House of York
The House of York was a cadet branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet. Three of its members became Kings of England in the late 15th century and it is based on these descents that they claimed the English crown. Compared with the House of Lancaster, it had a claim to the throne of England according to cognatic primogeniture. The reign of this dynasty ended with the death of Richard III of England in 1485 and it became extinct in the male line with the death of Edward Plantagenet, 17th Earl of Warwick in 1499. Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, 1st Earl of Cambridge, KG was a son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. He was the founder of the House of York, but it was through the marriage of his younger son, Richard to Anne Mortimer that the Yorkist faction in the Wars of the Roses made its claim on the throne. The other party in the Wars of the Roses, the Lancasters, were descendants of Edmunds elder brother, Edmund had two sons and Richard of Conisburgh. Edward succeeded to the dukedom in 1402, but was killed at the battle of Agincourt in 1415, Richard married Anne Mortimer, a great-granddaughter of Lionel of Antwerp, the second son of Edward III.
Furthermore, Annes son Richard became heir general to the earldom of March, after her brother, Edmund, 5th Earl. Richard of Conisburgh was executed following his involvement in the Southampton Plot to depose Henry V of England in favour of the Earl of March, the dukedom of York therefore passed to his son, Richard Plantagenet. Through his mother, Richard Plantagenet inherited the lands of the earldom of March, although he served as Protector of the Realm during Henry VIs period of incapacity in 1453-54, his reforms were reversed by Somersets party once the king had recovered. The Wars of the Roses began the year, with the First Battle of St Albans. Initially, Richard aimed only to purge his Lancastrian political opponents from positions of influence over the king and it was not until October 1460 that he claimed the throne for the House of York. In that year the Yorkists had captured the king at the battle of Northampton and his second son Edmund were killed at the battle of Wakefield on 30 December.
Richards claim to the throne was inherited by his son Edward, with the support of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, already showing great promise as a leader of men, defeated the Lancastrians in a succession of battles. While Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou were campaigning in the north, Edward strengthened his claim with a decisive victory at the Battle of Towton in the same year, in the course of which the Lancastrian army was virtually wiped out. The early reign of Edward IV was marred by Lancastrian plotting, Warwick himself changed sides, and supported Margaret of Anjou and the kings jealous brother George, Duke of Clarence, in briefly restoring Henry in 1470-71. However, Edward regained his throne, and the House of Lancaster was wiped out with the death of Henry VI himself, in the Tower of London in 1471
A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (/sɪˈstɜːrʃən/, abbreviated as OCist or SOCist, a religious order of monks and nuns. They are variously called the Bernardines, after the highly influential St, the original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of their monasteries, after that the followers of the older pattern of life became known as the Cistercians of the Original Observance. The term Cistercian, derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux and it was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more closely the Rule of Saint Benedict. The best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order.
By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Scotland, Spain, Italy, the keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, especially field-work, Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. Additionally, in relation to such as agriculture, hydraulic engineering and metallurgy. The monastery church of Cluny Abbey, the largest in Europe, had become wealthy from rents, feudal rights and pilgrims who passed through Cluniac houses on the Way of St. James. On March 21,1098, Roberts small group acquired a plot of marshland just south of Dijon called Cîteaux, during the first year, the monks set about constructing lodging areas and farming the lands of Cîteaux, making use of a nearby chapel for Mass. In Roberts absence from Molesme, the abbey had gone into decline, and Pope Urban II, the remaining monks of Cîteaux elected Alberic as their abbot, under whose leadership the abbey would find its grounding.
Robert had been the idealist of the order, and Alberic was their builder, upon assuming the role of abbot, Alberic moved the site of the fledgling community near a brook a short distance away from the original site. Alberic discontinued the use of Benedictine black garments in the abbey and he returned the community to the original Benedictine ideal of manual work and prayer, dedicated to the ideal of charity and self sustenance. Alberic forged an alliance with the Dukes of Burgundy, working out a deal with Duke Odo of Burgundy concerning the donation of a vineyard as well as stones with which they built their church. The church was consecrated and dedicated to the Virgin Mary on November 16,1106, on January 26,1108, Alberic died and was soon succeeded by Stephen Harding, the man responsible for carrying the order into its crucial phase. The order was fortunate that Stephen was an abbot of extraordinary gifts, and he framed the original version of the Cistercian Constitution or regulations, the Carta caritatis.
