Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer, navigator and citizen of the Republic of Genoa. Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean and those voyages and his efforts to establish permanent settlements on the island of Hispaniola initiated the European colonization of the New World. Western imperialism and economic competition were emerging among European kingdoms through the establishment of routes and colonies. During his first voyage in 1492, he reached the New World instead of arriving at Japan as he had intended, landing on an island in the Bahamas archipelago that he named San Salvador. Over the course of three voyages, he visited the Greater and Lesser Antilles, as well as the Caribbean coast of Venezuela and Central America. These voyages had, therefore, an impact in the historical development of the modern Western world. He spearheaded the transatlantic trade and has been accused by several historians of initiating the genocide of the Hispaniola natives.
Columbus himself saw his accomplishments primarily in the light of spreading the Christian religion, Columbus never admitted that he had reached a continent previously unknown to Europeans, rather than the East Indies for which he had set course. He called the inhabitants of the lands that he visited indios, the name Christopher Columbus is the Anglicisation of the Latin Christophorus Columbus. His name in Italian is Cristoforo Colombo and, in Spanish and he was born before 31 October 1451 in the territory of the Republic of Genoa, though the exact location remains disputed. His father was Domenico Colombo, a wool weaver who worked both in Genoa and Savona and who owned a cheese stand at which young Christopher worked as a helper. Bartolomeo, Giovanni Pellegrino, and Giacomo were his brothers, Bartolomeo worked in a cartography workshop in Lisbon for at least part of his adulthood. He had a sister named Bianchinetta, Columbus never wrote in his native language, which is presumed to have been a Genoese variety of Ligurian.
In one of his writings, he says he went to sea at the age of 10, in 1470, the Columbus family moved to Savona, where Domenico took over a tavern. In the same year, Christopher was on a Genoese ship hired in the service of René of Anjou to support his attempt to conquer the Kingdom of Naples. Some modern historians have argued that he was not from Genoa but and these competing hypotheses have generally been discounted by mainstream scholars. In 1473, Columbus began his apprenticeship as business agent for the important Centurione, Di Negro, later, he allegedly made a trip to Chios, an Aegean island ruled by Genoa. In May 1476, he took part in a convoy sent by Genoa to carry valuable cargo to northern Europe
Trinidad is the larger and more populous of the two major islands and numerous landforms which make up the island nation of Trinidad and Tobago. The island lies 11 km off the northeastern coast of Venezuela, though geographically part of the South American continent, from a socio-economic standpoint it is often referred to as the southernmost island in the Caribbean. With an area of 4,768 km2, it is the sixth largest in the West Indies, many believe the original name for the island in the Arawaks language was Iëre which meant Land of the Hummingbird. Some believe that Iere was actually a mispronunciation or corruption by early colonists of the Arawak word Kairi which simply means Island, Christopher Columbus renamed it La Isla de la Trinidad, fulfilling a vow he had made before setting out on his third voyage of exploration. Caribs and Arawaks lived in Trinidad long before Christopher Columbus encountered the islands on his voyage in 1498. Tobago changed hands between the British, French and Courlanders, but eventually ended up in British hands, Trinidad remained Spanish until 1797, but it was largely settled by French colonists from the French Caribbean, especially Martinique.
In 1889 the two became a single British Crown colony. Trinidad and Tobago obtained self-governance in 1958 and independence from the United Kingdom in 1962, major landforms include the hills of the Northern and Southern Ranges, the Caroni and Oropouche Swamps, and the Caroni and Naparima Plains. Major river systems include the Caroni and South Oropouche, there are many other natural landforms such as beaches and waterfalls. Trinidad has two seasons per year, the rainy season and the dry season. El Cerro del Aripo, at 940 metres, is the highest point in Trinidad and it is part of the Aripo Massif and is located in the Northern Range on the island, northeast of the town of Arima. Diversity is the status quo in Trinidad and it is sometimes known as a rainbow island or more fondly a callaloo. There is a range of ethnicity and culture. As of the 2011 Trinidad and Tobago Census, the population was 34. 22% East Indian,35. 43% African,7. 66% Mixed - African and East Indian, and 15. 16% Mixed - Other. Venezuela has had a impact on Trinidads culture, such as introducing the music style parang to the island.
