United States Department of Education
The United States Department of Education referred to as the ED for Education Department, is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government. It began operating on May 4, 1980, having been created after the Department of Health and Welfare was split into the Department of Education and the Department of Health and Human Services by the Department of Education Organization Act, which President Jimmy Carter signed into law on October 17, 1979; the Department of Education is administered by the United States Secretary of Education. It has an annual budget of $68 billion; the 2019 Budget supports $129.8 billion in new postsecondary grants and work-study assistance to help an estimated 11.5 million students and their families pay for college. Its official abbreviation is "ED" and is often abbreviated informally as "DoEd"; the primary functions of the Department of Education are to "establish policy for and coordinate most federal assistance to education, collect data on US schools, to enforce federal educational laws regarding privacy and civil rights."
The Department of Education does not establish colleges. Unlike the systems of most other countries, education in the United States is decentralized, the federal government and Department of Education are not involved in determining curricula or educational standards; this has been left to state and local school districts. The quality of educational institutions and their degrees is maintained through an informal private process known as accreditation, over which the Department of Education has no direct public jurisdictional control; the Department of Education is a member of the United States Interagency Council on Homelessness, works with federal partners to ensure proper education for homeless and runaway youth in the United States. Opposition to the Department of Education stems from conservatives, who see the department as an undermining of states rights, libertarians who believe it results in a state-imposed leveling towards the bottom and low value for taxpayers' money; the U. S. Department of Education oversees the nation's education system.
The Department sets uniform standards which are applied nationwide. “Since the Department of Education began operations in fiscal year 1980, its mission has included promoting student achievement and ensuring equal access to educational opportunity. To do so, Education partners with state and local governments, which provide most of the resources to school districts for K-12 programs". Civil Rights and Equal Opportunity is one of the most forefront issues, discussed about within the U. S. Department of Education’s four walls; the goal of this agency is to make sure that every student in primary and secondary education has the tools that they need to succeed. Not all of their ideas always work out in the best favor of the students. Throughout recent history, the educational system has not always been focused on furthering the development of all students. However, coming out of the 20th century this ideal has been turned around and many new legislations have been put in place to break down these invisible walls that were surrounding the people who were affected by this hindrance.
“The U. S. like other countries in the 21st century, is operating in an interconnected world. New structures require that teachers and our next generations of students prepare and expand ideas about their responsibilities as citizens". For 2006, the ED discretionary budget was $56 billion and the mandatory budget contained $23 billion. In 2009 it received additional ARRA funding of $102 billion; as of 2011, the discretionary budget is $70 billion. A previous Department of Education was created in 1867 but was soon demoted to an Office in 1868; as an agency not represented in the president's cabinet, it became a minor bureau in the Department of the Interior. In 1939, the bureau was transferred to the Federal Security Agency, where it was renamed the Office of Education. In 1953, the Federal Security Agency was upgraded to cabinet-level status as the Department of Health and Welfare. In 1979, President Carter advocated for creating a cabinet-level Department of Education. Carter's plan was to transfer most of the Department of Health and Welfare's education-related functions to the Department of Education.
Carter planned to transfer the education-related functions of the departments of Defense, Justice and Urban Development, Agriculture, as well as a few other federal entities. Among the federal education-related programs that were not proposed to be transferred were Headstart, the Department of Agriculture's school lunch and nutrition programs, the Department of the Interior's Native Americans' education programs, the Department of Labor's education and training programs. Upgrading Education to cabinet level status in 1979 was opposed by many in the Republican Party, who saw the department as unconstitutional, arguing that the Constitution doesn't mention education, deemed it an unnecessary and illegal federal bureaucratic intrusion into local affairs. However, many see the department as constitutional under the Commerce Clause, that the funding role of the Department is constitutional under the Taxing and Spending Clause; the National Education Association supported the bill, while the American Federation of Teachers opposed it.
As of 1979, the Office of Education had an annual budget of $12 billion. Congress appropriated to the Department of Education an annual budget of $14 billion and 17,000
Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, as described in the New Testament. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Depending on the specific denomination of Christianity, practices may include baptism, prayer, confirmation, burial rites, marriage rites and the religious education of children. Most denominations hold regular group worship services. Christianity developed during the 1st century CE as a Jewish Christian sect of Second Temple Judaism, it soon attracted Gentile God-fearers, which lead to a departure from Jewish customs, the establishment of Christianity as an independent religion. During the first centuries of its existence Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire, to Ethiopia and some parts of Asia. Constantine the Great decriminalized it via the Edict of Milan; the First Council of Nicaea established a uniform set of beliefs across the Roman Empire.
