Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Part of the county of Midlothian, it is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore. Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Government, the Scottish Parliament and the supreme courts of Scotland; the city's Palace of Holyroodhouse is the official residence of the monarch in Scotland. The city has long been a centre of education in the fields of medicine, Scots law, philosophy, the sciences and engineering, it is the second largest financial centre in the United Kingdom and the city's historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdom's second most popular tourist destination, attracting over one million overseas visitors each year. Edinburgh is Scotland's second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom; the official population estimates are 488,050 for the Locality of Edinburgh, 513,210 for the City of Edinburgh, 1,339,380 for the city region.
Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region comprising East Lothian, Fife, Scottish Borders and West Lothian. The city is the annual venue of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, it is home to national institutions such as the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland and the Scottish National Gallery. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, is placed 18th in the QS World University Rankings for 2019; the city is famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe, the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of St. Giles and the Canongate, the extensive Georgian New Town, built in the 18th/19th centuries. Edinburgh's Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999. "Edin", the root of the city's name, derives from Eidyn, the name for this region in Cumbric, the Brittonic Celtic language spoken there.
The name's meaning is unknown. The district of Eidyn centred on the dun or hillfort of Eidyn; this stronghold is believed to have been located at Castle Rock, now the site of Edinburgh Castle. Eidyn was conquered by the Angles of Bernicia in the 7th century and by the Scots in the 10th century; as the language shifted to Old English, subsequently to modern English and Scots, The Brittonic din in Din Eidyn was replaced by burh, producing Edinburgh. Din became dùn in Scottish Gaelic, producing Dùn Èideann; the city is affectionately nicknamed Auld Reekie, Scots for Old Smoky, for the views from the country of the smoke-covered Old Town. Allan Ramsay said. A name the country people give Edinburgh from the cloud of smoke or reek, always impending over it."Thomas Carlyle said, "Smoke cloud hangs over old Edinburgh,—for since Aeneas Silvius's time and earlier, the people have the art strange to Aeneas, of burning a certain sort of black stones, Edinburgh with its chimneys is called'Auld Reekie' by the country people."A character in Walter Scott's The Abbot says "... yonder stands Auld Reekie--you may see the smoke hover over her at twenty miles' distance."Robert Chambers who said that the sobriquet could not be traced before the reign of Charles II attributed the name to a Fife laird, Durham of Largo, who regulated the bedtime of his children by the smoke rising above Edinburgh from the fires of the tenements.
"It's time now bairns, to tak' the beuks, gang to our beds, for yonder's Auld Reekie, I see, putting on her nicht -cap!"Some have called Edinburgh the Athens of the North for a variety of reasons. The earliest comparison between the two cities showed that they had a similar topography, with the Castle Rock of Edinburgh performing a similar role to the Athenian Acropolis. Both of them had fertile agricultural land sloping down to a port several miles away. Although this arrangement is common in Southern Europe, it is rare in Northern Europe; the 18th-century intellectual life, referred to as the Scottish Enlightenment, was a key influence in gaining the name. Such luminaries as David Hume and Adam Smith shone during this period. Having lost most of its political importance after the Union, some hoped that Edinburgh could gain a similar influence on London as Athens had on Rome. A contributing factor was the neoclassical architecture that of William Henry Playfair, the National Monument. Tom Stoppard's character Archie, of Jumpers, said playing on Reykjavík meaning "smoky bay", that the "Reykjavík of the South" would be more appropriate.
The city has been known by several Latin names, such as Aneda or Edina. The adjectival form of the latter, can be seen inscribed on educational buildings; the Scots poets Robert Fergusson and Robert Burns used Edina in their poems. Ben Jonson described it as "Britaine's other eye", Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "yon Empress of the North". Robert Louis Stevenson a son of the city, wrote, "Edinburgh is what Paris ought to be"; the colloquial pronunciation "Embra" or "Embro" has been used, as in Robert Garioch's Embro to the Ploy. The earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area was at Cramond, where evidence was found of a Mesolithi
Barnton is a suburb of Edinburgh, located in the north-west of the city, between Cramond and Corstorphine Hill and west of Davidsons Mains. Part of the area was traditionally known as "Cramond Muir" in reference to Cramond to the north, it is home to the Royal High School of Edinburgh deigned by Reid and Forbes in 1964. Braehead House, a complex house centred on a 15th c remodelled Scottish tower house hides amongst modern housing; the Royal Burgess Golfing Society, one of the oldest golf societies in the world with a clubhouse dating from 1896. Cargilfield Preparatory School lies to the north; the most notable landmark is the former Barnton Hotel at the junction of Whitehouse Loan and Queensferry Road which dates from 1895 and was converted to flats in 2016. The White House dates from 1615, it was extended and remodelled by MacGibbon and Ross in 1895. The area centres on the paired streets of West Barnton Avenue; these stand on the former estate of Barnton House. All that remains is the ornate west gate pillars, designed by David Hamilton in 1810, on Whitehouse Loan at the west end of West Barnton Avenue.