Although this was revised on several occasions to meet needs, from the outset it emphasised a simple life of work, prayer. Cistercian abbeys refused to admit children, allowing adults to choose their religious vocation for themselves – a practice emulated by many of the older Benedictine houses
The First Crusade arose after a call to arms in a 1095 sermon by Pope Urban II. Urban urged military support for the Byzantine Empire and its Emperor, Alexios I, the response to Urbans preaching by people of many different classes across Western Europe established the precedent for Crusades. Volunteers became Crusaders by taking a vow and receiving plenary indulgences from the church. Some were hoping for apotheosis at Jerusalem, or forgiveness from God for all their sins, others participated to satisfy feudal obligations, gain glory and honour, or find opportunities for economic and political gain. Many modern Historians have polarised opinions of the Crusaders behaviour under Papal sanction, to some it was incongruous with the stated aims and implied moral authority of the papacy and the Crusades, to the extent that on occasions that the Pope excommunicated Crusaders. Crusaders often pillaged as they travelled, while their leaders retained control of captured territory rather than returning it to the Byzantines.
During the Peoples Crusade thousands of Jews were murdered in what is now called the Rhineland massacres, Constantinople was sacked during the Fourth Crusade rendering the reunification of Christendom impossible. These tales consequently galvanised medieval romance and literature, but the Crusades reinforced the connection between Western Christendom and militarism. Crusade is not a term, instead the terms iter for journey or peregrinatio for pilgrimage were used. Not until the word crucesignatus for one who was signed with the cross was adopted at the close of the century was specific terminology developed. The Middle English equivalents were derived from old French, croiserie in the 13th–15th centuries, croisade appeared in English c1575, and continued to be the leading form till c1760. By convention historians adopt the term for the Christian holy wars from 1095, the Crusades in the Holy Land are traditionally counted as nine distinct campaigns, numbered from the First Crusade of 1095–99 to the Ninth Crusade of 1271/2.
Usage of the term Crusade may differ depending on the author, pluralists use the term Crusade of any campaign explicitly sanctioned by the reigning Pope. This reflects the view of the Roman Catholic Church that every military campaign given Papal sanction is equally valid as a Crusade, regardless of its cause, generalists see Crusades as any and all holy wars connected with the Latin Church and fought in defence of their faith. Popularists limit the Crusades to only those that were characterised by popular groundswells of religious fervour – that is, only the First Crusade, Medieval Muslim historiographers such as Ali ibn al-Athir refer to the Crusades as the Frankish Wars. The term used in modern Arabic, ḥamalāt ṣalībiyya حملات صليبية, campaigns of the cross, is a loan translation of the term Crusade as used in Western historiography. The Islamic prophet Muhammad founded Islam in the Arabian Peninsula, the resulting unified polity in the seventh and eighth centuries led to a rapid expansion of Arab power.
This influence stretched from the northwest Indian subcontinent, across Central Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, southern Italy, tolerance and political relationships between the Arabs and the Christian states of Europe waxed and waned
Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March
Edmund de Mortimer, 5th Earl of March and 7th Earl of Ulster was an English nobleman. A great-great-grandson of King Edward III of England, he was heir presumptive to King Richard II of England, his first cousin twice removed, Edmund Mortimer was the last Earl of March of the Mortimer family. Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, was born at New Forest, one of his familys Irish estates, on 6 November 1391, the son of Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, and Eleanor Holland. He had a brother and two sisters, who married Richard, Earl of Cambridge, younger son of the Duke of York, and Eleanor, who married Sir Edward de Courtenay. Edmund Mortimers mother was the daughter of Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent, thus in terms of male primogeniture Edmund was heir to the crown over and above the house of Lancaster, the children of Edward IIIs third son John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. However, on 30 September 1399, when Edmund Mortimer was not yet eight years of age, his fortunes changed entirely. Richard II was deposed by Henry Bolingbroke, the new Duke of Lancaster, who became King Henry IV and had his own son, the future King Henry V, recognized as heir apparent at his first Parliament.