By 380, the Roman Empire designated Christianity as the state religion. The period of the first seven ecumenical councils is sometimes referred to as the Great Church, the united full communion of the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, before their schisms. Oriental Orthodoxy split after the Council of Chalcedon over differences in Christology; the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church separated in the East–West Schism over the authority of the Pope. In 1521, Protestants split from the Catholic Church in the Protestant Reformation over Papal primacy, the nature of salvation, other ecclesiological and theological disputes. Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity was spread into the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, the rest of the world via missionary work and colonization. There are 2.3 billion Christians in the world, or 31.4% of the global population. Today, the four largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy.
Christianity and Christian ethics have played a prominent role in the development of Western civilization around Europe during late antiquity and the Middle Ages. In the New Testament, the names by which the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren", "the faithful", "elect", "saints" and "believers". Early Jewish Christians referred to themselves as'The Way' coming from Isaiah 40:3, "prepare the way of the Lord." According to Acts 11:26, the term "Christian" was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ," by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch. The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" was by Ignatius of Antioch, in around 100 AD. While Christians worldwide share basic convcitions, there are differences of interpretations and opinions of the Bible and sacred traditions on which Christianity is based. Concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds, they began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith.
The Apostles' Creed is the most accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical churches of Western Christian tradition, including the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism and Western Rite Orthodoxy, it is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists. This particular creed was developed between the 9th centuries, its central doctrines are those of God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period; the creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Its main points include: Belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God, the Holy Spirit The death, descent into hell and ascension of Christ The holiness of the Church and the communion of saints Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful; the Nicene Creed was formulated in response to Arianism, at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the First Council of Ephesus in 431.
The Chalcedonian Definition, or Creed of Chalcedon, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox churches, taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, unchangeably, inseparably": one divine and one human, that both natures, while perfect in themselves, are also united into one person. The Athanasian Creed, received in the Western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, Trinity in Unity. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith while agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. Most Baptists do not use creeds "in that they have not sought to establish binding
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
A chancellor is a leader of a college or university either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system. In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is a ceremonial non-resident head of the university. In such institutions, the chief executive of a university is the vice-chancellor, who may carry an additional title, such as "president & vice-chancellor"; the chancellor may serve as chairman of the governing body. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the president, principal or rector. In the United States, the head of a university is most a university president. In U. S. university systems that have more than one affiliated university or campus, the executive head of a specific campus may have the title of chancellor and report to the overall system's president, or vice versa. In both Australia and New Zealand, a chancellor is the chairman of a university's governing body.
The chancellor is assisted by a deputy chancellor. The chancellor and deputy chancellor are drawn from the senior ranks of business or the judiciary; some universities have a visitor, senior to the chancellor. University disputes can be appealed from the governing board to the visitor, but nowadays, such appeals are prohibited by legislation, the position has only ceremonial functions; the vice-chancellor serves as the chief executive of the university. Macquarie University in Sydney is a noteworthy anomaly as it once had the unique position of Emeritus Deputy Chancellor, a post created for John Lincoln upon his retirement from his long-held post of deputy chancellor in 2000; the position was not an honorary title, as it retained for Lincoln a place in the University Council until his death in 2011. Canadian universities and British universities in Scotland have a titular chancellor similar to those in England and Wales, with day-to-day operations handled by a principal. In Scotland, for example, the chancellor of the University of Edinburgh is Anne, Princess Royal, whilst the current chancellor of the University of Aberdeen is Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay.
In Canada, the vice-chancellor carries the joint title of "president and vice-chancellor" or "rector and vice-chancellor." Scottish principals carry the title of "principal and vice-chancellor." In Scotland, the title and post of rector is reserved to the third ranked official of university governance. The position exists in common throughout the five ancient universities of Scotland with rectorships in existence at the universities of St Andrews, Aberdeen and Dundee, considered to have ancient status as a result of its early connections to the University of St Andrews; the position of Lord Rector was given legal standing by virtue of the Universities Act 1889. Rectors appoint a rector's assessor a deputy or stand-in, who may carry out their functions when they are absent from the university; the Rector chairs meetings of the university court, the governing body of the university, is elected by the matriculated student body at regular intervals. An exception exists at Edinburgh, where the Rector is elected by staff.
In Finland, if the university has a chancellor, he is the leading official in the university. The duties of the chancellor are to promote sciences and to look after the best interests of the university; as the rector of the university remains the de facto administrative leader and chief executive official, the role of the chancellor is more of a social and historical nature. However some administrative duties still belong to the chancellor's jurisdiction despite their arguably ceremonial nature. Examples of these include the appointment of new docents; the chancellor of University of Helsinki has the notable right to be present and to speak in the plenary meetings of the Council of State when matters regarding the university are discussed. Despite his role as the chancellor of only one university, he is regarded as the political representative of Finland's entire university institution when he exercises his rights in the Council of State. In the history of Finland the office of the chancellor dates all the way back to the Swedish Empire, the Russian Empire.