Both halves of the avenue possess a series of large villas dating from the early 20th century. The west avenue in particular has several modern blocks of flats. Barnton Quarry, a former stone quarry in the area, is the site of an underground bunker which, in the event of nuclear war, would have served as the regional seat of government for Scotland from 1961 until its abandonment in 1985. Robert Barton of Over Barnton Alexander Carmichael, compiler of Carmina Gadelica Col John James McIntosh Shaw, military surgeon and pioneer of plastic surgery J. K. Rowling a current resident Robert Blyth Greig lived on West Barton Avenue
Canonmills is a district of Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. It lies to the south east of the Royal Botanic Garden at Inverleith, east of Stockbridge and west of Bellevue, in a low hollow north of Edinburgh's New Town; the area was a loch, drained in three phases in the 18th and 19th centuries, disappearing in 1865. A small village, Canonmills owes its origins and name, in the same way as the Canongate, to the Augustinian canons of Holyrood Abbey who operated a mill here from the 12th century, it is shown pictorially as a cluster of buildings, three of which have waterwheels, on the 1560 Siege of Leith map. At a period a mill lade from the Water of Leith reached the area via the village of Silvermills to the east; the Incorporation of Baxters in the Canongate were compelled by law to have their corn ground at the Canonmills, during demolition work carried out in 1964 to enlarge a local filling station a stone was unearthed bearing the inscription, "The Baxters Land 1686". It is now incorporated into a wall of the Canonmills Service Station.
The only surviving building of the original village is a pantile-roofed former mill building on the corner of Eyre Place and Canon Street. Until c.1995 further remnants existed on Eyre Terrace. The George V Park, occupying the old Canon Mill Haugh to the south east, used to be a popular sporting arena. With the final draining of the loch in 1865 it became the site of the Royal Patent Gymnasium, described by James Grant as "...one of the most remarkable and attractive places of its kind in Edinburgh", created "at considerable expense for the purpose of affording healthful and exhilarating recreation in the open air". The principal feature was the circular Great Sea Serpent which could seat 600 rowers embarking and disembarking at four separate piers. Other attractions were the Self-Adjusting Trapeze enabling up to 100 patrons at a time to swing by the hands "over a distance of 130 feet from one trapeze to the other", the Giant's Sea-Saw, 100 feet long by 7 wide, which could elevate 200 people to a height of 50 feet, the Patent Velocipede Paddle Merry-go-Round propelled by the feet of 600 passengers.
At the southern edge of the Park, in the cliff-like drop from the streets of the New Town, lies the northern end of the Scotland Street Tunnel which once provided an underground rail link to Canal Street Station on the site of present-day Waverley Station. The tunnel, built under Scotland Street in 1847 by the Edinburgh and Newhaven Railway, is three quarters of a mile long and descends a 1 in 27 gradient. Trains descended the tunnel under gravity, controlled by two men operating handbrakes in two front wagons. Robert Louis Stevenson described the appearance in his'Edinburgh: Picturesque Notes': "The Scotland Street Station, the sight of the train shooting out of its dark maw with the two guards upon the brake, the thought of its length and the many ponderous edifices and thoroughfares above, were things of paramount impressiveness to a young mind." For the return journey, 150mm steel cables were attached to the trains which were pulled up the slope by a stationary winding-engine at the Waverley end.