On 22 June 1402, Edmunds uncle, Sir Edmund Mortimer, son of the 3rd Earl, was captured by the Welsh rebel leader, Owain Glyndŵr, Henry IV accused Sir Edmund of deserting to Glyndŵr, refused to ransom him, and confiscated his property. Sir Edmund married Glyndŵrs daughter, and on 13 December 1402 proclaimed in writing that his nephew Edmund was the heir to King Richard II. Sir Edmunds sister, Edmunds aunt, was married to Henry Hotspur Percy, in 1403, the Percys rose in rebellion in collusion with Glyndŵr and Sir Edmund. Hotspur was defeated and slain at Shrewsbury, the alliance of Glyndŵr, Sir Edmund, and the Percys survived this setback. In February 1405, they agreed to a division of the kingdom. This agreement was apparently connected to a plot to free Edmund and his brother Roger from King Henrys custody, on 13 February 1405 the boys were abducted from Windsor Castle, but they were quickly recaptured near Cheltenham. Constance of York was held responsible and arrested, She implicated her brother, the Duke of York, who was imprisoned at Pevensey Castle for seventeen weeks.
As a result of the abduction, on 1 February 1406 Edmund and Roger were put under stricter supervision at Pevensey Castle under Sir John Pelham. On 1 February 1409 Edmund and Roger were given in charge to the Kings son, the Prince of Wales and they remained in custody for the remainder of Henry IVs reign. Edmund Mortimers sisters and Eleanor, who were in the care of their mother until her death in 1405, were not well treated by Henry IV, and were described as destitute after her death. On his accession in 1413 Henry V set Edmund Mortimer at liberty, and on 8 April 1413, nothing further is heard of Roger Mortimer, and it seems likely he died in or shortly after 1413
Wigmore Castle is a ruined castle about 1 km from the village of Wigmore in the northwest region of Herefordshire, England. Wigmore Castle was founded after the Norman Conquest, probably c.1070, by William FitzOsbern, 1st Earl of Hereford and it was built on waste ground at a place called Merestun, the settlement by the mere or lake. The land was held at the time of the Conquest by Gunnfrothr or Gunnvarthr, the associated village of Wigmore below the castle was probably founded by FitzOsbern, perhaps around the earlier settlement. In particular, he probably had a natural ravine reshaped to create a deep ditch behind the motte, from this time on Wigmore became the head of the barony of the Mortimers, from 1328 Earls of March. In 1155 the castle was besieged by Henry II because Hugh de Mortimer refused to return Bridgnorth Castle to the crown, two small earthworks to the east and west of the castle have survived to the present day, and may represent siege-works built for the campaign. The works included the wall that surrounds the bailey, it still stands to this day at its full height on the east side.
The castle was the subject of works in the late 13th or early 14th century. The walls were raised, the gatehouse remodelled and other buildings were constructed on the site, including a block, possibly a lodgings range. Roger was a leader of the party opposed to Edward II in the 1320s, following Edwards deposition and death in 1327, Mortimer, as the queens lover and the effective stepfather of the young King Edward III, became the most important man in the kingdom. In 1328 Mortimer held a tournament near Wigmore, attended by the young king, Roger de Mortimer was executed in 1330 by Edward III, and his lands seized by the crown. Edward III spent several weeks at Wigmore in the summer of 1332, Mortimers grandson regained Wigmore and the rest of his lands in 1342. His own son Edmund married Edward IIIs granddaughter Phillipa, in 1381 their son, inherited at the age of six and was declared the heir presumptive should Richard II die childless. Wigmore castle is said to have been derelict in 1425, richards son Edward, Earl of March was almost certainly based at Wigmore Castle before his victory at the Battle of Mortimers Cross in 1461.
He deposed Henry VI and was crowned as Edward IV that year, throughout the 16th century the castle was managed by the Council of the Marches, partly as a prison, although the castle was already beginning to decay again. John Dee saw the records of Wigmore Abbey in an old decayed chapel within the castle in 1574, in 1595 it was given to Sir Gelli Meyrick. In 1601, after Meyrick was executed as a traitor, Elizabeth I sold Wigmore Castle to Thomas Harley of Brampton Bryan and his son, Sir Robert Harley, a Puritan and Parliamentarian, inherited the castle. During the English Civil War Harley left the castle in charge of his wife, Lady Brilliana Harley, after the Civil War, the castle was left in a state of ruin, and was gradually covered in trees and other vegetation. Unusually, because it remained in hands, Wigmore was not subject to the large scale clearances carried out at most other major historic sites in the late 19th
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or Medieval Period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance, the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history, classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is subdivided into the Early, High. Population decline, counterurbanisation and movement of peoples, the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the seventh century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire survived in the east and remained a major power, the empires law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or Code of Justinian, was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became widely admired in the Middle Ages.