The chancellor's duty was to function as the official representative of the monarch in the autonomous university. The number of chancellors in Finnish universities has declined over the years, in vast majority of Finnish universities the highest official is the rector; the remaining universities with chancellors are University of Åbo Akademi University. In France, chancellor is one of the titles of the rector, a senior civil servant of the Ministry of Education serving as manager of a regional educational district. In his capacity as chancellor, the rector awards academic degrees to the university's gradua
Liberal arts college
A liberal arts college or liberal arts institution of higher education is a college with an emphasis on undergraduate study in the liberal arts and sciences. Such colleges aim to impart a broad general knowledge and develop general intellectual capacities, in contrast to a professional, vocational, or technical curriculum. Students in a liberal arts college major in a particular discipline while receiving exposure to a wide range of academic subjects, including sciences as well as the traditional humanities subjects taught as liberal arts. Although it draws on European antecedents, the liberal arts college is associated with American higher education, most liberal arts colleges around the world draw explicitly on the American model. According to US News & World Report, the top ten ranked Liberal Arts Colleges in America for 2019, by alphabetical order are: Amherst College, Bowdoin College, Carleton College, Claremont McKenna College, Davidson College, Middlebury College, Pomona College, Swarthmore College, Wellesley College, Williams College.
There is no formal definition of liberal arts college, but one American authority defines them as schools that "emphasize undergraduate education and award at least half of their degrees in the liberal arts fields of study." Other researchers have adopted similar definitions. Although many liberal arts colleges are undergraduate, some offer graduate programs that lead to a master's degree or doctoral degree in subjects such as business administration, nursing and law. Although the term "liberal arts college" most refers to an independent institution, it may sometimes refer to a university college within or affiliated with a larger university. Most liberal arts colleges outside the United States follow this model. Liberal arts colleges are distinguished from other types of higher education chiefly by their generalist curricula and small size; these attributes have various secondary effects in terms of administration as well as student experience. For example, class size is much lower at liberal arts colleges than at universities, faculty at liberal arts colleges focus on teaching more than research.
From a student perspective, a liberal arts college differs from other forms of higher education in the following areas: higher overall student satisfaction, a general feeling that professors take a personal interest in the student's education, perception of encouragement to participate in discussion. Many students select liberal arts colleges with this sense of personal connection in mind. From an administrative standpoint, the small size of liberal arts colleges contributes to their cohesion and ability to survive through difficult times. Job satisfaction is typically higher in liberal arts colleges, for both faculty and staff; the smaller size makes it feasible for liberal arts colleges to adopt experimental or divergent approaches, such as the Great Books curriculum at St. John's or Shimer, or the radically interdisciplinary curriculum of Marlboro. In addition, most liberal arts colleges are residential, which means students live and learn away from home for the first time; the distinctiveness of these attributes is somewhat eroded by the tendency of universities to adopt aspects of the liberal arts college, vice versa.
For example, several American universities, including the University of California system, have experimented with a cluster colleges model in which small liberal-arts-college-like units within a larger university form a "honeycomb of residential colleges". In addition, some universities have maintained a sub-unit that preserves many aspects of the liberal arts college, such as Columbia College within Columbia University. Liberal arts colleges themselves sometimes cluster to offer greater curricular breadth or share other resources. In academia, liberal arts refer to subjects or skills that aim to provide general knowledge and comprise the arts, natural sciences, social sciences, as opposed to professional or technical subjects. Most liberal arts colleges nowadays, offer more than just liberal arts subjects, such as computer science from the formal science discipline. Liberal arts colleges are found in all parts of the world. Notwithstanding the European origins of the concept of liberal arts education, today the term is associated with the United States, most self-identified liberal arts colleges worldwide are built on the American model.
The Global Liberal Arts Alliance, which incorporates institutions on five continents, refers to itself as "an international, multilateral partnership of American style liberal arts institutions."In 2009, liberal arts colleges from around the world formed the Global Liberal Arts Alliance, an international consortium and "matching service" to help liberal arts colleges in different countries deal with their shared problems. The liberal arts college model took root in the United States in the 19th century, as institutions spread that followed the model of early schools like Harvard and Dartmouth, although none of these early American schools are regarded as liberal arts colleges today; these colleges served as a means of spreading a European cultural model across the new country. The model proliferated in the 19th century; as of 1987, there were about 540 liberal arts colleges in the United States. The oldest liberal arts college in America is considered to be Washington College, the first college chartered after American independence.