The bridge linking Canonmills to Inverleith Row was built in 1767, its single arch replaced by three arches in 1840. It was widened in 1896; the deep elliptical crescent of Eyre Crescent was built around Canonmills House, replaced in 1880-1 by a United Presbyterian Church which in turn has been replaced by a modern medical centre. A little lodge-type building on Rodney Street is the old school, where Sir Walter Scott's father was educated; the sculptor Stewart McGlashen had his granite yard at Canonmills Bridge and lived opposite, at 5 Brandon Street. Bartholomew's Chronological map of Edinburgh Photos of Canonmills Google Map Royal Patent Gymnasium
Henry I Sinclair, Earl of Orkney
Henry I Sinclair, Jarl of Orkney, Baron of Roslin was a Scottish and a Norwegian nobleman. Sinclair held the title Earl of Orkney under the King of Norway, he is sometimes identified by another spelling of St. Clair, he was the grandfather of 1st Earl of Caithness, the builder of Rosslyn Chapel. He is best known today because of a modern legend that he took part in explorations of Greenland and North America 100 years before Christopher Columbus. William Thomson, in his book The New History of Orkney, wrote: "It has been Earl Henry's singular fate to enjoy an ever-expanding posthumous reputation which has little to do with anything he achieved in his lifetime." Henry Sinclair was the son and heir of William Sinclair, Lord of Roslin, his wife Isabella of Strathearn. She was a daughter of Jarl of Orkney. Henry Sinclair's maternal grandfather had been deprived of much of his lands. Sometime after 13 September 1358, Henry's father died, at which point Henry Sinclair succeeded as Baron of Roslin and Cousland, a group of minor properties in Lothian.
Although the Norwegian jarldom of Orkney was not an inheritable position, successive appointments had operated as if it had been. After a vacancy lasting 18 years, three cousins – Alexander de L'Arde, Lord of Caithness. Trialling de L'Arde as Captain of Orkney, King Haakon VI of Norway was disappointed in de L'Arde's behaviour, sacked him. On 2 August 1379, at Marstrand, near Tønsberg, Haakon chose Sinclair over Sparre, investing Sinclair with the Jarldom. In return Henry pledged to pay a fee of 1000 nobles before St. Martin's Day, when called upon, serve the king on Orkney or elsewhere with 100 armed men for 3 months, it is unknown if Haakon VI attempted to call upon the troops pledged by Henry or if any of the fee was paid. As security for upholding the agreement the new jarl left hostages behind when he departed Norway for Orkney. Shortly before his death in summer 1380, the king permitted the hostages to return home.. In 1389, Sinclair attended the hailing of King Eric in Norway. Historians have speculated that in 1391 Sinclair and his troops slew Malise Sparre near Scalloway, Tingwall parish, Shetland.
It is not known. The Sinclair Diploma, written or at least commissioned by his grandson states: "...he retirit to the parts of Orchadie and josit them to the latter tyme of his life, deit Erile of Orchadie, for the defence of the country was slain there cruellie by his enemiis..." We know that sometime in 1401: "The English invaded and spoiled certain islands of Orkney." This was part of an English retaliation for a Scottish attack on an English fleet near Aberdeen. The assumption is that Henry either died opposing this invasion, or was dead. Henri Santo Claro signed a charter from King James II in January 1404, it is supposed that he died shortly after that although his son did not take the title until 1412. Therefore, he died somewhere between 1404 and 1412. Born about 1346 – married 1. Florentia, Princess of Denmark 2. Jean, daughter of Sir Walter de Haliburton, 1st Lord Haliburton of Dirleton, had issue: three sons Henry II Sinclair, Earl of Orkney John Sinclair, he got from his brother, lands in Lothian, Kirkton, Earncraig and West Summerhopes.
William Sinclair and nine daughters Beatrix m. Sir William Borthwick, 2nd feudal lord of Borthwick. Saint-Clair of the Isles by Roland Saint-Clair In the 1980s, modern alternative histories of Earl Henry I Sinclair and Rosslyn Chapel began to be published. Popular books such as The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail by Michael Baigent, Richard Leigh and Henry Lincoln and The Temple and the Lodge by Michael Baigent and Richard Leigh appeared. Books by Timothy Wallace-Murphy and Andrew Sinclair soon followed from the early 1990s onwards. Nothing more is known about Sinclair's life. However, much has been written through conjecture about his supposed career as an explorer. In 1784, he was identified by Johann Reinhold Forster as being the Prince Zichmni described in letters written around the year 1400 by the Zeno brothers of Venice, in which they describe a voyage throughout the North Atlantic under the command of Zichmni; the authenticity of the letters, the exact course of the voyage, as well as whether it took place, are challenged by historians.