Many of these groups overlap heavily due to admixture, for example Dougla is a term used to describe a person who is of African and East Indian descent. Trinidad religion primarily centers round Roman Catholic, other Christian denominations, catholicism constitutes the largest religious denomination of the country. There are multiple festivals featuring the music of the Caribbean and the steelpan and these festivals include the world-famous Carnival and Panorama, the national steel pan competition
Princes Town is a town in south Trinidad and Tobago. Founded as the Amerindian Mission of Savana Grande, the town was renamed after the 1880 visit by Queen Victorias grandsons, Prince Albert, the Princes each planted a poui tree at the Anglican church in the area, which still survives to this day. The population of the town itself is estimated at 10,000. The sugar industry that had helped to build the economy of Princes Town was closed in 2003, with the closure of the industry, there was a decline in activities in the town as well as the surrounding estates. In the area of culture, the early East Indian families brought to Cedar Hill, an area on the outskirts of the town centre, Cedar Hill is generally regarded as the first village where the cultural practice began. The amphitheatre in which the festival is held ranks among the best in Trinidad for open-air theatrical performances, the lands on which the amphitheatre is located were donated to the Ramleela organisation of Cedar Hill by Usine Ste Madeleine.
Every year, thousands of patrons descend on this site to take part in the celebrations, Princes Town still remains the centre of stickfighting, which is part of the Carnival celebrations. Every year on January 20, an observance called Princes Town Day is held in the town under the auspices of the Princes Town Regional Corporation, Princes Town is located in south-central Trinidad, east of San Fernando, west of Rio Claro and north of Moruga. Consequently, it serves as the administrative centre for a substantial area of south Trinidad. Princes Town is known for the famous Ali family, who set up many established doubles institutes, the town of Princes Town is one of the 36 seats that are contested for the General Elections in Trinidad and Tobago. The Current Member of Parliament for this constituency is Ms Nela Khan elected to office in 2010, the growth of the town has since caused it to be one of the constituencies that were split in 2007 to make 41 constituencies for the next General Election.
Princes Town is the seat of government for the Princes Town Regional Corporation, one of the schools in the area is St. Stephens College, which is administered jointly by the Ministry of Education and the Anglican Board. The school was started in the late 50s and was as Bishop Anstey. St. Stephens College has the distinction of having an Amphi-theatre style Auditorium, painter Amy Leong Pang was born in Princes Town. Major landmarks include the Yolande Pompey Recreation Ground
Trinidad and Tobago
During the same period, the island of Tobago changed hands among Spanish, French and Courlander colonizers, more times than any other island in the Caribbean. Trinidad and Tobago were ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens, the country Trinidad and Tobago obtained independence in 1962, becoming a republic in 1976. Trinidad and Tobago is the third richest country by GDP per capita in the Americas after the United States, furthermore, it is recognised as a high-income economy by the World Bank. Unlike most of the English-speaking Caribbean, the economy is primarily industrial, with an emphasis on petroleum. The countrys wealth is attributed to its reserves and exploitation of oil. Historian E. L. Joseph claimed that Trinidads Amerindian name was Iere or Land of the Humming Bird, derived from the Arawak name for hummingbird, Boomert claims that neither cairi nor caeri means hummingbird and tukusi or tucuchi does. Others have reported that kairi and iere simply mean island, christopher Columbus renamed it La Isla de la Trinidad, fulfilling a vow made before setting out on his third voyage of exploration.
Trinidad and Tobago are islands situated between 10°2 and 11°12 N latitude and 60°30 and 61°56 W longitude, at the closest point, Trinidad is just 11 kilometres from Venezuelan territory. Trinidad is 4,768 km2 in area with a length of 80 km. Tobago has an area of about 300 km2, or 5. 8% of the area, is 41 km long and 12 km at its greatest width. Trinidad and Tobago lie on the shelf of South America. The terrain of the islands is a mixture of mountains and plains, the highest point in the country is found on the Northern Range at El Cerro del Aripo, which is 940 metres above sea level. As the majority of the live in the island of Trinidad. There are four municipalities in Trinidad, Port of Spain. The main town in Tobago is Scarborough, Trinidad is made up of a variety of soil types, the majority being fine sands and heavy clays. The alluvial valleys of the Northern Range and the soils of the East-West Corridor are the most fertile, the Northern Range consists mainly of Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous metamorphic rocks.