In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions, monasteries were founded as campaigns to Christianise pagan Europe continued. The Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, briefly established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th, the Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation states, reducing crime and violence, intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, and by the founding of universities. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the conflict, civil strife. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages, the Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history, classical civilisation, or Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Modern Period.
Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the Six Ages or the Four Empires, when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being modern. In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua, leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People. Bruni and argued that Italy had recovered since Petrarchs time. The Middle Ages first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or middle season, in early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or middle age, first recorded in 1604, and media saecula, or middle ages, first recorded in 1625. The alternative term medieval derives from medium aevum, tripartite periodisation became standard after the German 17th-century historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods, Ancient and Modern. The most commonly given starting point for the Middle Ages is 476, for Europe as a whole,1500 is often considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date.
English historians often use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period
Katherine Mortimer, Countess of Warwick
Katherine Mortimer, Countess of Warwick was the wife of Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick KG, an English peer, and military commander during the Hundred Years War. She was a daughter and co-heiress of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March and Joan de Geneville, sometime before 1355, she became an important figure at the royal court of King Edward III. Katherine Mortimer was born at Ludlow Castle, England, in 1314, one of the twelve children, the latter had been deposed in November 1326, and afterwards cruelly murdered by assassins acting under the orders of Mortimer and Queen Isabella. Katherine was sixteen years old when her father was hanged, Tyburn, on 19 April 1319, when she was about five years-old, Katherine married Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick, eldest son of Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick and Alice de Toeni. Their marriage required a Papal dispensation as they were related within the prohibited third, Beauchamp had succeeded to the earldom at the age of two, therefore Katherine was styled Countess of Warwick from the time of her marriage until her death.
The marriage had been arranged in July 1318 in order to settle a quarrel between the two families over the lordship of Elfael, which was given to Katherine as her marriage portion. For the term of his minority, Beauchamps custody had been granted to Katherines father, Roger Mortimer, Katherine became an important personage at the court of King Edward III. As a sign of favour she was chosen to stand as one of the godmothers, along with Queen Philippa of Hainault, to the latters granddaughter, Countess of Ulster. William Beauchamp, 1st Baron Bergavenny, inherited the honour of Abergavenny, Queen consort Anne Boleyn was a notable descendant of the latter. Roger de Beauchamp Maud de Beauchamp, married Roger de Clifford, 5th Baron de Clifford, by whom she had issue, including Thomas de Clifford, Philippa de Beauchamp, married Hugh de Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford, by whom she had nine children. Alice Beauchamp, married firstly John Beauchamp, 3rd Baron Beauchamp of Somerset, Joan de Beauchamp, married Ralph Basset, 3rd Baron Basset of Drayton.
Isabella de Beauchamp, married firstly John le Strange, 5th Baron Strange, upon the latters death, she became a nun. Margaret de Beauchamp, married Guy de Montfort, and after his death, elizabeth de Beauchamp, married Thomas de Ufford KG. Anne de Beauchamp, married Walter de Cokesey, juliana de Beauchamp Katherine de Beauchamp, became a nun at Shouldham Priory. Katherine Mortimer died on 4 August 1369 at the age of about fifty-five, two years before her death, in 1367, Katherine was a legatee in the will of her sister Agnes de Hastings, Countess of Pembroke. Katherine was buried in St. Marys Church, Warwick and she lies alongside her husband, who died three months after her of the Black Death. Their tomb with well-preserved, alabaster effigies can be seen in the centre of the quire, Katherine is depicted wearing a frilled veil with a honeycomb pattern and she is holding hands with Beauchamp. The sides of the tomb chest are decorated with figures of mourners, the Greatest Traitor, The Life of Sir Roger Mortimer, Ruler of England 1327–1330
Mortemer Abbey is a former Cistercian monastery in the Forest of Lyons between the present Lyons-la-Forêt and Lisors, some 34 km southeast of Rouen in the department of Eure. It is located on the territory of the commune of Lisors and it was originally built in 1134 on land presented as a gift to the Cistercians by Henry I of England. The monks constructed what was one of the largest Cistercian monastery in the world. Over the centuries, the fell into decline and disrepair. It was rebuilt in the 17th Century, but the decline was irreversible and by 1790, apart from the cloisters, which are relatively intact, there remains only a shell. The 17th century buildings by contrast are well preserved and open to visitors, the abbey site has a well-maintained 17th century dovecote, which was used as a gaol house in the 18th and 19th centuries. There are a number of legends and ghost stories relating to the abbey, matilda of England was forced by her father Henry I of England to stay in a room in the abbey for 5 years.