Most regard the letters as a hoax by their publishers. Moreover, the identification of Zichmni as Henry Sinclair has not been accepted by most historians, although it is taken for granted by the supporters of the theory; some supporters of the theory contend that there are stone carvings of American plants in Rosslyn Chapel in Scotland. The Chapel was built by Henry Sinclair's grandson William Sinclair and was completed in 1486. Columbus ma
Craigmillar, from the Gaelic Creag Maol Ard, meaning'High Bare Rock', is an area of Edinburgh, about 3 miles south east of the city centre, with Duddingston to the north and Newcraighall to the east. Until around 2008, the area consisted of inter-war and post-war public housing schemes, ranging from private bungalows to Edinburgh Council-owned high rise tower blocks; the housing scheme at Niddrie Mains was created through the Housing Act of 1924, with lands bought from the Wauchope Estate. The area was designed and laid out by the City Architect, Ebenezer James MacRae from 1927; the Craigmilllar estate below the castle, was planned in 1936. Despite the relative modernity of most of the housing in the area, the settlement of Craigmillar itself is old, contains Craigmillar Castle, begun in the late 14th or early 15th century, occupied until the early 18th century. In 1660, the Craigmillar estate was bought by Sir John Gilmour; the City of Edinburgh Council is now well into a regeneration programme which has seen the demolition of the earlier estates and the area has benefited from many initiatives aimed at tackling the social deprivation that has characterised the area for many years.
The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw seven breweries being built in what was open country at Craigmillar/Duddingston, concentrated in a small area beside the railway line and taking advantage of the local aquifers providing excellent water for brewing. The first of these was the Craigmillar Brewery of William Co.. Ltd built in 1886 and followed within a few years by Andrew Drybrough's brewery called the Craigmillar Brewery, the Duddingston Brewery built by Pattisons Ltd, bought by Robert Deuchar Ltd in 1899 following Pattisons' liquidation, the North British Brewery, taken over by Murray's in 1927 becoming known as Murray's No. 2 Brewery, Maclauchlan's Castle Brewery, Raeburn's New Craigmillar Brewery and Paterson's Pentland Brewery, all opening in 1901. These breweries stopped brewing at various times in the 1960s, but Drybrough's survived for several years ceasing brewing in January 1987. In 2009 The National Library of Scotland released maps for the Craigmillar Area Ordnance Survey 1:10,560 Sheet IV SW, 1909 Shows detail of Niddrie House, Icehouse, Niddrie Stone 1909.
Ordnance Survey 1:10,560 Sheet IV SW, 1938 Shows the development of Niddrie Main 1938. Ordnance Survey 1:10,560 - Air Photos - Sheet NT 27 SE 1946 and NT 37 SW, 1946 Shows the aerial photos from 1946 Other georeferenced historical maps of Craigmillar from the mid 18th to the mid 20th centuries Openstreetmap volunteers completed Openstreetmap Craigmillar in January 2009 Craigmillar saw riots in the 1980s, amid complaints about the lack of facilities in the area. Both the library and Arts Centre were won by grassroots-based community action trying to tackle the area's social problems. One such venture was the Craigmillar Festival Society, active from 1962 until 2002; the area had a large concrete sculpture/play-structure, created by artist Jimmy Boyle called Gulliver, The Gentle Giant that cares and shares. It was built for the Craigmillar Festival Society in 1976, demolished in 2011 when the Niddrie Burn was re-routed through Hunter's Hall Park; the University of Edinburgh has playing fields in this area, including one of the oldest modern-style shinty fields in Scotland.
Gulliver was considered a geoglyph. An ambitious plan to re-develop parts of Craigmillar is underway; the Scottish Government's "Green Quarter Plan" proposes the creation of several new parks and woodland areas throughout the Craigmillar area. The "Green Quarter Plan" is being undertaken by the Parc life development company, they propose the development of 3,200 affordable houses to rent and improved learning and leisure facilities for young people. One of the few retained buildings of significance is "The White House" former public house, an Art Deco listed building, restored with gallery space inside in 2011. Craigmillar is served by Lothian Buses service 42 which runs from Portobello to Davidsons Mains, service 2 from The Jewel, Asda, to The Gyle Shopping Centre, service 14 from Greendykes to Muirhouse, service 21 from The Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh to The Gyle Shopping Centre, & service 30 from Musselburgh to Clovenstone, Wester Hailes; the area was once served by a local railway from Duddingston & Craigmillar railway station on the Edinburgh Suburban and Southside Junction Railway.
