and responsibilities of the Cluniac abbots had drawn them into the affairs of the secular world, their monks had abandoned manual labour to serfs to serve as scholars and "choir monks". On March 21, 1098, Robert's small group acquired a plot of marshland just south of Dijon called Cîteaux, given to them expressly for the purpose of founding their Novum Monasterium. Robert's followers included Alberic, a former hermit from the nearby forest of Colan, Stephen Harding, a member of an Anglo-Saxon noble family, ruined as a result of the Norman conquest of England.
During the first year, the monks set about constructing lodging areas and farming the lands of Cîteaux, making use of a nearby chapel for Mass. In Robert's absence from Molesme, the abbey had gone into decline, Pope Urban II, a former Cluniac monk, ordered him to return; the remaining monks of Cîteaux elected Alberic as their abbot, under whose leadership the abbey would find its grounding. Robert had been the idealist of the order, Alberic was their builder. Upon assuming the role of abbot, Alberic moved the site of the fledgling community near a brook a short distance away from the original site. Alberic discontinued the use of Benedictine black garments in the abbey and clothed the monks in white habits of undyed wool, he returned the community to the original Benedictine ideal of manual work and prayer, dedicated to the ideal of charity and self sustenance. Alberic forged an alliance with the Dukes of Burgundy, working out a deal with Duke Odo I of Burgundy concerning the donation of a vineyard as well as stones with which they built their church.
The church was consecrated and dedicated to the Virgin Mary on November 16, 1106, by the Bishop of Chalon sur Saône. On January 26, 1108, Alberic died and was soon succeeded by Stephen Harding, the man responsible for carrying the order into its crucial phase; the order was fortunate that Stephen was an abbot of extraordinary gifts, he framed the original version of the Cistercian "Constitution" or regulations: the Carta Caritatis. Although this was revised on several occasions to meet contemporary needs, from the outset it emphasised a simple life of work, love and self-denial; the Cistercians regarded themselves as regular Benedictines, albeit the "perfect", reformed ones, but they soon came to distinguish themselves from the monks of unreformed Benedictin
Anglesqueville-la-Bras-Long is a commune in the Seine-Maritime département of the Normandy region of northern France. A small farming village situated in the Pays de Caux, some 20 miles southwest of Dieppe, at the junction of the D20 and D107 roads; the church of St. Anne, dating from the thirteenth century; the château de Beaumont, dating from the twelfth century A sandstone cross, built in 1535. Communes of the Seine-Maritime department Seine-Maritime Normandy This article is based on the equivalent article from the French Wikipedia, consulted 14 October 2008. Anglesqueville-la-Bras-Long on the Quid website
Ancretteville-sur-Mer is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in northern France. A small farming village situated some 32 miles northeast of Le Havre, at the junction of the D33 and the D68; the church of Saint-Amand, dating from the twelfth century The eighteenth century Château d'Angerval. Communes of the Seine-Maritime department INSEE Ancretteville-sur-Mer on the Quid website
Robert of Torigni
Robert of Torigni was a Norman monk, prior and twelfth century chronicler. Robert was born at Torigni-sur-Vire, Normandy c.1110 most to an aristocratic family but his family name was abandoned when he entered Bec Abbey in 1128 In 1149 Robert of Torigni became the prior of Bec replacing Roger de Bailleul who had by that time become abbot. In 1154 Robert became the abbot of Mont Saint-Michel in Normandy. In November 1158 Robert hosted kings Louis VII of France and Henry II of England at Mont Saint-Michel. Three years Robert de Torigni, along with Achard of St. Victor, Bishop of Avranches, stood as sponsors to Eleanor, born to Henry II of England and Queen Eleanor at Domfront in 1161. In 1163 he was in Rome, he was known to have visited England representing Mont Saint-Michel. In June 1186 Robert died and was buried in the nave of the chapel at Mont Saint-Michel under a simple grave marker. In 1876 a lead disc was found in his coffin bearing his epitaph; the translation reads: Here lies Robert Torigni, abbot of this place, who ruled the monastery 32 years, lived 80 years.
Robert developed a reputation as being a pious monk, an accomplished diplomat, a skilled organizer and a great lover and collector of books. Under Robert de Torigni Mont Saint-Michel became a great center of learning with sixty monks producing copious manuscripts and a library collection so vast it was called the Cité des Livres. Robert himself was called "The Great Librarian of the Mont". Robert's principal interest was not so much in man's path to salvation, or in the moral lessons of history, he made no attempts to interpret history but wrote plainly "without a trace of romance in his soul."Stevenson said, Torigni was not always correct in his chronology and made errors in matters in Normandy of which he should have known better, yet he was always honest and truthful and his mistakes did not affect the overall value of his chronicle. Modern writers too have pointed out errors in his work. Delisle wrote that it was through Robert's affection for Henry II that he made no mention in his chronicle of the death of Thomas Becket or Henry II's involvement.