Other prominent examples in the United States include the so-called Little Ivy co
West Frankfort, Illinois
West Frankfort is a city in Franklin County, United States. The population was 8,182 at the 2010 census; the city is part of the Metro Lakeland area. Although one might associate the name "West Frankfort" with the city "Frankfurt" in Germany, or Frankfort in Kentucky, the truth is far more local. Around 1810, early Tennessee settler Francis Jordan and his seven brothers began the construction of a fort atop a hill in present-day Franklin County. Completed in 1811, the fort was named "Frank's Fort," in Jordan's honor; the name Frankfort is from a French trapper's hutte built on the hill long before the arrival of the Jordan brothers. Frank's Fort was built in Ill. near Corinth. A few miles to the east, Francis' brother, Thomas Jordan, built "Jordan's Fort" in Cave Township, Franklin County, Ill. near the town of Thompsonville. The construction of these forts was in response to the danger of attack during Tecumseh's War, which culminated in the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Then-governor of the Illinois Territory, Ninian Edwards encouraged the construction of these forts and offered the services of the Saline Militia in their erection.
Thus, both Jordan family forts were built with the help of the Illinois Militia for safety of the civilians. Since the Shawnee Trail, an important trading route linking Kaskaskia and Old Shawneetown, ran along the high ground in the vicinity of the fort, this area became an attractive destination for settlers in search of cheap land made available by the passed Bit Act of 1850; the resulting settlement took the name of the nearby fort, subsequently shortened to "Frankfort." Frankfort grew during this period, with its population rivaling that of Chicago, at the time. Frankfort was Franklin County's first county seat until 1839, when the lower half of the county was declared as Williamson County. After railroad tracks linking Chicago and Memphis, were laid 4 miles west of Frankfort, many businesses and residents migrated to the new commercial center forming near the tracks; this new community became known as West Frankfort, for its location to the west of Frankfort. The two cities merged and retained the name West Frankfort.
The area of West Frankfort known as Frankfort is still sometimes referred to locally as Frankfort Heights or, more simply as "the Heights", due to its higher elevation relative to the rest of the city. A post office was maintained in Frankfort Heights until its destruction by fire in 2004, making West Frankfort one of the smallest cities in the United States to have two ZIP codes. Beginning in 1904, the Deering Coal Mine Company took Franklin County and West Frankfort from no coal production in 1900 to being the #1 coal producer in Illinois by 1917. Once the mines opened, the population increased 3,500 in seven years. By 1927, West Frankfort's population had reached 19,896. In the late 1940s, four theatres and a minor league baseball team marked the downtown area. See Tri-State Tornado. On December 1, 1929, an explosion at the Old Ben Coal Company's Old Ben No. 8 Mine killed 7 people. The Old Ben No. 8 Mine exploded again on July 1947, killing 27 people. The West Frankfort Cardinals were a minor-league baseball team from 1947–50, serving as a Class D affiliate of the St. Louis Cardinals.
The Orient No. 2 coal mine exploded on December 1951, killing 119 men. The mine, located outside of West Frankfort, was one of the area's major employers. According to lifelong residents, everyone in West Frankfort was affected by this tragedy, including grade schoolers of the time who remember their own losses or the suffering of classmates. Many residents had said they could never celebrate Christmas again. After the catastrophe, the West Frankfort Junior High School became a temporary morgue for identification of the bodies, with many calls going out for funeral directors; the explosion received national attention from the wire services and Life Magazine. Illinois Governor Adlai Stevenson visited the site to support those mourning; the United States Bureau of Mines called the explosion "avoidable," with the disaster resulting in Congress passing the Federal Coal Mine Safety Act of 1952. The area was in totality during the solar eclipse of August 21, 2017, with Giant City State Park 25 miles to the southwest, experiencing the longest period of totality during the eclipse.
It will be within the path of totality of the solar eclipse of April 8, 2024, making it one of only a handful of cities within the direct paths of both eclipses. West Frankfort is located at 37°53′55″N 88°55′24″W. According to the 2010 census, West Frankfort has a total area of 5.011 square miles, of which 4.97 square miles is land and 0.041 square miles is water. As of the 2000 census, there were 8,196 people, 3,596 households, 2,207 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,726.8 people per square mile. There were 3,973 housing units at an average density of 837.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.55% White, 1.13% African American, 0.23% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 0.12% from other races, 0.66% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.77% of the population. Of the 3,596 households, 26.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.1% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.6% were non-families.
34.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.0% had someone living alone, 65 yea