The station closed in 1962, but local pressure groups are campaigning to have the line re-opened as an extension of the forthcoming Edinburgh Tram Network. Following a petition submitted to the Scottish Parliament in 2007, the proposal was rejected in 2009 by transport planners due to anticipated cost. Helen Duncan, the last woman to be imprisoned under the 1735 Witchcraft Act, lived in Craigmillar. Filmmaker Bill Douglas was raised in nearby Newcraighall; the former Craigmillar Primary School building houses a mural by the painter John Maxwell, trained by Fernand Léger and was a fellow student of Marc Chagall in Paris. There is a fine example of 20th century stained glass by Sadie Maclellan in Robin Chapel, in the Thistle Foundation, a housing complex for disabled people in the centre of Craigmillar. Local mother Helen Crummy was instrumental in the founding of the Craigmillar Festival Society in 1962; the noted Conservative politician, Sir Ian Gilmour, was given a life peerage by John Major in 1992, becoming Baron Gilmour of Craigmillar, of Craigmillar in the District of the City of Edinburgh, of which his family were, for several hundred years, the feudal superiors.
Craigmillar community site Craigmillar Partnership Crai
Craiglockhart is a suburb in the south west of Edinburgh, lying between Colinton to the south, Morningside to the east Merchiston to the north east and Kingsknowe to the west. The Water of Leith is to the west; the name is first recorded in 1278 as "Crag quam Stephanus Loccard miles tenuit", thus "Craig of Loccard". The family, whose name was changed to Lockhart, are credited by Historic Scotland with building Craiglockhart Castle in the fifteenth century; the oldest "structure" in the area is the remains of a vitrified fort on the top of Wester Craiglockhart Hill, of prehistoric origin. This was somewhat mutilated by the addition of gun-emplacements in World War II, guarding against aerial attack. Excavations show. Craiglockhart Castle is now ruined; the hill is a Site of Special Scientific Interest due to its diverse biological habitat. In Victorian times the area was dominated by hospital buildings: The City Hospital. Craighouse and The Hydropathic are now part of the campus of Edinburgh Napier University.
During the First World War, the hospital was used to house officers suffering from the symptoms of shell-shock. Invalids here included the poets Wilfred Siegfried Sassoon, who met while patients. After the war this the building served as a convent and a theological school, before passing to the Napier College; the area became part of Edinburgh City in 1920 and the area was developed in the 1930s with bungalows and low density housing on the low-lying ground around the Wester and Easter Craiglockhart Hills. At the boundary point between Craiglockhart and Merchiston runs the Edinburgh Suburban railway line. There was once a station just off Colinton Road, this may return, since the line is mooted for re-opening as part of Edinburgh's future transport strategy. Craiglockhart today is chiefly residential, with a small proportion of commercial properties, is in general considered to be a comfortable middle-class area, with a mixture of terraced and detached villas, of a variety of ages. Craiglockhart Tennis Centre plays host to large international tennis competitions, with a series of well kept indoor and outdoor courts.
One famous product of the centre is Andy Murray, who trained there. On the same ground is Craiglockhart Sport And Leisure Centre which has a small boating pond. A small cluster of commercial premises remain close to the station site, with a further group located opposite the Craiglockhart Tennis Centre. A small Tesco "Express" supermarket has been built on the site of a former petrol station adjacent to the Meggetland playing fields; the opening of this branch of Tesco was vociferously opposed by the Scottish food writer Joanna Blythman, who claimed that opening the store would damage the local grocery store at Happy Valley. There is a Craiglockhart Primary School, although this is a little to the north of Craiglockhart itself, technically within North Merchiston Bartholomew's Chronological map of Edinburgh Craiglockhart Community Council Craiglockhart Primary School
Broomhouse is a district of Edinburgh, Scotland. Although on the lands of Old Saughton, its name is adopted from an estate, located to the north of the Edinburgh/Glasgow railway line; the earliest recorded versions of the name were variations on Brumhous. It comprises a low-rise council housing estate built between 1947 and 1950, it borders on Parkhead and Saughton Mains. The Glasgow railway passes to the north but there is no station; the arterial route of Calder Road passes to the south. There are a community centre, two Church congregations and a counselling centre here. Medical and library facilities are in nearby Corstorphine. Saughton House is a large Government building, built in the 1950s, fronting on Broomhouse Drive and houses the Scottish Executive, HM Revenue and Customs and Vehicle Licensing Agency, a number of other government offices. Parallel to Broomhouse Drive was Scotland's first bus guideway opened in 2004 and was 1.5km of two-lane dedicated guided busway, the longest section of continuous bus guideway in the UK.
Subsequently, it has been converted as part of the Edinburgh Trams route with Saughton tram stop at the eastern end of Broomhouse Drive. St. David's website The BIG Project St. Joseph's R. C. Church website Sighthill and Parkhead Community Council