He is best known as the last of the three contributors to the Gesta Normannorum Ducum, a chronicle written by William of Jumièges, appended to by Orderic Vitalis and lastly Robert de Torigni, who brought the history up to the time of Henry I. Robert relied more on Orderic's work than that of William of Jumièges and added information regarding the reign of William the Conqueror, a history of Bec, a volume on Henry I. Another source he used was Henry of Huntingdon's Historia Anglorum. Henry, the Archdeacon of Huntingdon, had visited Bec in 1139 and during his stay there provided Robert with much of the information regarding the reign of Henry I which Robert used in his own chronicles. Robert, in turn, introduced Henry to a new work by Geoffrey of Monmouth, the Historia Regum Britanniae, a copy of which first reached Bec circa 1138. John Bale, the sixteenth-century English churchman and historian, in his Index Britanniae Scriptorum, identified Robert as the author of two Arthurian romances, based in part by the author's initialing his work with the letter "R".
These were De Ortu Waluuanii and Historia Meriadoci, but this identification remains controversial and is doubted by some authorities. Robert de Torigni's "Chronicles" Robert de Torigni's "Chronicles"
Ambrumesnil is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in north-western France. A light industrial and farming village situated near the banks of the river Scie in the Pays de Caux, some 8 miles southwest of Dieppe, at the junction of the D 123 and D 327 roads; the church of St. Martin, dating from the twelfth century; the church at Ribeuf. Communes of the Seine-Maritime department Seine-Maritime Normandy INSEE Ambrumesnil on the Quid website
Angerville-Bailleul is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in northern France. A small farming village situated in the Pays de Caux, some 16 miles northeast of Le Havre, at the junction of the D11 and the D273; the church of Saint-Medard, dating from the thirteenth century The sixteenth-century château de Bailleul and its surrounding parkland. The chapel of the chateau, dating from the sixteenth century Communes of the Seine-Maritime department INSEE Angerville-Bailleul on the Quid website
Seine-Maritime is a department of France in the Normandy region of northern France. It is situated on the northern coast of France, at the mouth of the Seine, includes the cities of Rouen and Le Havre; until 1955 it was named Seine-Inférieure. 1790 - Creation of the Seine-Inférieure department The department was created from part of the old province of Normandy during the French revolution, on 4 March 1790, through the application of a law of 22 December 1789.1815 - Occupation After the victory at Waterloo of the coalition armies, the department was occupied by British forces from June 1815 till November 1818.1843 – Railways and industry In Rouen and Bolbec, the number of textile factories is increasing. Metallurgy and naval construction as well.1851 - A republican department Following the president, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte's 1851 Coup d'état, Seine-Inférieure was one of several departments placed under a state of emergency following fears of significant resistance to the new government. World War II In 1942, during occupation by Nazi Germany, at the channel coast of Seine-Inférieure took place two Allied raids, the Bruneval raid and Dieppe raid.2005 - Inhabitants renamed Previously lacking a demonym, the inhabitants of Seine-Maritime determined, following a public consultation, that they should be known in official documents as "Seinomarins" and "Seinomarines".
The department can be split into three main areas: The Seine valley. The Seine flows through the provincial capital Rouen; the chalk plateau Pays de Caux, with its abrupt coastline. The Norman Pays de Bray, with its hills and bocage landscape; the département was created in 1790 as Seine-Inférieure, one of five departements that replaced the former province of Normandy. In 1800 five arrondissements were created within the département, namely Rouen, Le Havre, Dieppe and Yvetot, although the latter two were disbanded in 1926. On 18 January 1955 the name of the département was changed to Seine-Maritime, in order to provide a more positive-sounding name and in-keeping with changes made in a number of other French departements. In 1843 the railway from Paris reached the region; the département is connected to the adjacent Eure department via the Tancarville and Pont de Normandie bridge crossings of the Seine. Madame Bovary by Gustave Flaubert is set in Seine Maritime; the novel La Place by Annie Ernaux takes place in Seine-Maritime and describes events and changes that take place in relation to French society in the 20th century in relation to the rural population.
The first story of the long-running series Valérian and Laureline is set in Seine-Maritime, with the character Laureline originating from the area. Cauchois is the dialect of the Pays de Caux, is one of the most vibrant forms of the Norman language beyond Cotentinais. Cantons of the Seine-Maritime department Communes of the Seine-Maritime department Arrondissements of the Seine-Maritime department General Council website Communes 76 Prefecture website