After her death in Rouen, she is said to have back to haunt the place. Her ghost is known as The White Lady, visitors to the abbey have reported hearing strange noises and feeeling a strange presence. 4 monks were murdered during the French Revolution and their ghosts are said to haunt the abbey. If you meet a cat in the ruins, it is alleged to be a Goblin cat, there are a number of other legends, giving the abbey the nickname of as most haunted abbey in France. Vidéo sur labbaye Site officiel de labbaye de Mortemer
Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March
In November 1316, he was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London in 1322 for having led the Marcher lords in a revolt against King Edward II in what known as the Despenser War. He escaped to France, where he was joined by Edwards queen consort Isabella, after he and Isabella led a successful invasion and rebellion, Edward was subsequently deposed, Mortimer allegedly arranged his murder at Berkeley Castle. For three years, Mortimer was de facto ruler of England before being overthrown by Edwards eldest son. Accused of assuming power and other crimes, Mortimer was executed by hanging at Tyburn. He was born on April 25,1287, the Feast of Saint Mark and he shared this birthday with King Edward II, which would be relevant in life. According to his biographer Ian Mortimer, Roger was possibly sent as a boy away from home to be fostered in the household of his formidable uncle and it was this uncle who had carried the severed head of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd of Wales to King Edward I in 1282.
Roger attended the Coronation of Edward II on 25th February 1308, like many noble children of his time, Roger was betrothed at a young age, to Joan de Geneville, the daughter of Sir Piers de Geneville, of Trim Castle and Ludlow. They were married on 20 September 1301 when he was aged fourteen and their first child was born in 1302. However, Joan de Geneville was not an heiress at the time of her marriage, Roger Mortimer therefore succeeded to the eastern part of the Lordship of Meath, centred on Trim and its stronghold of Trim Castle. He did not succeed, however, to the Lordship of Fingal, Roger Mortimers childhood came to an abrupt end when his father was mortally wounded in a skirmish near Builth in July 1304. Since Roger was underage at the death of his father, he was placed by King Edward I under the guardianship of Piers Gaveston, 1st Earl of Cornwall. However, on 22 May 1306, in a ceremony in Westminster Abbey with two hundred and fifty-nine others, he was knighted by Edward and granted livery of his full inheritance.
His adult life began in earnest in 1308, when he went to Ireland in person to enforce his authority and this brought him into conflict with the de Lacys, who turned for support to Edward Bruce, brother of Robert Bruce, King of Scots. Mortimer was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland by Edward II on 23 November 1316, shortly afterwards, at the head of a large army, he drove Bruce to Carrickfergus and the de Lacys into Connaught, wreaking vengeance on their adherents whenever they were to be found. He returned to England and Wales in 1318 and was occupied for some years with baronial disputes on the Welsh border. Mortimer became disaffected with his king and joined the opposition to Edward II. After the younger Despenser was granted lands belonging to him, he and he supported Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford, in refusing to obey the kings summons to appear before him in 1321 as long as the younger Despencer was in the Kings train
Mere in English refers to a lake that is broad in relation to its depth, e. g. Martin Mere. A significant effect of its depth is that for all or most of the time. The word mere is recorded in Old English as mere ″sea, lake″, corresponding to Old Saxon meri, Old Low Franconian *meri, Old High German mari / meri, Goth. mari-, Old Norse marr ″sea″. They derive from reconstituted Proto-Germanic *mari, itself from Indo-European *mori, the Indo-European root *mori gave birth to similar words in the other European languages, Latin mare ″sea″, Old Celtic *mori ″sea″, Old Slavic morje. The word once included the sea or an arm of the sea in its range of meaning and it is a poetical or dialect word meaning a sheet of standing water, a lake or a pond. The OEDs fourth definition includes such as fen amongst usages of the word which is reflected in the lexicographers recording of it. In a quotation from the year 598, mere is contrasted against moss, the OED quotation from 1609 does not say what a mere is, except that it looks black.