The Northern Lowlands consist of shallow marine clastic sediments. South of this, the Central Range fold and thrust belt consists of Cretaceous and Eocene sedimentary rocks, the Naparima Plains and the Nariva Swamp form the southern shoulder of this uplift
San Fernando, Trinidad and Tobago
San Fernando, officially the City Corporation of San Fernando, is the most populous city in Trinidad and Tobago. It occupies 18 km² and is located in the part of the island of Trinidad. It is bounded to the north by the Guaracara River, the south by the Oropouche River, the east by the Sir Solomon Hochoy Highway, the former borough was elevated to the status of a city corporation on November 18,1988. The motto of San Fernando is, Sanitas Fortis - In a Healthy Environment We Will Find Strength, many local Trinidadians refer to the city with the shortened name Sando. The Amerindians called the area Anaparima, which has been translated as either single hill or without water, a single hill, San Fernando Hill, rises from the centre of the city. A town named San Fernando de Naparima was established by Spanish Governor Don José Maria Chacón in 1784, with time, the de Naparima was dropped. Following the 1783 Cedula of Population, many plantations were established in the Naparima Plains surrounding San Fernando.
The town grew as part of the country came to dominate sugar production. This growth continued throughout the century as consolidation in the sugar industry led to the construction of what was the largest sugar refinery in the world. Madeline factory a few miles east of the town, the development of cacao cultivation and the petroleum industry helped San Fernando grow since the town served as the gateway to these areas. The growth of the town placed severe strains on the supply of water, the nearby oil refinery at Pointe-à-Pierre played an important role in San Fernandos development between World War II and the 1980s. The refinery was constructed by Trinidad Leaseholds Limited during World War II, the oil boom of the 1970s and 80s led to the growth of the suburbs of San Fernando, especially Marabella and Gasparillo of the Pointe-à-Pierre refinery. In 1991 the boundaries of the city were extended, bringing the refinery immediately adjacent to the Citys northern boundary, the extended City now includes the suburbs of Marabella, Bel Air, Gulf View and Cocoyea.
The administration of San Fernando is done by San Fernando City Corporation and it is a corporate body, and the staff is instrumental in the exercise of the powers of the Corporation through the Council. Functions of this Corporation are delegated by the Central Government, Local government administration started in 1845, when the Town Council was established and the Municipality of San Fernando came into being. Circa 1853, San Fernando was elevated to a Borough, the first Mayor was Robert Johnstone, from the simple start of a fishing village, San Fernando blossomed financially, and became the Industrial Capital of Trinidad and Tobago. This crest incorporates the City motto, the sea, the hill, the sea and boat represent the beginnings as a fishing village. The sugar cane stalk represents the sugar industry, the oil tank represents productivity and the oil industry
A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand. Though often located in areas, the term urban village is applied to certain urban neighbourhoods. Villages are normally permanent, with fixed dwellings, transient villages can occur, the dwellings of a village are fairly close to one another, not scattered broadly over the landscape, as a dispersed settlement. In the past, villages were a form of community for societies that practise subsistence agriculture. In Great Britain, a hamlet earned the right to be called a village when it built a church, in many cultures and cities were few, with only a small proportion of the population living in them. The Industrial Revolution attracted people in numbers to work in mills and factories. This enabled specialization of labor and crafts, and development of many trades, the trend of urbanization continues, though not always in connection with industrialization.
Although many patterns of life have existed, the typical village was small. Homes were situated together for sociability and defence, and land surrounding the living quarters was farmed, Traditional fishing villages were based on artisan fishing and located adjacent to fishing grounds. The soul of India lives in its villages, declared M. K. Gandhi at the beginning of 20th century, according to the 2011 census of India,68. 84% of Indians live in 640,867 different villages. The size of these villages varies considerably,236,004 Indian villages have a population of fewer than 500, while 3,976 villages have a population of 10, 000+. Most of the villages have their own temple, mosque, or church, auyl is a Kazakh word meaning village in Kazakhstan. According to the 2009 census of Kazakhstan,42. 7% of Kazakhs live in 8172 different villages, to refer to this concept along with the word auyl often used the slavic word selo in Northern Kazakhstan. Peoples Republic of China In mainland China, villages 村 are divisions under township Zh, 乡 or town Zh, Republic of China In the Republic of China, villages are divisions under townships or county-controlled cities.
The village is called a tsuen or cūn under a rural township, japan South Korea In Indonesia, depending on the principles they are administered, villages are called Kampung or Desa. A Desa is administered according to traditions and customary law, while a kelurahan is administered along more modern principles, Desa are generally located in rural areas while kelurahan are generally urban subdivisions. A village head is respectively called kepala desa or lurah, both are elected by the local community. A desa or kelurahan is the subdivision of a kecamatan, in turn the subdivision of a kabupaten or kota, the same general concept applies all over Indonesia