In 1629 mere and marsh were becoming interchangeable but in 1876 mere was heard, at times, applied to ground permanently under water, in other words, a very shallow lake. This can be delayed where the mere is fed by water from chalk or limestone upland. In these circumstances, the lime is deposited on the peaty bed, a typical feature of these meres is that they are alongside a river rather than having the river flowing through them. In this way, the mere is replenished by seepage from the bed of the river, through the rivers natural levée. The water of the mere is static through the summer, even quite shallow lake water can develop a thermocline in the short term but where there is a moderately windy climate, the circulation caused by wind drift is sufficient to break this up. This means that the bed of the mere is aerated and bottom-feeding fish and wildfowl can survive. Expressed more technically, the mere consists entirely of the epilimnion and this is quite unlike Windermere where in summer, there is a sharp thermocline at a depth of 9 to 15 metres, well above the maximum depth of 60 metres or so.
At first sight, the feature of a mere is its breadth in relation to its shallow depth. This means that it has a surface in proportion to the volume of water it contains. However, there is a depth beyond which a lake does not behave as a mere since the sun does not warm the deeper water. Here, a thermocline develops but where the limiting dimensions lie is influenced by the sunniness and windiness of the site and this last usually depends on how eutrophic the water is
Wars of the Roses
The conflict lasted through many sporadic episodes between 1455 and 1487, there was fighting before and after this period between the houses. With the Duke of Yorks passing, the transferred to his heir, Edward. His son reigned for 86 days as Edward V, but Parliament decided that Edward and his brother Richard were illegitimate and offered the crown to Edward IVs younger brother, the two young princes disappeared within the confines of the Tower of London. The final victory went to a claimant of the Lancastrian party, Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, after assuming the throne as Henry VII, he married Elizabeth of York, the eldest daughter and heir of Edward IV, thereby uniting the two claims. The House of Tudor ruled the Kingdom of England until 1603, with the death of Elizabeth I, granddaughter of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. The name Wars of the Roses refers to the badges associated with the two royal houses, the White Rose of York and the Red Rose of Lancaster. Wars of the Roses came into use in the nineteenth century.
Badges were not always distinct, at the Battle of Barnet, Edwards sun was very similar to the Earl of Oxfords Vere star, which caused fateful confusion. Another example, Henry Tudors forces at Bosworth fought under the banner of a red dragon, although the names of the rival houses derive from the cities of York and Lancaster, the corresponding duchies had little to do with these cities. Although minor armed clashes had occurred previously between supporters of York and Lancaster, the first open fighting broke out in 1455 at the First Battle of St Albans, several prominent Lancastrians died at the hands of the Yorkists. Although peace was restored, the Lancastrians were inspired by Margaret of Anjou to contest Yorks influence. Fighting resumed more violently in 1459, York and his supporters were forced to flee the country, but one of his most prominent supporters, the Earl of Warwick, invaded England from Calais and captured Henry VI at the Battle of Northampton. York returned to the country and became Protector of England, but was dissuaded from claiming the throne and the remaining Lancastrian nobles gathered their army in the north of England.
When York moved north to engage them, he and his second son Edmund were killed at the Battle of Wakefield in December 1460. The Lancastrian army advanced south and released Henry at the Second Battle of St Albans, but failed to occupy London, Yorks eldest son, Earl of March, was proclaimed King Edward IV. He gathered the Yorkist armies and won a victory at the Battle of Towton in March 1461. After Lancastrian revolts in the north were suppressed in 1464 and Henry was captured once again, Edward fell out with his chief supporter and adviser, the Earl of Warwick after Edwards unpopular and secretly conducted marriage with the widow of a Lancastrian supporter, Elizabeth Woodville. Within a few years, it clear that Edward was favoring his wifes family